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MANUAL AND ATLAS
OF DISSECTION



-

314 ILLUSTRATIONS



MEDICAL >SCH<S>L




Gift of



Panama- Pacific
Intern '1 Exposition Go



A MANUAL AND ATLAS



OF



DISSECTION



BY

SIMON MENNO YUTZY, M.D.

INSTRUCTOR IN OSTEOLOGY AND DEMONSTRATOR OF ANATOMY IN THK VNIYERSJTY OP MICHIGAN



tUitb 314 Illustrations



WITH AN INTRODUCTION

BY

J. PLAYFAIR MCMURRICH, A.M., PH.D.



PHILADELPHIA

P. BLAKISTON'S SON & CO.

IOI2 WALNUT STREET




COPYRIGHT, 1906, BY P. BLAKISTON'S SON & Co.



PRESS OF

WM. F. FELL COMPANY
220-24 SANSOM STREE



cm 35






PREFACE



The objects of this outline are to direct the student in his work in
dissection, and to give a method of isolating the various structures with
system and order. The work is divided into demonstrations. This means
that a certain region, or regions called a demonstration, is to be dissected
out and carefully studied by the student, and then the dissection inspected
by a quiz master, the student quizzed and made to demonstrate the struc-
tures before going on to the dissection of another region.

The figures in this outline are principally taken from Moms' and Hoi-
den's "Anatomy," and will serve to give valuable suggestions.



<



INTRODUCTION



For students attempting to use in connection with their laboratory work
any of the popular text-books of Descriptive Anatomy, some sort of guide
is necessary. There is, always a danger that such a guide may become to
the student the sole source of his information, which may thereby become
superficial and imperfect. This difficulty may be avoided in two ways:
either by making the guide so comprehensive that it becomes a text-book
of Topographic Anatomy, or by reducing it to the status of a topograph-
ical index.

In the present volume the latter plan has been adopted. The student
obtains from it only a list of the structures w r hich he should find and study
during his dissection of any part of the body, together with some concise
directions as to how he should proceed with his dissection ; for a description
of the structures he must necessarily turn to his text-book. The dangers
of the quiz-compend are thus avoided; indeed, the guide may serve as an
excellent quiz-master in supplying the student with topics concerning
whose relations he may test his knowledge. The numerous illustrations
will but serve to increase the efficiency of the volume in both these respects.

The long experience of my colleague, Dr. Yutzy, as a successful teacher
of Anatomy is a guarantee for the carefulness and thoroughness with which
the book has been planned, and the satisfactory results which have fol-
lowed the use of similar guides in the Anatomical Laboratory of the Uni-
versity of Michigan awaken the hope that it may prove equally satisfactory
in a larger field.

J. PLAYFAIR McMuRRicn.




P. Blaiuton's Soa Co,




CONTENTS



PART I HEAD, iNECK, THORAX, THORACIC VISCERA,
AND UPPER EXTREMITIES

PAGE

Demonstration I i

Surface Anatomy of Cranial Region.

Demonstration II 3

The Head.
Auricular Region.

Demonstration III 6

Face.

External Palpebral Region.

Nasal Region.

Superior, Inferior, and Inter-maxillary Region.

Demonstration IV 12

Skull.

Internal Orbital Region.

The Eye.

Demonstration V 20

The Neck.

Triangles of the Neck.

Demonstration VI 24

Anterior Triangles of the Neck.
Thyroid Gland.
Submaxillary Triangle.

Demonstration VII 33

Temporo- and Pterygo-maxillary Region.

Demonstration VIII 40

Deep Dissection of the Neck.

Demonstration IX .... 42

Anterior Vertebral Region.

Pharynx.

Palate.

Tonsils.

Mouth.

Teeth.

Tongue.

Larynx.

ix



x CONTENTS

PAGE

Demonstration X 56

Supra-maxillary Region.

Nose.

Ear.
Demonstration XI 60

Back.

