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Street, Icknield Street, and Ermyn Street, and it probably contained the station of Sulomagus, or SuUoniacis,
supposed to have been at Brockley Hill ; here also was the well ascertained and important station of Veru-
lamium, St. Alban's. At Hertford, Berkhampstead, and Bishop's Stortford, are yestiges of baronial castles;
and Hatfield House, the seat of the Marquis of Salisbury, may be mentioned as a specimen of the architecture
of the reign of James I., but the palace of that prince at Theobalds, near Cheshunt, has been destroyed.
The vill^e of Waltham Cross derives its name from one of the beautifully ornamented crosses, erected by Ed-
ward I. in memory of his queen. The monasteries and other conventual establishments in Hertfordshire, for-
merly were numerous, including the mitred Abbey of St. Alban's, of which the noble church and gatehouse are
still in existence.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats: Ashridge Park, belonging to the Countess of Bridgewater; Bayfordbury,
to Mrs. Baker ; Brocket Hall, to Viscount Melbourne ; Cashiobury Park, to the Earl of Essex ; Gobions, to
Thomas Kem1>]e, Esq. ; Colney House, to P. Haddow, Esq. ; Gorhambury, to the Earl of Verulam ; the Hoo,
to Lord Dacre ; Knebworth House, to Mrs. Bulwer Lytton ; Moor Park, to Robert Williams, Esq. ; Pans-
hanger, to Earl Cowper ; Porter's Park, between Radlet and Henley, to Colonel White ; Stagcnhoe Park, to John
Carbonel, Esq. ; Tcwin Water, to Henry Cowper, Esq. ; Tittenhanger Park, to the Earl of Hard wick ; Ware Park,
to Thomas Hope Byde, Esq.; Woodhall Park, nearWatton, to Samuel Smith, Esq.; Brickendenbury, to William
Dent, Esq. ; Grove Park, to Lord Dormer. Among the distinguished persons connected with this county may be
mentioned Nicholas Breakspeare, the only Englishman who ever occupied the papal chair, bom at Abbot's Langley,
near St. Alban's : he took the title of Adrian IV., and died in 1 159 ; Matthew Paris, the celebrated historian of the
thirteenth century ; and his continuator, William Rishanger, who were both monks of St. Alban's ; Sir John
Mandeville, the famous traveller, who was a native of St. Alban's, and died in 1372; John Whethamstede,
abbot of St. Alban's, who wrote a •* History of England," and other works, was a native of Whethamstead, and
died at a very advanced age, in 1464 ; George Ferrars, distinguished as a law writer and a poet, was bora
about 1510, at Flamstead, north-west of Redbourne, where he died in 1579, and was interred in the parish
church ; Sir Henry Chauncy, author of the *' Antiquities of Hertfordshire," who was bora in 1632, and died in
1700; Thomas Stanley, the leamed editor of the tragedies of .^schylus, who died in 1678, said to have been
born at Cumberlow Green, in the parish of Clothall, near Baldock, where his father. Sir T. Stanley, Knight,
had a seat, though some represent him as having been a native of Laytonstone, in Essex ; Dr. Seth Ward,
Bishop of Salisbury, who was bom at Buntingford, and died in 1689 ; Nathaniel Lee, an eminent dramatic
writer, who died in 1691 ; Dr. Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells, deprived at the revolution as a nonjuror,
was bora at Berkhampstead, and died in 1711 ; Cowper, the celebrated poet, was also a native of Berkhamp-
stead ; John Hoole, the translator of the works of Tasso and Ariosto, was born in 1727, at Bishop's Stortford,
and died in London, in 1803 ; and Robert Clutterbuck, the author of an elaborate '^ History of Hertfordshire,"
in three volumes, folio, was bora at Watford, in 1772, and died in 1831. John Scott, an ingenious poet, long
resided at the village of AmWell, where '\ the head of the New River, for the supply of water to the metropolis :
he died in 1783.



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HUNTINGDONSHIRE.



