Sidney Hall.

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sheep-pastures, and the declivities and valleys for feeding cattle. The dairy is the chief object with agriculturists
in the northern district, while the land in the Fylde and southern levels is used for raising grain. The crops
chiefly cultivated are wheat, barley, oats, beans, and potatoes ; the latter of which are said to have been raised in
Lancashire at an earlier period than in any other part of England, and it is still noted for the excellence of its
produce of this valuable root. Onions are grown largely in the vicinity of Warrington ; and clover, rye, peas,
tares, turnips, cabbages, and carrots, may be reckoned among the agricultural productions of the county. There
is a peculiar breed of cattle, called the Lancashire Longhoms, at present, however, more frequently met
with in the midland counties than in Lancashire. The mineral products of this county are of considerable
importance, including coa), copper, lead, iron, freestone, limestone, and slate. Lancashire is distinguished as the
grand seat of the cotton manufacture, and here have originated various inventions for (he improvement of ma-



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cliinery to facilitate this branch of industry. The spinning and manufacture of cotton goods are chiefly carried
on at Manchester, Oldham, Colne, Burnley, Haslingden, Preston, Bury, Middleton, Ashton, Bolton, Chorley,
Blackburn. Stayley Bridge, Wigan, Ghowbent, and Rochdale. Calico-printing and bleaching, the manufacture
of muslinr, fustians, woollen cloth, flannels, hats, paper, linen, silk, pins, glass, and sail-cloth, are likewise exten-
sively prosecuted at Manchester and other places. In different parts of the county are iron-works and nail ma-
nufactories, but the principle establishments for smelting iron-ore are in the district of Fumess. This county in-
dudes some very lofty eminences, as Bleasdale Forest, Boulsworth Hill, Coniston Fell, Pendle Hill, Rivington
Hill, and Wittle Hill. The principle rivers are, the Mersey, the Ribble, the Lon, or Lune, the Irwell, the
Douglas, the Wyre, the Ken, the Leven, the Duddon, and the Crake, all which are navigable. Here are the lakes of
Coniston Water, in the centre of the district of Fumess ; and Easthwaite Water, eastward of the preceding; besides
which may be mentioned Winander Mere, partly in this county, and partly in Westmorland. The mineral springs
are numerous: at a place called Humphrey Head, three miles south of Cartmell, is a saline mineral spring; at Pit-
farm in the same parish, is a remarkable intermitting spring, like that at Giggleswick, in Yorkshire; at Maudsley,
near Preston, is a sulphureous mineral spring ; and there are others at Crickley, at Braughton, and at Cunley
House, two miles from Whalley ; at Lathom, Lancaster, Knowsley, and other places, are chalybeate springs ;
and at AncllfT, two miles from Wigan, is a well, from which issues an inflammable vapour, called the burning
well. Before the Roman conquest, that part of the county, bordering on Yorkshire, was probably inhabited by
the powerful nation of the Brigantes, whilst other parts were occupied by the confederated tribes of the Voluntii
and the Sistuntii ; in the latter Roman ages it was included in the province called Maxima Csesariensis ; and
under the Saxons it belonged to the kingdom of Mercia. During the sovereignty of the Normans this county
was called the Honour of LAucaster; and Edmund Crouchback, son of Henry HI., was created Earl of Lan-
caster, in 1267, which title continued in the family of that prince till 1353, when Henry Plantagenet, his
descendant, was raised to the dukedom. John of Gaunt, his son-in-law, the fourth son of Edward III., suc-
ceeded him ; and in 1376 it was made a county palatine by royal patent John of Gaunt left the dukedom to
Henry his son. Earl of Hereford and Derby, who, after the deposition of Richard H., was chosen king; and from
the property belonging to the duchy, a considerable part of the land revenue of the crown arises. The influence
of Stanley Earl of Derby was strenuously exerted in support of the Royalists in the civil war under Charles L,
but that nobleman being taken prisoner after the battle of Worcester, was beheaded, October 15, 1651, at
Bolton-le-Moors. The defence of Lathom Castle, by the Countess of Derby, against the Parliamentarians, was
amongst the nsost remarkable events of that period ; and in 1648 the Duke of Hamilton was defeated by Crom-
well, at Walton-le-Dale. The Pretender sufll red a defeat at or near Walton, in 1715; and Lancashire was
again the scene of hostilities when invaded by the young Pretender, in 1746. According to Whitaker this county
contained the Roman stations, called Ad Alaunum, supposed to be Lancaster; Bremetonacse, Overborough ;
Portus Sistuntiorum, Freckleton; Rerigonium, Ribchester; Coccium, Blackrod ; Colonea, Colne; Veratinum,
perhaps Warrington; and Mancunium, Manchester. Roman antiquities have been found at Lancaster,
Overborough, Colne, Ribchester, Warrington, and Manchester. There are remains of Clitheroe, Dalton>
Gleaston, Greenhalgh, Hornley, and Lancaster castles, which last is still entire, being used as the county gaol.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Ashton Hall, near Lancaster, belonging to the Duke of Hamilton ; Brows-
holme Hall, to Thomas Parker, Esq. ; Towneley Hall, near Burnley, to Peregrine Edward Towneley, Esq. ; Lathom
House, seven miles from Wigan, to E. Bootle Wilbraham, Esq. ; Conishead Priory, near Ulve^stone, to Thomas
R. G. Braddyll, Esq. ; Heaton House, near Manchester, to the Earl of Wilton ; Knowsley Hall, near Liverpool,
to the Earl of Derby. Among the more distinguished natives of this county may be mentioned Jeremiah Horrox,
a celebrated astronomer, who was born at Toxteth Park, and died 1641, at the age of twenty-two; William
Roscoe, author of the *' Life of Lorenzo de Medici ;" John Whitaker, the learned author of the ** History of Man-
chester,*' was born in that town about 1735; Dr. Thomas Percival, an ingenious physician, who was born at
Warrington and died in 1804; Romney, the painter, a native of Dalton-in-Furness, died in 1802; John Kemble,
the celebrated actor, was bom at Prescot, and died in 1823, at Lausanne, in Switzerland; and Sir Richard
Arkwright, the celebrated inventor of spinning-machiues, who was bom at Preston, and died in 1792.