Suboccipital Triangle.
Demonstration XII , 68

Pectoral and Axillary Region.
Demonstration XIII 75

Thorax and Thoracic Viscera.

Heart.

Lungs.
Demonstration XIV . 85

Shoulder and Arm.

Brachial Plexus.

Demonstration XV 95

Forearm, Wrist, and Hand.

Anastomoses of Arteries of Upper Extremities.

Demonstration XVI 113

Articulations and Ligaments.

Cutaneous Nerves.

Sections of the Body and Extremities.



PART II ABDOMEN, ABDOMINAL VISCERA, PELVIS, PELVIC
VISCERA, AND LOWER EXTREMITIES

Demonstration I 133

Surface Anatomy of Abdomen.
Demonstration II 135

Abdominal Walls.

Demonstration III 141

Abdominal Cavity.
Contents of Abdomen.
Peritoneum.
Mesenteric Arteries.

Demonstration IV 151

Removal of Abdominal Viscera.

Small Intestines.

Large Intestines.

Stomach.

Duodenum and Pancreas.

Spleen.



COX TEXTS xi

PACE

Demonstration V J 59

Liver.

Kidney and Suprarenal Body.
Demonstration VI ... 164

Structures on Posterior Wall of Abdomen.

Solar Plexus.

Lumbar Plexus.
Demonstration VII ... .... 171

Pelvic Region.

Demonstration VIII . J?3

Perineum.
Male Perineum.
Pelvic Fascia.
Female Perineum.

Demonstration IX 186

Pelvic Viscera.

Rectum.

Male Reproductive Organs.

Female Reproductive Organs.

Demonstration X ... 194

Cavity of Pelvis.
Sacral Plexus.
Sympathetic Nerves.

Demonstration XI ... 199

Gluteal Region.
Demonstration XII - 205

Anterior Femoral Region.

Internal Femoral Region.
Demonstration XIII - 215

Popliteal Space.

Posterior Femoral Region.

Demonstration XIV 219

Anterior Tibio-Fibular Region.

Demonstration XV 225

Posterior Tibio-Fibular Region.

Plantar Region.

Anastomoses of Arteries of Lower Extremities.

Demonstration XVI 239

Articulations and Ligaments.
Sections of the Body and Extremities.



PART



HEAD, NECK, THORAX, THORACIC VISCERA, AND UPPER

EXTREMITIES



GENERAL REMARKS TO THE STUDENT



It will add much to the comfort of all in the dissecting-room if each
student sees that his material, table; and floor about the table are kept
clean.

Do no cutting before you have familiarized yourself with the region
upon which you are working. Read the descriptive anatomy in your text-
books and examine the figures of the parts about to be dissected. Identify
the landmarks and the relations they bear in position to the deeper struc-
tures.

Then carefully work out each structure, studying each part fully as
it is exposed, noting its appearance and position in relation to other parts.

Clean muscles, noting their form, origin, insertion, action, and innerva-
tion. Remove the tissue from blood-vessels and nerves, and trace their
branches as far as possible.

When a region is fully dissected out review frequently and carefully
the dissection on the cadaver, observing each part in its proper position
and its relation to surrounding parts. Learn to observe intelligently what
you see. Observation, examination, and analysis are important qualities
to the successful study and practice of medicine, and the earlier the habit
of accuracy in these qualities is formed, the greater the success.

Each student should make a drawing of his dissection.



xvi



MANUAL AND ATLAS OF DISSECTION.



DEMONSTRATION I.



CRANIAL REGION



Shave the head.

Surface anatomy :

Identify the following bony landmarks: Xasion, glabella, inion,




bregma, lambda, frontal eminence, parietal eminence, zygomatic arch, tem-
poral ridge, supra-orbital arch, supra-orbital notch or foramen.