Lat between 5t dag. 7 min. and 5S deg. 55 mm. N. Loo. bo-
tw99i 4 min. £. and 29 min. W. Grinteat length 24 m. Gieateat.
breadth 18 m. Superficial extent 220,800 acres. Bouidariea; N.
NcrthamptonBhire and Cambridgeshire; £. Cambridgeshire; S,
Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire ; W. Bedfordshire and North-
amptomdnre. Hondreds 4. Parishes 93. Borough 1. Market-
towns 5 : Huntingdon, Kimbolton, Ramsey, St, Ives, and St,
Neot's.

Diocese of Lincoln; archdeaconry of Huntingdon, containing
(he deaneries of Huntingdon, St Ires, Leightonstone, St. Neot's,
and Yaxley. Endowed gramma^'^cbool, with unirenrity privileges,
at Huntingdon.



Norfolk Circuit— Assises an quarter-sessions, held at Himt.
ingdoDj where are the county prisons. Acting magistxatss tS.
Members of Parliament, 2 for the county, and 2 for the borough of
Huntingdon.

Polling-places for the County — Huntingdon and Stilton.

Papulation, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 8679; fiutiilies
10»397 ;. comprising 24»020 males, and 24,751 females; total
48,771 : (in 1831) total 53,149, Estimated increase of inha-
bitants, from 1700 to 1821, 15,100. Assessment for poor
and county rates (in 1826) land 38,91 W. 19<.; dwelling-houaas
5504/. 4c. ; mills, factories, &c. 570{. U. ; manorial profits^ 961. llib;
total 45,082/. 15«. : (in 1830) total 50,092/.



The principal part of this county appears to have been forest land till the reign of Henry II., but it is nov
in general open and well cultivated. According to Sir Robert Cotton it was not disafforested till the time of
Edward I., who, in the twenty-ninth year of his reign, confirmed the Great Charter and Charter of Forests, as
granted by Henry III., and left no more forest land than that which was in his own demesnes. The north-east-
ern district consists of fens, considerable portions of which, however, are drained ; and here are the lakes or
meres of Whittlesey and Ramsey, with those of Crundle Mere, Brick Mere, and Ugg Mere. There are 44,000
acres of fen land, and about 5000 acres of what are called /fkirty lands, neither of which could ever have formed
any part of the forest. These fens constitute nearly one-seventh part of the tract termed the Great Bedford
Level, but they belong to the division named the Middle Level ; about eight or ten thousand acres have been
drained, and rendered productive ; yet from the imperfect state of the drainage, the expense of protecting the
land against the effects of inundation, amounts to almost one-third of the rents. The shirty lands border on the
fens, and consist of a kind of moorland, furnishing rich pasturage for grazing cattle. The woodlands in this
county at present are inconsiderable ; and timber has become scarce, partly owing to the great demand for it in
the construction of works in the progress of draining the fens. Turf is extensively used for fuel ; and the com-
mon people bum stubble, bean-straw, and other refuse of fma produce. The central part of the county,
through which flows the river Ouse, consists of pleasant and fertile meadows and the southern portion is of a
similar character. That part of the fen land which has been drained, affords fine pasture for cattle, and produces
large crops of com ; the meres also contain abundance of fish, and numbers of wild fowl are found here. Agri-
culture principally occupyii^ the inhabitants, but little attention is paid to manufactures ; some of the womeu
and children only being employed in spinning wool. The only rivers of any consequence are the due, already
mentioned, and the Nene, which skirts the northern border. At Somersham is a mineral spring, impregnated



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with iron, and said also to contain aluminous earth. The territorial goyemment and jurisdiction of this county
are subject to a peculiar arrangement, one sheriff only being appointed for Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire,
who is chosen the first year from the county of Cambridge, the second year from the Isle of Ely, and the third
year from the county of Huntingdon. At an early period this part of the country was probably inhabited by the
Iceni, who were subdued by the Romans, in the reign of the Emperor Claudius ; it was afterwards included in
the province of Flayia Ceesariensis ; and during the Heptarchy it belonged to the kingdom of Mercia. Through
this county passed the Roman roads, called Ermyn Street, and Via Devcma, at the junction of which was situated
the station of Durolipons, at or near Godmanchester. The ancient embankment, called Carsdyke, supposed to
have been constructed by the Romans, crosses a part of the county, from Earith, on the eastern border, to Whittle-
sey Dyke. There were in this county, before the Reformation* eight convents, of which the most important was
the rich mitred abbey of Ramsey, the principal existing relic of which is its ruinous gatehouse. Among the
parish churches, the most interesting are those of Qodmanchester, All Saints at Huntingdon, St. Ives, and St.
Neot's, displaying the Gothic or pointed style of architecture.