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LEICESTERSHIRE.



I«flt. between 52 deg. 95 min. and 5S deg. 59 min. Lon. between
41 rain, and 1 deg. 58 min. W. Greatest length 30 m. Greatest
breadth 25 m. Superficial extent 522,240 acres. Boundaries:
N. Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire ; £. Lincoln and Rutland ;
S.Northamptonshire; W. Warwickshire and Derbyshire. Hun-
dreds 6. Parishes 213. Borough 1. Market-towns 12 : Ashby-
de-la-Zouch, Billesdon, Castle Doonington, Hallaton, Hinckley,
Leicester, Loughborough, Lutterworth, Market Bosworth, Market
Harborough, Melton Mowbray, and Mountaorrel.

Archdeaconry of Leicester and diocese of Lincoln, containing the
deaneries of Akeley, Framland, Gartree, Goscote, Guthlaxton, and
Sparkenhoe. Endowed grammar-schools, with unitersity privi-
leges, at Ashby, Leicester, Loughborough, and Market Bosworth.

Midland Circuit. — ^Ajsixes held at liOicester (where is the



county gaol), as are also the quarter^essions, on January 11,
April 19, July 12, and October 18. Acting migistrates 52. Mec^
hers of Parliament, 2 for the northern division of the countj,
2 for the southern division, and 2 for the borough of Leicester.

Polling-places for the northern division — Loughborough, Melton
Mowbray, and Ashby-de-la-Zouch ; for the southern division —
Leicester, Hinckley, and Market Harborough

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 34,775; families
36,806; comprising 86,390 males; and 88,181 females; total
174,571 : (in 183 1) total 197,003. Estimated increase of inha-
bitants from 1700 to 1821, 98,100. Assessment for poor and
county rates (in 1826) land 93,881/. 14s.; dwelling-housai
17>634/. 5«.; mills, factories, £cc. 781/. 12i.; manorial profits, &c,
310/. 5«. ; total 112,607/. 16«. : (in 1830) total 152,594/.