GENERAL REMARKS TO THE STUDENT



It will add much to the comfort of all in the dissecting-room if each
student sees that his material, table/ and floor about the table are kept
clean.

up<
bo(
the ERRATA.

tui

Page 48, under muscles of tongue, read " Extrinsic. (See Fig. 55)"

instead of Fig. 60.
it l

Page 48, under muscles of tongue, read "Intrinsic. (See Fig. 55)"
, instead of Fig. 60.

br Pa S e 6 9> twelfth line from bottom, read " Figs. 95, 99, 100 " instead

of Figs. 94, 98, 100.

the
an<

yoi ,

to the successful study and practice of medicine, and the earlier the habit
of accuracy in these qualities is formed, the greater the success.
Each student should make a drawing of his dissection.



xvi



MANUAL AND ATLAS OF DISSECTION.



DEMONSTRATION I.



CRANIAL REGION



Shave the head.

Surface anatomy :

Identify the following bony landmarks: Xasion, glabella, inion,



FIG. i. THE SKULL. (Morris.)

BREGMA



GLABELLA NASIO




bregma, lambda, frontal eminence, parietal eminence, zygomatic arch, tem-
poral ridge, supra-orbital arch, supra-orbital notch or foramen.



2 THE HEAD

With coloured pencil or crayon outline the arteries of the head and face.
Also outline veins of head and neck. (See Fig. 5.)

FIG. 2. BRANCHES OF THE EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY. (Holden,}

r. External carotid. 2. Lingual. 3. Facial. 4. Inferior labial. 5. Inferior coronary.
6. Superior coronary. 7. Lateral nasal. 8. Angular. 9. Superior thyroid. 10 and
16. Occipital, ir. Posterior auricular. 12. Anterior auricular. 13. Internal maxil-
lary. 14. Transverse facial. 15. Middle temporal. 17. Anterior temporal. 18.
Posterior temporal. 19. Supra -orbital. 20. Frontal.




Also outline superficial nerves of head and neck. (See Figs. 3 and 4.)
Describe muscle, tendon, aponeurosis, superficial and deep fasciae.



THE HEAD



DEMONSTRATION II.

Dissection. Make a vertical incision through the skin only, from the
root of the nose to the external occipital protuberance. Make a second inci-
sion horizontally along the forehead and around the side of the head, from
the anterior to the posterior extremity of the first incision.

Remove the skin with great care so as not to remove the blood-vessels
and nerves lying in the superficial fascia.
Study the skin of the scalp.
Study the fascia of the scalp.

Dissect out and study the following nerves and blood-vessels:
Nerves (see Figs. 3 and 4):
Frontal.

Supra -orbital. FlG -

Supratroch-

lear.
Auriculo-t e m -

poral.
Orbital or tem-

poro-malar.
Temporal
branch of
seventh.
Occipitalis ma-
jor.

Occipitalis mi-
nor.




THE HEAD

FIG. 4. CRANIAL NERVES. (Potter.)




.

2. Infra.- tree/dear,

3. Supm-ort>ttai,3t>i'

4. Auricula-temporal. SO*



6 Tempor
7, Mater;



Arteries (see Fig. 2) :
Supra-orbital.
Frontal.

Superficial temporal.
Posterior auricular.
Occipital.

Veins (see Fig. 5 ) :
Supra-orbital.
Frontal.
Temporal.
Posterior auricular.
Occipital.

Study lymphatics of head and face. Some of the larger lymphatic
nodes can be dissected out. The smaller nodes and lymphatic vessels
cannot be seen in dissection, and the student must be satisfied with
studying the text and figures in books.

Expose and study occipito-frontalis muscle (M. epicranius}. (See
Fig- 7-)



THE HEAD.



FIG. 5. -TiiE SUPERFICIAL LYMPHATICS AND VEINS OF THE SCALP, FACE, AND NECK.

(Morris.)



