Sidney Ray Hill.

Study of the effect of non-ability variables on the outcome of intercollegiate debates. online

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probably be received with great resistance and hostility
on the debate circuit. Coaches and debaters would
probably resent, and be suspicious of, any "tinkering" with
their scores. Acceptance of such a solution would depend
upon absolute proof that rater bias was affecting out-
come. Such proof can only come through experimental
research. Thus the need for more experimentation!

Given sufficient funds, "outside" judges could be
hired. It would be possible to bring in debate coaches
from different areas of the country who do not have



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teams participating in the tournament. This has been
suggested for the various N.D.T. district tournaments,
but no substantive action has been taken. Expense
remains a major barrier. Outside, non-debate, judges
are an additional possibility, Local business and
professional persons, faculty from the host school,
etc., could be recruited to serve as judges. It
cannot be assumed, however, that rater bias would not
affect these judges just as it appears to affect
coaches who now serve as judges. Research would be
needed to determine whether or not rater bias would
operate among such a group.

The ultimate solution to the problems of rater
bias must be found in the judges who render the decisions.
Better training for debate coaches, emphasizing the
proper basis for awarding decisions, would be of value,
Tliis is an area in which the proposed Developmental
Conference on Forensics should act. Such a conference
could and should propose specific standards of competence
for debate coaches. It could also initiate and support
financially the research needed to determine and
empirically verify a set of criteria for evaluating
debate .

Some corrective influence would probably be
generated by publicity of the results of this and



83



similar studies. Rater bias will not go away simply
because it is ignored. The opening assembly of every
debate tournament should include a discussion of rater
variables. Biases should be identified specifically,
and judges should be encouraged to be sensitive to the
influence of such biases.

A stronger, more precise statement of professional
ethics might be useful in conjunction with this practice,
Some procedure for investigating and eliminating
consistently biased judges might have beneficial
results. All of these are areas in which the American
Forensics Association can and should exercise its
leadership.



BIBLIOGRAPHY



Books



Dixon, W.J. BHD Bi omedical Computer Programs . University
of California Publications in Aut oma t i c
Com.putation No. 3, 1972.

- BM P Biomedical Computer Programs; X-series

Suppl ement . University of California
Publications in Automatic Computation
IJo. 3, 1972.

Hayes, William. Statistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart
and V/inston, 195 8.

Mendenhall, VJilliam, Lyman Ott , and_ Richard Schaeffer.
E lementary Survey Sampling . Belmont,
California: Wadsworth Publishing Company,
Inc., 1971.

Mills, Glen E. A rgumentation and Debate: Techniques
of a Free Society . New York: THe
Macmillan Company, 1964,



Journals



Allen, R.R. "The Effects of Interpersonal and Concept
Compatibility on the Encoding Behavior
and Achievement of Debate Teams." Central
States Spee ch Journal, XIV (February, 1963),

Benson, James A. "The Use of Evidence in Intercollegiate
Debate." Journal of the American Forensics
Association , VII (Spring, 197i;, ibu-iiu.

Brooks, V/illiam B. "Judging Bias In Intercollegiate _

Debate." Journal of the American Forensics
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Cathcart, Robert S. "An Experimental Study of the

Relative Effectiveness of Four Methods of
Presenting Evidence." Speech Monographs ,
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84



85



Conklin, Forrest (ed.) "A Bibliography of Argumentation
and Debate for 195 9." Journal of the
American Forensics Association , VIII (Fall,
1971), Sl-IOH.

Cragen, John F. and Donald C. Shields. "The Comparative
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178-181. '

- - . "Toward a Philosophy of Forensics Education,"

Journal of the American Forensics Association, VIII
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Dresser, William R, "The Use of Evidence in Ten

Championship Debates," Journal of the
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(September, 1964), 101-106,

Ellis, Dean S, and Robert Minter, "How Good Are Debate
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Faules, Don, "Measuring Refutation Skills: An
Exploratory Study," Journal of the
American Forensics Association , IV "(Spring,
1967), 47-52,

Granell, Lee, "Forensics and the Department of Speech
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185-188,

Hayes, Michael T. and Joe McAdoo, "Debate Performance:

Differences Between Male and Female Rankings,"
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VIII (Winter, 1972), 127-131^

Kensley, V.'ayne E, "A Profile of the N,F,L, High School
Forensics Director." Journal of the
American Forensics Association , I^
(Summer, 1572), 282-287,



86



Hensley, Wayne E. and David B. Strother. "Success in
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Hill, Sidney R., Jr. "A Study of Participant Evaluations
in Debate." Journal of the American
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371-377.

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. "Judging the Judging at Meadville."

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Marcham, Frederick George. "Teaching Critical Thinking
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88



Theses and Dissertations



Brembeck, Winston L. -'The Effects of a Course in
Argumentation on Critical Thinking
Ability." Ph.D. dissertation, University
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Cromwell, Harvey. "The Relative Effect on Audience
Attitude of the First Versus the Second
Argumentative Speech of a Series." Ph.D.
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Dollar, David L. "An Examination of the Importance

Assigned Criteria of Debate Evaluations."
M.S. thesis, Kansas State Teachers College
at Emporia, 196 8.

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Debating on Critical Thinking." Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Wisconsin,
19U2.



Keeling, Russell M. "An Analysis of Refutation and

Rebuttal in Interscholastic Debate." M.A.
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in Debate." M.A. thesis. University of
Southern California, 195 2.



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Sidney Ray Hill, Jr., was born on 9 December 1913
in Biloxi, Mississippi. He is the only son of Sidney
Ray and Sue Norton Hill, both native Alabamians. He
was educated in the public schools of Birmingham and
Jefferson County, Alabama.

In September of 1961, Sidney Hill matriculated into
the pre-law curriculum of the University of Alabama.
In 1964 he transferred to Birmingham-Southern College,
from which he was graduated in 1965 with a major in
history. His graduate education was received in the
Departments of Speech of Auburn University and the
University of Florida.

From September 1965, until June, 1956, Sidney Hill
was employed as a graduate assistant in the Department
of Speech at Auburn University. During the academic
year 1966-67, he held an appointment as Instructor
and Director of Forensics at Birmingham-Southern College.
At the end of this appointment, Mr. Hill returned to
Auburn University where he served as Director of
Forensics. Since September of 1969, he has served as
a Graduate Teaching Assistant in the Department of Speech
at the University of Florida, while completing requirements
for his Ph.D. degree.



89



90



Sidney Hill is married to the former Margaret
Ruth Bailey of Knoxville, Tennessee. They have no children.
He is a member of various national and regional speech
associations. Delta Sigma Rhc^Tau Kappa Alpha honor
fraternity, and Chi Phi social fraternity.



I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.




JougiSsGl Bo'ck, Chairman
Assistant Professor of Speech



I certify that I have read this study and that in
ii\y opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy,



/UuiJilJC. ViilLt^



JM/*^



Donald E . Williams
Professor of Speech



I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards :of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree pf
Doctor of Philosophy,




jj^L



Anthony J. (/lark

Assistant Professor of Speech



I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.




)avid T. Hughes
Assistant Profes




of Statistics



This dissertation was submitted to the Bepartinent of
Speech in the College of Arts and Sciences arid to the
Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy,



Dean, Graduate School



August, 1973





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Online LibrarySidney Ray HillStudy of the effect of non-ability variables on the outcome of intercollegiate debates. → online text (page 5 of 5)