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than four years before. There besfan to appear in one Reconciliation

J , . r ,' with Rome.

section and another a desire for some settlement. In
May, 1878, the government filled several unoccupied
bishoprics and Leo XIII. confirmed them all. At this
time, several of the larger bishoprics were vacant, the
press was under such a surveillance that the enforcement
of the law caused constant imprisonments, and it be-
came evident that the movement had gone too far. At
the same time, in the Reichstag, Herr Windhorst, who
was and had been since 1873 the indefatigable leader of
the Catholics in all their opposition to Bismarck, had
made so perfect a party organization of his followers
that they could prevent any measure from going through
the house that did not have the other parties unani-
mously on its side. It is partly due to this obstructixe
jjower and largely to Bismarck's desire to put through
his bills for raising revenue and for bettering the condi-
tion of the laboring classes, especially the tobacco
monopoly bills, that gradually an agreement was come to
between Windhorst and himself, so that in 1879 mutual Mutual
concessions became still more the order of the day. The
pope granted tlie right of the governineiil to demand
allegiance t(j the civil laws from all bishops ( the Anzeig-
erpflicht). The dismissal of F"alk followed on July 13,
as a concession to tlie Catholics, for he had been their
greatest enemy. In 1S80 things began to promise
Ijctter, when suddenly Cardinal Franchi died .md ("ar-
(iinal Nina, an enemy to (iermany, became the diplomatic
minister r)f the church, and affairs came to a standstill
again. ( iiadually, liowcxcr, more concessions were
wnmi; from Prussia and the enforcement of the May


322 Imperial Germany.

Laws was largeh- jiul into the emperor's hands, with the
power of using his personal judgment with regard to
their strict interpretation. The fight could not be kept
up, since the Center could prevent the government from
doing anything else. It is, however, false to say that
the spirit that had caused the May Laws in 1874 had
completely died out. The stability of the empire was
less uncertain now and the necessity for other legislation
was more important. In 1881 the ambassador to the
Holy See was reappointed, and the pope made some
concessions. The Center joined the Conservatives in
1884 and Bismarck had his long-sought majority for his
revenue laws, so that in 1886 the Kulturkampf was just
Power of the where it had been in 1873, except that the Catholics had
101c par >. ^ party upwards of a hundred strong under splendid
drill. An act was then carried taking away the law
requiring that the bishops be examined by the state.
After 1887 Herr Windhorst took every occasion to state
the principles of his party, not with any immediate hope
of bringing about their adoption, but to keep the matter
before the Reichstag. He demanded the absolute
authority of the pope in matters spiritual within the em-
pire, which implies the annihilation of the whole legisla-
tion since 1872. The loss of their leader in March,
1 891, was a great loss to the party. Windhorst had
been firm and consistent since 1873 in his demands, and
it cannot be denied that he totally defeated the govern-
ment and almost brought the Catholics back to the posi-
tion they occupied before the formation of the empire.
His death has seriously weakened the Center.

Prince Bismarck in his contest with the Ultramontane

Social party had joined himself with the Liberals to secure

democracy. ^ large enough majority to defeat the one hundred

members iA the Center in 1878. He had also previous

Appendix. 323

to 1873 encouraged the socialist feeling among the more
radical members of the Liberal party for the same
reason. Lassalle had been a great friend of his up to the
time of his death. Consequently the litde party, repre- {|j|'"ocfa^,j|"s''
senting some three hundred thousand voters in the large
cities of Germany, became toward 1876 a more notice-
able feature in the Reichstag. While acknowledging
the German emperor and their allegiance to him, they
stipulated as their guiding principle the absolute free-
dom of the press, regulation of the hours of labor, public
education, self-government, and adjustment of the rela-
tions of labor and capital. Such a party must necessarily
contain most of the dissatisfied portion of any commun-
ity, and there are, therefore, among the Social Demo-
crats many who believe in community of goods, abolition
of marriage, etc. They, however, do not represent the
better class of electors in the party of the Reichstag.
Under the patronage of the chancellor and the growth
of the sentiment among the laboring classes, the little
party grew until the government saw the necessity of
checking it. It was just at this time that the two
attempts on the emperor's life were made. He was
riding one day in May, 1878, on the Untcr den Linden,
when one Hocdel shot twice at him without wounding .