Frontal vein



Si/praorbital rein
Communication with.

ophthalmic rein
Tranxverte nasal rein



Angular vein
Lateral nasal veins

Transverse facial

rein
Superior labial or

coronary rein

A n terior pterygoid

or deep facial rein

Inferior coronary

rein

facial rein

Inferior labial veil

Submental rein
Lingual rein

Superior thyroid
vein

Middle thyroid

rein

Btemo-mastoid

Anterior jugular

rein

Communication
between anterior
jugular reins
Platysma, cut




Anterior temporal vein
Posterior temporal rein

Deep temporal rein
Parotid lymphatic gland*
Common temporal rein
Internal maxillary vein
Occipital vein
Temporo-maxillary vein
P?^ Posterior auricular vein

Occipital lymphatic glandt
Slerno-mastoid lymphatic

glands

Communication between
facial and external
jugular reins
Sitbmaxillary lymphatic

glandt
Internal jugular rein

Posterior external jugular

vein
External jugular vein



Superficial cervical chain
of glands



Trapezius



Transverse
cervical vein

S Stiprascapular
vein



Jugulo-cephalic
vein



AURICULAR REGION

Carefully remove the skin from about the auricle and expose the ex-
trinsic muscles of the auricle:

Attrahens aurem (M. auricularis anterior}. (See Fig. 7.)
Attollens aurem (M. auricularis superior}.
Retrahens. aurem (M. auricularis posterior}.

Draw the auricle in a direction from the point of origin of the muscle;
this will make the muscle-fibres prominent and the muscle can be ex-posed.
Expose the following nerves and blood-vessels:
Nerves (see Fig. 3) :
Posterior auricular.

Auricular branch of auricularis magnus.
Arteries (see Fig. 2) :
Posterior auricular.



THE FACE



DEMONSTRATION III.
FACE

EXTERNAL PALPEBRAL AND ORBITAL REGIONS

General surface view.

Appendages of the eye.
Eyebrows.
Eyelids.

Outer and inner canthus.
Eyelashes.
Tarsal plates.

Study and trace the conjunctiva.
Observe caruncula lachrymalis.

FIG. 6. -LACHRYMAL APPARATUS. (Morris.)



SUPERIOR LACHRYMAL GLAND
INFERIOR LACHRYMAL GLAND



DUCT FROM SUPERIOR GLAND




UPPER EYELID PARTIALLY
DIVESTED OF SKIN



UPPER PUNCTUM

LACHRYMAL SAC, NEAR ITS FUNDUS

COMMON DUCT FORMED BY JUNC-
TION OF CANALICULI

UPPER AND LOWER CANALICULI
LOWER PUNCTUM



NASAL DUCT



Lachrymal apparatus:

Lachrymal gland.

Puncta lachrymalia.

Lachrymal canal.

Lachrymal sac.

Nasal duct.

Pass a probe into the puncta lachrymalia and out the lachrymal canal
into the lachrymal sac. Slit open the inferior lachrymal canal to the sac
and then pass a probe down the nasal duct.

Make an incision through the skin encircling the anterior border of
the orbit ; remove' the skin over the eyelids to their edges and expose :
Muscles : -

Orbicularis palpebrarum (M. orbicularis ocidi), (Fig. 7.)

Tensor tarsi.

Tendo oculi.

Corrugator supercilii. (Fig. 7.)

Levator palpebrae superioris.
Nerves (see Figs. 3 and 4) :

Supra-orbital.

Supratrochlear.

Infratrochlear.



THE FACE 7

Arteries (see Fig. 2) :
Supra -orbital.
Frontal.
Nasal.
Palpebral.
Lachrymal.

Observe the Meibomian glands in the tarsal plates by holding the
eyelids between you and the light. (Fig.. 8.)

FIG. 7. (Holden.)




LEVATOR Bit



Expose the tendons of the muscles inserted into the sclerotic coat of
the eye by cutting through conjunctiva between the eyelids and eyeball.
To keep the insertion of the tendons in view place a splinter under each.

Moderately distend the cheek with tow and stitch the lips togetlier. Make
a longitudinal incision through the skin down the median line of the face to
the upper lip, then carry an incision along the margin of the lip and trans-
versely across the face to the angle of the jaw. Turn the skin outwards.