The noblemen's and gentlemen's seats in this county chiefly deserving of notice, are Kimbolton Castle, belong-
ing to the Duke of Manchester; Buckden Palace, to the Bishop of Lincoln ; Hinchinbrooke House, to the Earl
.of Sandwich ; Connmgton Castle, south of Stilton ; Elton Hall, south-west of Peterborough, to the Earl of
Carysfort ; Waresley Park, near the southern extremity of the county, to the Earl of Kilmorey ; Brampton Park,
near Huntingdon, to Lady Olivia Sparrow; and Washingley Park, west of Stilton. Among the eminent natives
of this county may be reekoned Henry of Huntingdon, an English chronicler of the twelfth century; Oliver Crom-
well, who was bom at Huntingdon, April 25, 1599 ; Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, founder of the Cottonian Library,
who was bom at Denton, and died in 1631 ; Samuel Pepys, Secretary to the Admiralty, whose interesting
''Memoirs" and " Diary" have been recently published, was born at Brampton, westward of Huntingdon, and
died in 1703 ; and Edward Montagu, Lord Kimbolton, afterwards Earl of Manchester, distinguished as a par*
liamentary leader in the civil war under Charles I., who was bom at Kimbolton Castle.



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KENT



Lftt. between 50 deg. 55 miii. and 51 deg. 31 min. N. Lon. be-
tween 3 min. W. and 1 deg. 2S min. £. Greatest length 58 m.
Gieatest breadth 36 m. Superficial extent 983,680 aoree. Bound-
tfies : N. the estnarj of the Thames ; £. the German Ocean ; S.
the English Channel; W. Surrey and Sussex. Lathes 5. Hon-
dreda, liberties, &c. 66. Parishes 414. Cities 2 : Canterbury
and Rochester. Boroughs 6. Market-towns 23 : Ashford, Brom-
ley, Chatham, Cranbrooke, Dartford, Deal, Dotot, Deptford, Farer-
ihsm, Folkestone, Gnyesend, Greenwich, Maidstone, Margate,
Milton, Queenboroogh, Ramsgate, Romney, Sandwich, Sheemess,
Tenterden, Tunbridge, and Woolwich*

Dioceses of Cantwbury and Rochester t the former oonstitutes
an archdeaoomy, containing the deaneries of Bridge, Canterbury,
Charing, Dover, Elham, Lymne, Ospringe, Sandwich, Sitting.
bourne, Sutton, and Westbere : the latter contains the deaneries
of Daxtford, Mailing, and Rochester, forming an archdeaconry ; and
die dieaaery of ShDreham, a peculiar of the Archbishop of Canter-
bury. Endowed grammar-schools, with unireraity privileges, at
Canterbury, Charing, Cranbrooke, Lewisham, Maidstone, Roches-
ter, Sandwich, Seven Oaks, Sutton Valence, Tunbridge, and Wye.

Home Cirenit'— Assises held at Maidstone, where are the ooonty



prisons. Quarter-sessions are held originally for the dirision of
East Kent, at Canterhary, on the Tuesday after Epiphany, and on
the Tuesday after the feast of St. Thomas-a-Becket ; and originally
for the division of West Kent at Maidstone, on the Tuesday after
Easter, and the Tuesday after Michaelmas ; and by adjournment, for
East Kent, at Canterbury, on the Friday next after each of those days.
Acting magistrates 168. Members of Parliament, 2 for the eastern
division of the county, 2 for the western division, 2 each for the
cities of Canterbury and Rochester, 2 each for the boroughs of
Dover, Sandwich, Chatham, Greenwich, and Maidstone, and 1 for
the borough of Hjrthe.