Aiteii)i)i on life

him, and on June 2 a man named Dr. Nobiling woundttl "i William i.
him in the face. A cry at once arose all over the empire
charging the socialists with the instigation of the eiiine
and this became sufficient cause for legislation against

There were at the time about si.xty thousand socialists
in Herlin and pcrhaj)S a half million in the cm])ire.
They had thirty-live newspapers and jx liodieals, and a
large number of associations. In the Reichstag twelvi-
members had been elected in 1877, and Ilerr Hebel, the ,


Imperial Germany.


Growth of the



leader, managed with his little body of followers to
create considerable commotion at times. A bill was at
once brought in against the socialists, but it called forth
the censure of the Liberals, because it pointed in several
clauses to the absolute suppression of free speech in the
empire and left to local authorities to decide what was
"socialist" matter and what not, with the power to
suppress it if they saw fit. On tiie 21st of October a
modified bill was passed, but was restricted to three
years. All the socialist meetings and newspaper organs
were to be suppressed. In Berlin alone on the first
day four organizations and thirty-five periodicals were
stopped. The same plan was followed throughout the
empire. On May 31, 1881, the law was renewed for
three years more without any material change. The
little party remained about the same, but the beginning
of Bismarck's policy for raising the revenue by the
tobacco tax, making it a government monopoly in Ger-
many, drew upon him the censure of all Liberals and
among them the socialists, and thus the latter' s vote
came to be of more importance to him. In 1887 the
feeling was still more in favor of the Social Democrats
and it was with difficulty that the law was again passed.
The party had eleven members in the Reichstag and
their votes in the empire numbered something over a
million. Labor unions and strikes occurred in spite
of the authorities, and the Social Democrats returned to
the Reichstag in 1890 with a party of thirty-six mem-
bers. Publishing houses had been started in Zurich and
in Geneva, and quantities of pamphlets were circulated
from one end of the country to the other under the very
eyes of the law. With such a growth the socialist law
could not compete when in January and February, 1890,
it came up for discussion again. A very much modified

Appendix. 325

bill was proposed and failed on the third reading, so that
on the 1st of October. 1S90, the social democratic legis-
lation and laws went back to the status of 1878. Noth-
ing like freedom of speech is permitted, but meetings
can be held and periodicals issued to a certain extent,
and the emperor has distinctly recognized the claims of
the laboring classes and the necessity for some legislation
in their behalf. In his treatment of the question and in
Caprivi's policy in regard to the legislation for the lower
classes, Germany has taken the foremost ground in gov-
ernment socialism within recent years. To-day, in spite
of suppression, the social democracy stands with two
able men at its head, Bebel and Liebknecht, and a party
of magnificent organization over a million strong.

In 1 88 1 William I. said in his message to the Reichs-
tag that he was going to inaugurate a system of laws
that should make the social condition of the poor better, insnnuice

rr\ ■ 11 11- 1 • 1 , • legislation.

1 his proj)osaI has crystallized mto three compulsory m-
surance acts. i. The first is known as the Act of Insur-
ance against Sickness. 2. The second act, known as
the Compulsory Insurance against Accident, was pro-
posed and carried in 1884-85. It was at first confined
to men working for the government but has been
extended to the diflcrcnt trades. 3. The third law
has recently been under discussion in the Reichstag. It
is a system of old age and infirmity insurance which is

These three acts embody in themselves a principle of
socialism in its theoretical sense that makes them tlu-
most pronounced practical acts toward socialism that
have been passed by any great power. Th( \' iiuolxc a
matter of the deepest interest, coming as they do with
the emperor's words at diffcrciil times (luring the
few years.


326 Imperial Germany.

The modern German colonial s)steni began in 1884.
The growth of the knowledge of Africa and the interest
taken in colonial possession by France and England had
much to do with inducing Prince Bismarck to open
a channel for colonial possession in that continent. The
enormous emigration of Germans to the United States
and elsewhere was one of the causes also. The govern-
ment sought some method of keeping Germans under
German rule.