THE FACE

FIG. 8. TENSOR TARSI ATTACHMENT OF THE ORBICULARIS PALPEBRARUM TO THE

PART OF THE BASE OF THE ORBIT. (Holden.)

i. Inner wall of the orbit. 2, 2. Internal part of the orbicularis palpebrarum. 3, 3.
Attachment of this muscle to the circumference of the base of the orbit. 4. Open-
ing for the nasal artery. 5. Tensor tarsi. 6, 6. Posterior view of the lids. 7, 7.
Orbital portion of the lachrymal gland. 8, 9, 10. Palpebral portion of this gland,
n, n. Mouths of its excretory ducts.




NASAL REGION

Expose the following structures:
Arteries (see Fig. 2) :

Lateralis nasi.

Angular.

Muscles (see Fig. 7) :
Pyramidalis nasi.

Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi.
Dilator naris posterior.
Dilator naris anterior.
Compressor nasi.
Compressor narium minor.
, Depressor alae nasi.

Nerves :

Nasal branch of ophthalmic.
Nasal branch of infra-orbital.



SUPERIOR, INFERIOR, AND INTER-MAXILLARY REGION

Make an incision along the margin of the lower lip and turn the skin
down to the lower border of the mandible.

Study the parotid fascia. Carefully expose the surface of the parotid
gland. Exercise great care in this region so as not to cut any branches
of the facial nerve.

Study the parotid gland. (Fig. 9.)



THE FACE 9

Expose the facial nerve by first finding the infra-orbital branch. This
lies below the zygomatic arch and close to the parotid duct. Trace the
nerve forwards under the levator labii superioris muscle, and expose the
infra-orbital plexus. At the same time trace forwards the parotid duct to
where it pierces the buccinator muscles. Now trace the infra -orbital
branch back into the parotid gland, carefully looking for the other branches
of facial nerve. (See Fig. 3.)



FIG. 9. (H olden.)




Branches of the facial nerve on the face (Fig. 3)
Temporo-facial.
Temporal.
Malar.

Infra -orbital.
Cervico-facial.
Buccal.

Supra -maxillary.
Infra -maxillary.

Auricularis magnus nerve of cervical plexus.
Muscles (see Fig. 7):

Platysma myoides.

Superior maxillary region.
Levator labii superioris.



io THE FACE

Levator anguli oris.

Zygomaticus major.

Zygomaticus minor.
Intermaxillary region.

Orbicularis oris.

Buccinator.

Risorius.
Inferior maxillary region.

Levator labii inferioris.

Depressor labii inferioris.

Depressor anguli oris.

FIG. io. -THE CRANIAL NERVES. FIFTH NERVE TRIGEMINUS. (Potter.)




.Potter del



Branches of fifth nerve on face (see Fig. 4) :
Infra -orbital.

Palpebral.

Nasal.

Labial.

Malar.

Auriculo-temporal.

Mental.
Study the whole of fifth or trifacial nerve at this time. (Fig. io.)



THE FACE. IT

Study the whole of facial nerve at this time.
FIG. ii. THE CRANIAL NERVES. SEVENTH NERVE FACIAL OR PORTIO DURA. (Potter.}




~lfcntal5a*



References
I. LargeSuperf. Petrosal.toform Vidian with N*?5

2 Small Superf. Petrosal,to utic Ganglion.

3 External Superf. Petrosal, to Plexus on MidMenmgeal Artery.

4 Tympanic Br. to Stapedius.etc

5 Br From Carotid Plexus.Making Vidian, with N*?l.
6. 7. Brs.to Auriculo -Temporal of 5^

8. Br to Auricular of Vagus Potter.deL

M.The Ganglion of Meckel

O.A.F. Orifice of Aqua3doctus Fallopii

Arteries on the face (see Fig. 2) :

Facial and branches (.-1. maxillaris externa).