PoUing-places for East Kent— Canterbury, Sittingbourne, Ash-
fbrd. New Romney, and Ramsgate ; for West Kent—Maidstone,
Bromley, Blackheath, Gravesend, Tunbridge, and Cranbrdoke.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 70,507; families
85,939, comprising 209,833 males, and 216,183 females; total
426,016 : (in 1831) total 479,155. Estimated increase of inhabit-
ants from 1700 to 1821, 280,800. Assessment for poor and county
rates (in 1826) land 253,374/. 14f . ; dwelling-houses 103,583/. 16f.;
mills, factories, &o. 11,660/. 3f.; manorial profits, &c. 3327/. 2f.;
total 371,945/. 15t.: (in 1830) total 399,686/.



This county displays a greater diversity of surface and scenery than most other parts of England. The land
along the banks of the Thames is low and marshy ; a range of chalk-hills occupies the central and eastern parts,
terminating in the white cliffs of Dovor ; while that portion bordering on Sussex, called the Weald of Kent, is a
flat woody tract, the soil of which is a fertile clay, but the country is damp and unhealthy, especially at its south-
eastern extremity, forming the tract called Romney, Walling, and Dunge Marshes. The central district is inter-
sected by two ridges, termed the Upper and Lower Hills ; the former or northern chain, is composed of chalk
and limestone, in which are imbedded nodules of flmt and fossilized remains of animals and vegetables. The
southern chain is composed of ironstone and ragstone ; and further westward, towards Surrey, the soil consists
chiefly of clay and gravel. The most usual agricultural crops are those of wheat, barley, beans, peas, oats, turnips,
radish-seed, canary-seed, and cole-seed ; besides which potatoes, cabbages, tares, clover and other artificial
grasses, are here cultivated, as also are garden seeds and culinary plants. Kent is particularly noted as a hop
country, the principal plantations being in the vicinity of Canterbury and Maidstone. Near the latter town are
produced large quantities of apples, cherries, filberts, and other fruit Madder and woad for the dyers, birch
twigs for making brooms, and timber for various purposes, also form important articles of commerce ; and
flax is likewise partially cultivated here. This county produces horses, black-cattle, sheep, swine, venison,
poultry, game, rabbits, and fish, especially oysters. Some iron-mines have been worked in this county, and
chalk and lime are found in abundance. The chief manufactures are those of gunpowder, and toys, or Tun-
bridge ware; besides which may be mentioned ship-building, at Deptford, Woolwich, Chathaip, and Sheemess;
paper made largely at Maidstone, silk at Canterbury ; and there are salt-works at the Isle of Grain, and at Stonar,
near Sandwich; and copperas- works at Deptford and Whitstable. The most remarkable heights in this county
are AUington Knoll, north of Maidstone; Beachborough, near Folkstone; Boughton Hill, west of Canterbury;
Boxley Hill, between Maidstone and Rochester; Goudhurst; Hollingboume Hill, eastward of Maidstone,
616 feet high, and Paddlesworth, north-westward of Folkstone, 642 feet; other heights are Marums Court
Hill, near Seven Oaks ; Greenwich Hill, Shooter's Hill, and Swingfield, five miles north of Folkstone.

The principal rivers, ^ju^lusive of the Thames, are the Medway ; the Greater Stour, of which the Lesser Stour



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ifl a branch ; tlie Rother ; the Ravensbourn ; and the Darent. The mineral waters of Tunbridge, resemblinc:
those of Spa, in the Netherlands, are among the most noted in the kingdom ; at Sydenham, in the parish of
Lewisham, are salme purgative springs ; and there are chalybeate springs in different parts of the county.