The whole of this county presents nearly a level surface, and the chief part of the land is used for grazing.
The soil may be described as a fine mixture of sand and clay, chiefly the latter, but highly adapted for cultivation.
The principal agricultural products are wheat, barley, oats, beans, peas, vetches, rye, turnips, and carrots.
Leicestershire is famous for breeding and feeding cattle and sheep. The sheep are particularly noted for
fineness of fleece and fatness of carcass. Great improvements were made in the breeding of sheep, cattle, and
horses, in the latter part of the last century, by Mr. Bakewell, of Dishley Grange. The kine are greatly
esteemed, and in some parts of the county the dairy is much attended to. Melton Mowbray and its neighbour-
hood is famous for its cheese, called Stilton, deservedly noted for its excellence. In this county is also a beautiful
breed of black horses for the plough or waggon, and another for the race-course and chase. The manufactures are
those of hosiery and other products of the fleece ; and the principal articles of commerce consist of cheese,
worsted hose, hats, lace, and wool ; besides which, great numbers of sheep are sent to London and Birmingham.
The mineral produce of this county consists of coal, limestone, lead-ore, ironstone, slate, freestone, and clay
for making lyicks, and the hill of Mountsorrel is almost wholly composed of granite used for street paving.

Among the principal heights are Chamwood Forest, Bardon Hill, the loftiest of the whole, Stathern Point, and
Mountsorrel. The principal river is the Soar, anciently the Leire, tributary to the Trent; the others are the
Wreak, a branch of the Soar, the SwDt, the Welland, the Avon, and the Anker. At Ashby-de-la-Zouch are
•aline mineral springs called the Ivanhoe Baths, where buildings have been erected for the convenience of visiters ;
and in 1728 was discovered, at Nevil Holt, north-east of Market Harborough, a mineral spring impregnated with
iron and aluminous and calcareous salts, used in cases of hemorrhage, scrofula, and other glandular diseases ;
there are also mineral springs at Burton Lazars, Dalby-on-the- Wolds, Gumley, Leicester, aiMl Sapcote. The



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ftncient British iDhabitants of this county were the Coritani ; under the Roman» it belonged to the province called
Flavia Ceesariensis ; and under the Saxons to the kipgdom of Mercia ; but the latter m their turn were expelled
by the Danes, and Leicester was long considered one of the principal cities within the Danish pale, or district, of
South Britam. When William Duke of Normandy ascended the throne, the Norman chiefs and barons divided
the land amongst them. These intruders erected magnificent castles on their estates, to awe the Saxons; but most of
these fortresses were destroyed or dismantled by order of Edward I. about the latter end of the thirteenth century.
The castles of Ashby-de-la-Zouch and Belvoir were both garrisoned by the Royalists during the civil war under
Charles I. ; the former was demolished in 1648, and the latter is the seat of the Duke of Rutland. Leicester
was surrendered by the governor, after the battle of Naseby, to Sir Thomas Fairfax. The Roman stations were
Ratfle, or Ragee, Leicester, where are curious remains of a Roman building ; Vemometum, supposed to be on the
northern border of the county ; and Benonse, near High Cross. These were connected by the great roads called
Watling Street, the Foss Way, and the Via Devana. Besides the castles already mentioned, there were erected
at an earlier period those of Leicester, Mountsorrel, Whitwick, Shilton, Crosby, Hinckley, Donnington, Melton,
Ravenstone, Lanvey, and Thorpe ; of all which there are but few remains. The principal monastic remains are
those of the abbey of St. Mary de Pre, near Leicester, Ulvescroft Priory, and Grace Dieu Nunnery.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Belvoir Castle and Croxton Park, near Goadby, belonging to the Duke of
Rutland; Donnington Park, near Kegworth, to the Marquis of Hastings ; Garendon Park, near Loughborough,
to C. March Phillips, Esq.; Stapleford Hall, east of Melton Mowbray, to the Earl of Harborough; Gopsall
Hall, near Twycross, to Earl Howe ; Beaumanor Park, near Loughborough, to William Heyrick, Esq. ; Gumley
Hall, to — - Hartop, Esq. ; Carleton Curlieu Hall, to the Rev. Henry Palmer; Wanlip, to Sir Charles Thomas
Palmer, Bart. ; Goadby Hall, to Otho Manners, Esq. ; Braunston Hall, to Clement Winstanley, Esq. ; Cole
Orton Hall, to Sir G. H. Beaumont, Bart. ; Bretby Park, to the Earl of Chesterfield.