Transverse facial.

Middle temporal.

Orbital (A. zygomatico-orbitalis).

Infra-orbital.

Mental.
Veins on face (see Fig. 5) :

Frontal.

Supra-orbital.

Angular.

Facial and branches.

Temporal.

Internal maxillary.

Temporo-maxilla ry .

Posterior auricular.
Lymphatics (see Fig. 5) :

Study lymphatics of head, face, and neck



12 THE SKULL

DEMONSTRATION IV.
SKULL

Study the external surfaces of the superior, posterior, lateral, and
anterior regions of the skull.

Remove the skull-cap by making a circular incision with the saw, com-
mencing in front about one inch above the margin of the orbit, and extending
behind a little above the external occipital protuberance. Saw through the
bone only, and with chisel and hammer break the skull-cap loose with care
so as not to break the investing membranes of the brain.

Observe the interior of skull-cap. Note groove for middle meningeal
artery.

Examine diploe by chiseling away part of the outer plate of skull-cap.

Study veins of diploe.



FIG. 12. THE VEINS OF THE DIPLOE. (Morris.)
(From a specimen in St. Bartholomew's Hospital Museum.)



THE LAMBDOID
SUTURE

The occipital or
parieto-occipilal
diploic vein

The external pari-
etal or posterior
temporal diploic
vein

THE MASTOID
FORAMEN




THE CORONAL SUTURE



The frontal di-
ploic vein

The fronto-sphe-
noidal diploic
vein

The Jronto-pari-
e/al or anterior
temporal diploic
vein



Observe middle meningeal artery. What is its origin and course?

Membranes of brain:

Study dura mater.

Make a puncture in median line of dura mater, insert a blow-pipe, and
distend with air the superior longitudinal sinus. Then make an incision
through the dura on one side of the superior longitudinal sinus and
turn the dura outwards. Observe the falx cerebri and tentorium cere-
belli. (Fig. 13.)

Study superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, and straight sinuses.

Study arachnoid and pia mater.

Observe the glandulae Pacchioni.



ARTERIES AT THE BASE OF BRA IX



FIG. 13. THE VENOUS SINUSES. (Longitudinal section.) (Morris.)



FUlRItt SERVE

I



Fall cerebri



THIRD SERVE

SECOXD NERVE




Lateral tinui



Superior
petrotal sinus

Fali-cere belli

8MVXSTMAND

EIGHTH

irssrss

.v/.vTV/. TESTH. Ayr)

ELEVENTH SERVES
TWELFTH SERVE

SECOSD CERVICAL NERVE

Ligamentum denticulatum



Vertebral
artery



FIFTH
NER VE



fJKST

CERVICAL

SER VE Inferior pttrosa! sinta



Remove the brain. Lift the frontal lobes from the dura and turn the
brain back. Observe tlie cranial nerves. Cut the nerves so that part is left
on the base of cranium. Cut through the tentorium cerebelli along its attach-
ment to the superior border of the petrous portion of temporal bone. Push
the cerebellum to one side and observe the nerves as they leave the brain, cut
the nerces, and then thrust a knife into the vertebral canal and divide the
spi)ial cord.

Study the arteries at the base of the brain (Fig. 14):
Cerebral portion of internal carotid.
Anterior cerebral.
Middle cerebral.
Posterior communicating.
Anterior choroid.
Basilar and branches.

Circle of Willis (Fig. 14) (Circuliis arteriosus] is formed by:
Anterior cerebral.
Anterior communicating.
Posterior cerebral.
Posterior communicating.



FIG. 14. THE ARTERIES OF THE BRAIN. (Morris.)

(The posterior part of the cerebrum on the left side has been cut away to show the cere-
bellum. From a preparation in the Museum of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.)



Anterior cerebral
artery



Middle cerebral

artery
Internal carotid

artery
Postero- j median

perforating
Posterior cerebral

artery

Superior cerebellar
artery

Anterior inferior
cerebellar artery



Vertebral artery



Posterior inferior
cerebellar artery




Observe where the cranial nerves leave the brain.