This part of the island was called by the Roman writers Cantium, and its inhabitants, the Cantii, are said by
Julius Csesar to have been more civilized than any other tribes of the ancient Britons. Under the Roman govern-
ment Kent was included in the provmce called Britannia Prima ; and it was the first part of the country which
was conquered by the Anglo-Saxons and Jutes, the latter of whom settled here, under their leader Hengist, who
took the title of King of Kent, about 455. In the reign of Ethelbert, one of his successors, Christianity was in-
troduced by St. Augustin, among the Saxons, in 596. Under the successors of Egbert, this county was
repeatodly invaded by the Danes, who, in 1046, took and plundered the town of Sandwich. The men of Kent are
said to have particularly distinguished themselves at the battle of Hastings, and afterwards to have entered into
a capitulation with William the Conqueror, in virtue of which they preserved their civil rights and customs, parti-
cularly the remarkable usage called (gavelkind, by which estates are divided equally among all the sons of a de-
ceased proprietor, or in default of sons, among the daughters. Some military transactions took place in this county
in 1450, when the rebels under Cade encamped on Blackheath; and again in 1471, and 1497. Dovor Castle,
at the commencement of the civil war, in 1642, was garrisoned by the Parliamentarians, and m 1648, the Royalists
were defeated at Maidstone. The latest warlike event connected with this county was the attack of the Dutch,
under Admiral de Ruyter, on the English fleet in the Medway, near Chatham, June 11, 1667. Roman stations
existed atDurovemum, called, by Richard of Cirencester, Cantiopolis, Canterbury; Durolevum, supposed to be
Stone Chaple, in Ospringe, south-west of Faversham; Durobrivse, Rochester; Dubris, Dover; Rhutupivun,
or Rhutupis Colonia, Richborough, where are the curious remains of a Roman castle ; Regulbium, Reculver ;
Vagnaca, or Vagniacis, Barkfields in Southfleet; Noviomagus, Holwood Hill on the western border of the
county ; and elsewhere. The Watling Street passed through this county, along the south-eastern coast, and from
Dovor to London ; and the Ermyn Street crossed the western border of the county. There is a singular stone
monument, situated northward of Aylesford, called Kits-Coity-House, supposed to have been erected in honour
of Catigem, a British chief, who was killed in battle against the Jutes. Among the ancient castles may bo men-
tioned that of Dovor, still a fortress of importance; Rochester, a Norman castle in ruins; Canterburv, Chil-
ham, Saltwood, Lymne, or Stutfall, AlHngton, Cooling, Hever, Leeds, Tunbridge, Queenborough, Sutton
Valence, and Leybourne. Before the Reformation this county contained a great number of conventual
establishments, of which the principal remains are those of St. Augustm's Abbey, Canterbury ; Faversham
Abbey, Boxley Abbey, Bradsole, or St. Radegund's Priory, the nunnery of West Mailing, and the college of
Wingham. Among the remains of ancient architecture, one of the most interesting is the great hall of the
Royal Palace of Eltham. At Greenwich is that great national establishment, the hospital for seamen, com-
menced in the reign of Charles II. At Deptford, Woolwich, and Chatham, are some of the principal dock-
yards and storehouses, for the building and equipment of ships for the royal navy ; and at Woolwich is a royal
military academy.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Knowle, the ancient mansion of the Dorset family; Waldershare Park,
belonging to the Earl of Guildfoid ; Lee Priory, to Sir S. Egerton Brydges, Bart. ; Charlton House, Black-
heath, to SirT. M. Wilson, Bart.; Cobham Hall, to Earl Damley; Daoson Park, to John Johnson, Esq.;
Eastwell Park, to George William Finch Hatton, Esq. ; Godington, to N. R. Toke, Esq. ; Chevening, near
Seven Oaks, to Earl Stanhope; Belvidere> near Welling, to Lord Eardley. Eminent persons : William Caxtoa,
who introduced printing into England, was bom in the Weald of Kent, and died in 1491 ; Sir Philip Sidney;
Sir Henry Wotton ; William Somner, author of the '* Antiquities of Canterbury," who was a native of that
city, and died in 1669 { Dr. Harvey, who first demonstrated the circulation of the blood, was bom at Folkstone,
and died in 1657 ; General Wolfe, the captor of Quebec, who was bom at Westerham ; Dr. Hoadly, Bishop
of Winchester; William WooUett, a distinguished engraver; Dr. George Home, Bishop of Norwich; Mrs.
Elizabeth Carter, a learned writer and ingenious poetess, who was bom at Deal, and died m 1806; Edward
Hasted, author of the '< History of Kent," who was a native of Hawley, and died in 1812."