Eminent persons connected with the county : Francis Beaumont, a dramatic writer, was bom at Grace Dieu,
and died in 1615; William Burton, the county historian, was a native of Lindley, died m 1645; his brother,
Robert Burton, author of the " Anatomy of Melancholy," was also bom at Lindley ; George Fox, founder of the
sect of the Quakers, was bom at Drayton, in 1624, and died in 1690 ; Lady Jane Grey was born at Bradgate
Hall, near Leicester; Cheselden, the celebrated surgeon, was bom at Sowerby, and died in 1752; Dr. Joseph
Hall, Bishop of Norwich, author of " Meditations on Passages of Scripture," was bom at Ashby-de-la-Zouch,
and died in 1656, having been deprived by the Puritans of his bishopric ; Hugh Latimer, Bishop of Worcester,
one of the first English protestants put to death m the reign of Queen Mary, was a native of Thurcaston ; the
celebrated patriot and statesman, Algemon Sidney ; Roger Cotes, a celebrated mathematician, who was bom at
Burbage in 1682, and died in 1716 ; Ambrose Philips, a pastoral and dramatic poet, who died in 1749 ; Thomas
Simpson, a distinguished mathematician, who died in 1761, was a native of Market Bosworth; William Whis-
ton, a very leamed but eccentric divine, who was bom at Norton, near Twycross, died in 1752 ; Dr. Richard
Pulteney, the author of the ** History of the Progress of Botany in England," was born at Loughborough, and
died in 1801 ; Robert Hall, an eminent minister among the Baptists, who was bom at Arnesby, and died in
1831 at Bristol, where he presided over an academy for the education of young persons.



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LINCOLNSHIRE.



IM, between 63 deg. 58 min. and 55 d^. 44 min. Lon. be-
Urgen 18 min. E. and 1 deg. 5 min. W. Greatest length 77 m.
Greatest breadth 48 m. Superficial extant 1,895,100 acres.
Boundaries: N. the estuary of the Humber; £. German Ocean; S.
' Cambridgeshire & Northamptonshire ; W. Rutland, Leicester, Not-
imgham, and Yoik. Farts 5 : Lindsey, Kesteven, and Holland. Hun-
dreds^ liberties, &c. 35. Parishes 609. Cityl: Lincoln. Boroughs
4. Market-towns 55: Alford, Barton-upon-Humber, Boston, Bourne,
Bur^, Caistor, Corby, Crowland, Crowle, Donnington, Epworth,
FdOungham, Gainsborough, Glandfbrd Bridge, Grantham, Grimsby,
Helb<0ch, Homeastle, Kirton, Long Sutton, Louth, Market Deep-
ing, Market Rasen, New Bolingbroke, Saltfleet, Sleaford, Spalding,
Spilsby, Stamford, Swineahead,Tattershall, Wainfleet, and Wragby.

Diocese of Lincoln ; archdeaconries of Lincoln, oontaimng the
deaneries of Aswardhumcum Laflford, Areland, Beltisloe, Boliug-
broke, Candleshoe, Calceworth, Gartree, Grantham, Graffo, Grims-
by, Hill, Holland, Homeastle, Lincoln, Longobovey, Loreden,
Louth £eke, Ness, Stamford, Walshcroft, Wraggoe, and Yar-
borough ; and of Stow, containing the deaneries of Aslacoe, Corring-
ham,IjawTess,andManley. Endowed grammar-schools, with univer-
sity privileges, at Alfiird, Caistor, Grantham, Louth, and Stamford.



Midland Circuit — Assizes held at Lincoln, where is the county
gaol. Quarter-sessions held at Boston, for the paiti of Holland ; at
Bourne and Folkingham, for the parts of Kesteyen; at Kirton,
Louth, and Spilsby, for the parts of Lindsey. Acting magistrates
110. Members of Parliament, t for the parts of Lindsey, 2 for the
parts of Kesteven and Holland, t for the cify of Lincoln, S each for
the boroughs of Boston, Grantham, and Stamford, and 1 for the bo-
rough of Great Grimsby.