The colonial possessions of Germany and protecto-
rates are at jiresent as follows :

/// West Africa : Sq. miles. Inhabitants.

Togoland, Porto Seguro, Little

Popo 16,000 500,000

Cameroons 130,000 2,600,000

In South Africa :

Damaraland, Namaqualand, and

Angra Pequena 342,000 250,000

In East Africa:

Usagara, Uhaim, Nguru, and Usequa 60,000 \ ,

Other territories 233,520/ 1,700,000

/;/ the Pacific:

Kaiser Wilhelm Land 72,000 110,000

Bismarck Archipelago 19,000 190,000

Solomon Islands 9,000 80,000

Marshall Islands 150 10,000

Total 933-150 5,500,000


Abgeordnetenhaus, 317.

Adelmann, Count Alfred, 205.

Albert, king of Saxony, loi.

Alexander, Prince, of Battenberg, 169.

Alsace, 24, 33, 34, 112, 312. ST-

Alsatians, 27, 109.

Amtsgericht, 314.

Aristocracy,, the, 20, S4, 96, Chap.
VIII., 234, 235.

Army, the, 113, Chap. VH., 303, 315.

Amdt, Ernst Moritz, 182.

Arnini, Count, 150, 198.

Bach, 64.

Baden, Graud-Duke of, 99.

Barbarossa, 20, 21.

Bazaine, Marshal, 162.

Bcbel, 323, 325.

Beer-houses, 216, 240.

Beethoven, 60.

Berlin, 120, 223, 291.

Berlin Congress, 140, 154.

Berlin, treaty of, 184.

Berlin, University of, 292.

Bessemer, Sir Henry, 263.

Beust, Count, 150.

Bill of Indemnity, 138.

Billroth, Dr., 39, 52.

Birkenhead, the, 162.

Bismarck, 19, 23, 27, 28, 31, 36, 53,55,
66, 91, io8, 112, 126, Chap. V'l., 160,
170, 172, 178, 198, 200, 210, 224, 240,
2-13. 245. 24S, 249, 253, 263, 276, 277,
279, 280, 288, 297, 301, 302, 303, 310,
3>7. 318. 320, 32>. 322, 324. 326.

Bismarck, HerlK-rl, 153, 178.

Bismarck, Princess, 242.

Bismarck, William, 153, 178.

Bittcnfckl, General von, 168.

Bluchcr,54, 173.

Blumcnthal, Oscar, 49.

B<Hlcnslc<lt, Krieclricli, 43, 44, ^-■

Borne, Ludwig, 16, 46.

Boulanger, General, 32, 169, 183.

Bucher, Lothar, 71.

Budritzki, General von, 168.

Bundesrath, 118,313.

Bunsen, 37, 38, 273.

Caprivi, General von, 319, 325.

Carlsbad Congress, 308.

Carnot, General, 162.

Carrifire, Moritz, 40.

Cartel party, the, 318.

Catherine, Empress, of Russia, 229.

Catholic Congress, 302.

Cavour, 24, 108.

Center, the, 318, 319, 320, 322.

Charles V. of Hapsburg, 21.

Charles Theodore, Duke, 195.

Chopin, 61.

Christian IX., 310.

Clive, Lord, 136, 145.

Colonies, German, 326.

Commerce, 117 ; aiul lu a n u fa c t u r e,

Chap. XII.
Conservatives, 280, 300, 318, 322.
Constitution, national, 312; state, 316.
Cornelius, Peter, 65.
Crimean War, 113, 134.
Czermak, Professor, 38.
Darwin, 36, 51.
D'HC-risson, Count, 151, 161.
Duelling, 75, 219.
Diirer, Albrecht, 65, 268.
Ebers, Georg, 47.

Education, Chaj). III., 83, 117, 241.
Engcl, Dr. Ernst, 39.
Ense, Varnhagen von, 223.
Esmarch, Professor von, 39, 196.
Falk, Ilerr, 319, 320, 321.
/•'eiiilleloii, the, 281, 983, 284, 286.
Fitger, Arthur, 48.
Forckcnbeck, 294.
Franchi. Cardinal, 321.
Krancii-Gcrman War. 178.