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LANCASHIRR



Ltt. between 53 deg. SO min. 54 deg. f 5 min* N. Lon. be-
twees f deg. and 5 deg. 17 min. W. Greatest length 74 m.
Greateet breadth 45 m. Superficial extent 1,130,000 acres. Bound-
aries: N. Cumberland and Westmorland; E. Yorkshire; S.
Cheshire; W. Irish Sea. Hundreds 6. Parishes 67. Town-
ships 442. Bofougha 14. Market-towns 3S: Ashtoo-uiider-
Lyne, Blaekbum, Bolton-le-Moors, Buxnlejr, Bury, Cartmel, Chor-
ley, Clitheroe, Cohie, Dalton, Garstang, Haslingden, Hawkshead,
Kirkham, Lancaster, Leigh, Liverpool, Manchester, Middleton,
Newton, Oldham, Ormskirk, Poulton, Preacot, Preston, Rochdale,
Saddleworth, Salfind, Todmorden, Ulyerstone, Warrin^n, and
Wigan.

Diocese of Chester; archdeaconry of Chester, containing the
deaneries of Blackbufn, Leyland, Manchester, and Warrington;
and that of Richmond, containing the deaneries of Amoundemess,
Furaess, Keadal, and Lonsdale. Endowed grammar-schools, with
university privileges, at Hawkshead, Middleton, Kirkham, Man-
chester, Prescot, Rochdale, and Whalley.

Northern Circuit — Assises held at Lancaster, where are also
held the quarter-sessions for the hundred of Lonsdale, on the Tues-
days in the first week after Epiphany, and after' Easter Sunday, the
festival of St. Thomas- a- Becket, and October 11 ; at Preston, for
the hundreds of Amoundemess, Blackburn, and Leyland, on die



Thursdays following those days ; at SaUbrd, for the hnadfed of
Salford. on the Mondays following ; and at Kirkdale, near Livei^
pool, for the hundred of West Derby, on the Monday fortnight
after they oommeuce at Salford. The court of annual general
sessions is holden at Preston, on the Thursday next after the
feast of St. John the Baptist, and afterwards by various ad-
journments. The county gaol is at Lancaster. Acting magistrates
100. Members of Parliament, 2 for the northern division of the
county, and 2 for the southern division, 2 for the boroughs of Lan-
caster, Liverpool, Manchester, Bolton, Blackburn, Oldham, Wi-
gan, and Preston ; and 1 each for the boroughs of Clitheroe, Ash-
ton-under-Lyne, Bury, Rochdale, Salford, and Warrington.

Polling-places for the northern division— Lancaster, Hawks-
head, Ulverstone, Poulton, Preston, and Burnley ; for the south-
em division— Newton, Wigan, Manchester, Liverpool, Oxmskirk,
and Rochdale.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 176,449; iamilies
203,173; compriising 512.476 males, and 540,383 females; total
1,052,859 : (in 1831) total 1,336,854. Estimated increase of inha-
bitanu from 1700 to 1821, 907,800. Assessment for poor and
county rates (in 1826) land 168,4212. 11«. ; dwelling-houses
118,260/. 10«.; mills, factories, &c. 50,4601 14f. ; manorial profits,
&o. 12,5252. 9<.; total 349,6682. 4s.: (in 1830) total 41S,529i.



Tbe outline of this county is very irregular, its coast beiug indented by some cansiderable bays and inlets;
whjle its inland boundary, formed by moors, mountains, and rivers, approaches the sea towards the north, but
recedes far from it on the south, between the Ribble and the Mersey. The soil is in general by no means fertile,
as may be inferred from the ancient thinness of the population, as indicated by the comparatively small number
of parishes into which the county is divided. In the hundred of Lonsdale, on the borders of the sea, the land is
perhaps less productive than in most other parts, consisting of sands and marshes. This hundred includes the
peninsulated district of Fumess, forming the northern extremity of Lancashire, where the scenery partakes of the
wild, romantic character of the adjoining counties, Cumberland and Westmorland. Separated from this tract,
by a narrow channel, is the Isle of Walney, and near it some smaller islands. The finest district in the
county, both as regards the situation and the quality of the land, is that lying between the Ribble and the
Mersey, and bounded on the east by hills, and on the west by the sea. Between the north bank of the
Ribble, and the south bank of the Lune, is likewise a rich tract of arable land, called the Fylde. The soil
of the northern part of the county is generally dry, the mountainous parts being chiefly appropriated ag


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Online LibrarySidney HallA new British atlas: comprising a series of 54 maps, constructed from the ... → online text (page 7 of 20)