Polling-places for paruof Lindsey — Lincoln, Gainsborough, Ep-
worth, Barton, Brigg, Market Rasen, Great Grimsby, Louth, Spils-
by, and Horocastle; for parts of Kesteren and Holland— Sleaford,
Boston, Holbeach, Bourne, Donnington, Navenby, Spalding, and
Grantham.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 55,815; families
58,760; comprising 141,570 males, and 141,488 females; totalr
285,058 : (in 1851) total 517,244. Estimated increase of inhabit-
ants from 1700 to 1821, 108,800. Assessment for poor and county
rates (in 1826) land 174,765;. 12s. ; dwelling-houses 25,S05{. 15«.;
mills, factories, &c. 5887/.' 8s.; manorial profits, &c. 886/. lis.;
total 202,8452. 4s.: (in 1850) total 228,9522.



This county is divided into tbvee districtB, differing in size as well as m their natural features and ]Mroducts.
That called the parts of Lindsey, is by far the most extensive, comprehending the whole of the county north of
the Fossdike and the river Witham. Here are situated the highest eminences, but there is scarcely one that de-
serves the name of a hill. There is a large tract of heathy land to the north-east, called the Wolds, extending
from Barton-on-the-Humber to Spilsby, consisting principally of sandy loam and flint ; and the substratum on
the western side is a sandy rock. On this tract are bred large flocks of sheep, the wool of which is used in making
worsted stufis and coarse woollens. Here were kept numbers of rabbits, their skins being a valuable article of
commerce, but many of the warrens have been destroyed, and the ground broken up for tillage. The north-west
district includes the river island of Axholme, a low fertile tract in which are grown flax, hemp^ rape, and turnip seed.
The parts of Kesteven form the south-western portion of the county. The fens are partly in the district of Kesteven,
but the larger portion belongs to Holland, so called from its characteristic features^ resembling the province of the
Dutch Netherlands bearing a similar name. This part is smaller than the other two, occupying the south-eastern
quarter ; and it consists of two divisions, upper and lower. The latter, or southern division, is the most watery.
Human industry has here introduced comfort and opulence, by forming excellent pasture-land producing abund*
ant crops of com» out of swamps and bogs. Among the undrained fens vast flocks of geese are bred^ and the