Frankfort, 112, 221.

Frankfort Parliament, 24.

Frederick I., 78.

Frederick II., 20, 95.

Frederick III., 88, 92, 94, 98, 205,300,

302, 318.
Frederick Charles, Prince, 162.
Frederick, Empress, 216.
Frederick the Great, 16, 19, 78, 79, 80,

84, 127, 156, 224, 288.
Frederick William I., 79, 82, 96.
Frederick William III., 54, 84, 230.
Frederick William IV., 85, 90, 310,

French Revolution, 26, 109.
Freytag, Gustav, 46, 196.
Geffekeii, Professor, 150.
Gildemeister, Otto, 44.
Gneisenau, General, 54.
(Jneist, Professor, 39.
(".oethe, 19, 41, 42, 43, 54, 58, 86, 149,

231, 232, 245.
Gorne, Captain von, 162.
Government, Chap. V.
Gravelotte, battle of, 172.
Grimm, Jakob and Wilhelm, 54.
Gutzkow, Karl, 59.
Haeckel, Ernst, 36, 71.
Hamburg, 292.
Handel, 64.
Hardenberg, 85.
Hartmann, Eduard von, 40. 71.
Hartvvig, 70.
Hegel, 45, 50.

Heidelberg, University of, 72.
Heine, Heinrich, 46, 238, 284.
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 39, 224.
Heppenheim, 309.
Herder, 41.
Herrenhaus, 15. 316.
Heyse, Paul, 46.
Hochberg, Count, 225.
Hoedel, 323.

Hohenlohe, Cardinal, 319.
Hohenzollern, House of, 26, Chap. IV.
Holbein, 65.

Holtzendorf, Dr. von, 39.
Holy Alliance, the, 308.
Humboldt, Friedrich and Karl, 55.
Ignatieff, General, 33.
Imperialists, the, 318.

Iron Cross, the, 171.

Isenberg, Count, 133.

Jaeger, Dr., 274.

Jena, battle of, 17, 113.

John, arch-duke of Austria, 309.

John of Saxony, 44.

Jordan, William, 71.

Kanitz, Count, 167.

Kant, Immanuel, 50, 55, 69.

Kaulbach, Wilhelm vou, 65.

Kirclihoff, 37,38, 273.

Knesebeck, Von der, 25.

Koch, Dr. Robert, 39.

Kuhn, General von, 185.

Kulturkampf, 322.

Lagarde, Paul de, 40.

Landsgerichte, 314.

Landwehr, 315.

Lang, Herr von, 230.

Langenbeck, 39.

L'Arronge, 49.

Laspeyres, 39.

Lassalle, 223, 323.

Le Bourget, battle of, 167.

Le P^re Didon, 67, 217.

Lenbach, Franz von, 65.

Leopold, Emperor, 78.

Leopold, Prince, 311.

Lessing, 19, 41, 42.

Levin, Rahel, 223.

Liberals, the, 92, no, 248, 280, 300, 301,

323, 324-
Liebknecht, 325.
Lindau, Paul, 45.
Liszt, 61.

Literature, 41, 231, 283.
Lorraine, 24, 33, 312, 317.
Louis Ferdinand, 196.
Louisa, Queen, 85, 230.
Lubbliner, Hugo, 49.
Ludcrmann, Hermann, 50.
Luther, 54, 107, 156, 182.
Maria Theresa, 229.
Maybach, Dr. von, 124.
May Laws, 279, 320, 322.
I Meissen, 269.
Melanclithon, 54.
Mendelssohn- Bartholdy, 61.
Mendelssohns, the, 223, 224.
Menzel, Adolf, 65.
Metternich, 86, no, 173, 308.



Meyer, Hermann J.. 71.

Miguel, Dr., 294.

Mischke, General, 205.