/ FIG. 15. VIEW OF THE BASE OF THE BRAIN. (Morris.)



OLFACTORY
BULB



OPERCULUM



3rd or OCULO-
MOTOR



ethor ABDUCEXT

7th or FACIAL

8th or AUDITORY

9th, GLOSSO-

PHARYNG.

toth, PNEUMO-

GAST.

llth, SPINAL
ACCESS.
12th, HYPO-
GLOSSAL



Anterior com-
municating
artery

Antero-lalentl
perforating

A nterior choroid

Posterior
communicating
artery

Posterior choroid

Bnsilar artery
Cms cerebelli, cut



Anterior spinal
artery




XTERIOR

PERFORA TED

SPACK
PITUITARY

BODY
TUBER



CORPUS

ALBH'A V.s'
POST. PERF.

SPACE
CRUS CKRERRI

PI>XS VAROLII



AXTERIOR
PYRAMID
OLIVARY ROOT



IXFKRIOR

VERMIFORM
PMOCS8S



BASE OF CRANIUM 15

Place the brain, if in good condition, in alcohol or formalin for
future use.

The central nervous system is so important and so extensive that a
separate dissection is advisable, therefore the directions for the dissection
of the brain and spinal cord are not given in this outline.

Xow note the exit of the cranial nerves through the dura and base of
cranium.



FIG. 16. THE VENOUS SINUSES. (Morris.)
(From a dissection by W. J. Walsham in St. Bartholomew's Hospital Museum.)



Meningral branch of
anterior etkmoidal artery



Meningeal branch of pos-
terior tthmfjidal artery



Middle meningeal

artery

OPHTHALMIA

I>rvISH>\ OF

FIFTH SERVF

THIRD SERVE

Oarernoux tin us

FOURTH XERVE

Al'l'ITORY A\r>

FACIAL NERVES

Sxjtfridr pftf
Inferior fxti'
Petro-tqnamous fin us
tPIXAL

.'} .\ERIF
Siyi'

latfrnl situu
Posterior meniniftal
branch of vertebral
artery
Left marginal riniu



Lrfl lateral tiniu
Snptrirjr I'jnqitu-iinal tiatu




Circular tinut
Carotid artery
SIXTH XER VE
Batilar artery
Basilar plexvt of reuw
A iiditory artery
Vertebral ai'tetf

"HAKrSGEAL
A\I> PXEl'MOGASTKIC
Anterior spinal artery [.V.

HYPOGLOSSAL

SERVE

SPIXAL ACCES-
.-<'>/: Y SFR VE

Right marginal tinnt
Occipital tinut
Right lateral tinut



Expose the sinuses of the dura mater (see Figs. 13 and 16):
The superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, and straight sinuses
have been seen.



The remaining are:-
Lateral.
Occipital.
Cavernous.



Circular.

Superior petrosal.
Inferior petrosal.
Transverse.



Study: Ophthalmic veins and emissary veins.

Name and locate the openings through the base of cranium in



It)



THE ORBIT



Anterior cranial fossa.
Middle cranial fossa.
Posterior cranial fossa.



INTERNAL ORBITAL REGION

Remove the roof of the orbit by making one section with the saw on the
outer angle and one on the inner angle of the orbit, so that the two sections
converge at the optic foramen. Be careful not to injure the pulley at the inner
angle for superior oblique muscle. Do not cut entirely through the bone
with the saw, but with a hammer break the anterior part of orbit transversely
and turn this forwards and downwards. Remove the rest of the roof with
bone forceps back to the optic foramen. Now insert a blow-pipe into cra-
nial end of optic nerve and distend the eyeball with air.

Study the periosteum of the orbit. Notice it is a continuation of the


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Online LibrarySimon Menno YutzyA manual and atlas of dissection → online text (page 1 of 11)