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principal decoys in England for wild ducks, teal, widgeon, and other water-fowl, are in this district, which sup-
plies the London market ; and here are bred abundantly wild geese, grebes, godwits, wimbrels, coots, and a Tariety
of other aquatic birds. There is said to be the greatest heronry in England , near Spalding. The avoset, or yelper,
dbtinguished by its bill, as likewise those delicacies for the table, knots and dottrels, are found in the neighbours-
hood of Fossdike. The agricultural products of this county in general are, in the higher grounds, grain of all
sorts, and in the lower oats, hemp, flax, woad, &c. But grazing is the distinguishing character of this county :
the oxen, sheep, and horses, have long been in high repute. The chief manufactures are those of canvass and sail-
cloth, and the only mineral productions of importance are a kind of variegated marble, the ore called the sulphu-
ret of iron, and the sub-phosphate of the same metal. The principal rivers which either rise within or pass through
this county are, the Trent, which enters it from Nottinghamshire ; the Ancholme, which rises in the north clifis ;
the Welland, from Northamptonshire; the Witham, which rises to the north of Stamford ; and the Bane, which
has its source at the village of Ludford. Tliere are saline chalybeate springs at Gawthorpe, near Bourne, Asward-
by, Gainsborough, Denton, and elsewhere. The ancient British inhabitants of Lincolnshire were the Coritani, or
Coitanni ; under the Romans it belonged to the province called Flavia Ceesariensis ; and under the Saxons, to
the kingdom of Mercia, till the middle of the eighth century, when it was devastated by the piratical Danes.
After the victories of Alfred the Great, Mercia was governed by an earl. Lincoln Castle was successfully de-
fended against the barons, when they took up arms against King John; and the Royalists, in 1216, gained a de-
cisive victory at Lincoln over Prince Louis of France. Henry VIII. , in 1536, made alterations in the ecclesias-
tical government, which occasioned an insurrection of the Catholics in this county, which was suppressed by the
Duke of Norfolk. There were in this county the Roman stations called Lindum, Lincoln ; and Causennis, An-
caster ; and probably those of Vernometum, Croccolana, Ad Abum, Margidunum, and Ad Pontem ; the sites of
which are somewhat uncertain. The Roman roads were, the Foss-way, the Ermyn Street, and the Upper Salt-
way. The principal remains of castellated buildings are, the castles ofTattershall, Torksey, Lincoln, and Folk-
ingham ; besides which there were a number of others, of which there are but small remains.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Brocklesby Hall, belonging to Lord Yarborough ; Burwell Park (the birth-
place of the Duchess of Marlborough, the favourite of Queen Anne) to M. B. Lister, Esq. ; Grimsthorpe Castle,
to Lady WilloughbyD'Eresby ; Panton House, built by Nicholas Hawksmoor; and Stoke House, near Colster-
worth, to Edmund Tumor, Esq. ; Hainton Hall, to G. R. Heneage, Esq. ; Belton House, near Grantham, to Earl
Browulow ; Haverholm Priory, to Sir Jenison W. Gordon, Bart. ; Denton House, to Sir W. Earle Welby, Bart. ;
and Summer Castle, northward of Lincoln, to Lady Wray. Among the eminent natives of this county may be
mentioned Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died 1228; John Fox, an eminent divine and
church historian, born at Boston, in 1517, died in 1587 ; William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, who was bom at Bourne,
in 1521, and died in 1598 ; Henry More, a philosopher and poet, bom at Grantham in 1614, and died in 1687 ;
Sir Isaac Newton, a most celebrated philosopher and mathematician, was bom at Woolsthorp, on Christmas-day
1642, and died in 1727 ; William Stukeley, a divine and antiquary of much celebrity, bom at Holbeach on No-
vember 7, 1687, and died in 1765; John Wesley, a distinguished leader of the sect called Methodists, bom at
Epworth in 1703, and died on March 2, 1791 ; Dr. William Dodd, an ingenious divine of unfortunate memory,
who was born at Bourne in 1729, and was executed at Tybum, for forgery, June 27, 1777 ; Dr. Simon Patrick,
Bishop of Ely, the leamed author of a '^ Commentary on the Historical Books of the Old Testament," who was
born at Gainsborough in 1626, and died in 1707 ; Francis Peck, an eminent antiquary, who published a colJee-
Uon of papers entitled '< Desiderata Curiosa," and other works of research, was born at Stamford in 1692, and
died in 1743; Captain Matthew Flinders, an ingenious and enterprising navigator, who died in 1814; Arthur
Thistlewood, a restless politician, who ailer having suffered imprisonment for sedition, was executed in May, 1820,
for his share in the Cato Street conspiracy ; and Sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal Society, who died
June 19, 1820, in the 80th year of his age.



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MIDDLESEX



Ltt. between M deg. 23 min. and 51 dtfg. 42 nin. N. Lou. be-
tween 2 min. E. and 31 min. W. Greatest length 34 m. Greatest
breadth 18 m. Superficial extent 180,480 acres. Boundaries :
N. Hertfordshire; E. Essex; S. Surrey; W. Buckinghamshire.
Hnndreds 6. liberties S. Panshes 197. Cities i: Londen
and Westminster. Boroughs 3. Market-towns 5 : Bamet, Brent-
ford, Edgware, Staines, and Uxbridge.

Diocese of London ; archdeaconries of Middlesex and London.
Endowed grammar-schools, with uniTersity privileges, at West-
minster, Harrow, and London (Christ's Hospital, Charterhouse,
St. Paul's, Merchant Tailors', and Mercers' schools).

Assizes held eight times a-year at the Old Bailey; and the quar-
ter-sessions, four times originally, and four times by adjournment,
at the Sessions-house on Clerkenwell Green. City prisons at New-
gate and Giltspur Street. County prisons at Clerkenwell. Act-
ing magistrates 200. In the metropolis are nine police-offices,
attached to each of which ure three stipendiary magistrates ; the


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Online LibrarySidney HallA new British atlas: comprising a series of 54 maps, constructed from the ... → online text (page 8 of 20)