Moltke, Count von, 55, 100, 139, 16S,

169, 17S, 1S6, 210, 313.
Mommsen, Dr. Theodor, 39.
Moser, Gustav von, 49.
Mozart, 61.
Muehler. 319.
.Music, 5S, 60, 61.
Nantes, Edict of, 82.
Napoleon I., 16, 23, 24, 25, 32, 34, 143,

:45, 182. 230, 307.
Napoleon III., 255, 311.
National Assembly, 309, 310.
National-Liberal party, 301, 318.
National Union, 134.
Navy, the, 316.
Nietzsche, Frederick, 40.
Nina, Cardinal, 321.
Nobiling, Dr., 323.
Nordau, Dr. Max, 56.
North German Confederation, 138,

3>i. 3>2.
Nussbaum, 39.
Oberlandsgerichte, 314.
Oppolzer, 71.
Philistine, the, 33, 60, 199, 200, Chap.

XI., 28S.
Pless, Prince, 225.
" Pour le M6rite," 46, 140.
Presher, Hermann, 59.
Press, the German, 152, Chap. XIII.
Protection, policy of, 126, 148, 256.
Puckler, Prince, 223.
Puttkamcr, Herr von, 94.
Railway system, the, 123.
Kanke, Leopol<l von, 39.
Kapp, General, 23.
Ralibor, Duke of, 324.
Reichstax, 118, 313.
Reformation, the, 32, 108.
Reuleaux, Professor, 71, 273.
Revolution of 1848, 24.
Richrliru, 30.
Richthofen, G. von, 40.
Rochow, Hcrr von, 130.
RoiilKen, Wilhelm C, 39.
R'Xiii, crount von, ss.
Rofierihuscli, Professor, 40.
RoHsiiii, 61.

Sadowa, battle of, 31, 90, 136, 162.

Scanzoni, 39.

SchaflTgolsch, Count, 84.

Scharnhorst, 25, 54, 85.

Schelling, 45, 50.

Scherr, Johannes, 46.

Schiller, 41, 42, 43, 54, 149, 231, 236,

Schlegel, August and Friedricli, 44, 54.
Schleinitz, 224.

Schleswig-Holstein, 90, 112, 135,310.
Schlieffen, Count, 169.
Schonthan, Franz von, 49.
Schopenhauer, 19, 46, 219.
Schubert, 60, 61.
Schumann, 61, 64.
Science, 37, 38, 273.
Sedan, battle of, 31, 100, 173, 311.
Septennate, the, 316.
Seven Days' War, 25.
Seven Years' War, 23, 127.
Social democracy, 127, 248, 318.
Social Democrats, the, 72, 107, 146,

248, 297- 323, 324.
Socialists, 121, 297, 298,300,301,323,324.
Society, German, Chap. IX.
Spielhagen, 46.
Stael, Madame de, 229.
State indebtedness, 296.
Stein, Baron vom, 25, 54, 85, 173, 200.
Steinmetz, General, 166.
Stephan, Dr., 224.
Strassburg, 293.
Strauss, David; 46.
Strudelwilz, Lieutenant von, 225.
Talleyrand, 231. *

Thiers, 35.

Thirty \'ears' War, 22, 23, .10, 77, 82, 90.
Thun, Count, 132.
Tieck, 44.

Treitschke, Heinrich von, 45, 89, 173.
Turco-Russian War, 140.
Universities, the, 24, 66.
Verdi, 61.

Versailles, coronation at, 31, 90.
Vienna, Congress of, 307, 308.
Virchow, Professor, 39.
Voss, Ricliard, 44, 49.
Wagner, Richard, 62, 96.
WaUlersee, Count, 16.S, 169.
War of I W/i, iji . ini . I (7.



War of 1870,24, 34, loi, 116, 139, 170,

«73. '75. 184, 186, 210, 289.
Weber, 6i.

VVebor, Karl Julius, 129.
Wililciihruih, Ernst von, 48.
William I., 19, 22, 25, 53, 55, 57, 85, 86,

94, 96, 112, 117, 121, 134, 135, 137, 140,

177,230, 253, 277, 299, 311, 312, 317,

3«8, 325-

William II., 97, 179, 225, 318.

Windhorst, Dr., 27, 249, 321, 322.

WindsclK-itlt, Professor, 39.

Woinr, Albert, 34.

Women, German, 210, 212, Chapter

Wiirteniberg, Duke of, 79.
Zaluskowski, Colonel von, 168.
Zirkel, Professor, 39.



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