Sir Charles Eliot.

A Finnish grammar online

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iaaden


III. saamaj


, used in nearly aU the eases


IV. iVom.


saamindzi


Pari.


saamista


V. ^<feM.


Plur. saamaisilla (ni), (always with suffix)




Pwiiciplea.


I. taapa or aaava


n. saanut






Passive Voice.


Prewnf


Aff. saadaan




"Neg. ei saada


Imperfect


Aff. Baatiin




Neg. ei saatu


Perfect


Aff. on Baatu




Neg. ei ole saatu


Pluperfect


Aff. oU saatu




Neg. ei oltu saatu, or^ ei ollut saatu


Concessive


Ajf. saataneen




J^eg. ei saatane


Concess. Comp.


Aff. lienee saatu




"Neg. ei liene saatu


Conditional


Aff. saataisiin




meg. ei saataisi


Cond. Comp.


Aff. olisi saatu




:tieg. ei olisi saatu


Optative


Aff saatakoon




Ilea. alk06n saatako



Infinitive. The only forms used

n. Iness. saataessa

m. In»tr. saataman



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8o



FINNISH GRAMMAR.



Active Voice.


Indicative Mood.


Present.


Affirmative.


Sing,


Plur.


I. tuon


tuomme


2. tuot


tuotte


3. tuo


tuovat


Negative,


Sing.


PUtr.


I. en tuo


emme tuo


2. ettuo


ette tuo


3. ei tuo


eivat tuo


Imperfect,


Affirmative,


Sing,


Plur,


I. toin (4)


toimme


2. toit


toitte


3. tol


toivat


Negative,


Sing,


Plur.


I. en tuonut


emme tuoneet


2. et tuonut


ette tuoneet


3. ei tuonut


eivat tuoneet


P&rfect.


Affirmative,


Sing,


Plur,


I. olen tuonut


olemme tuoneet


2. olet tuonut


olette tuoneet


3. on tuonut


ovat tuoneet


Negative,


Sing.


Plur,


I. enole tuonut


emme ole tuoneet


2. et ole tuonut


ette ole tuoneet


3. ei ole tuonut


eivat ole tuoneet


Pluperfect.


Affirmative,


Sing.


Plur,


I. olin tuonut


olimme tuoneet


2. olit tuonut


olitte tuoneet


3. oil tuonut


olivat tuoneet



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THE VERB.


Negative,




Sing.


Plur.


I. en ollut tuonut


emme olleet tuoneet


2. et ollut tuonut


ette olleet tuoneet


3. ei ollut tuonut


eivat olleet tuoneet


Simple Concessive.


Affirmative.


Sifig.


Plur.


I. tuonen


tuonemme


2. tuonet


tuonette


3. tuonee


tuonevat


Negative.




Sing.


Plur.


I. entuone


emme tuone


2. et tuone


ette tuone


3. ei tuone


eivat tuone


Compound Con^cessive.


Affirmative.


Sing.


Plur.


I. lienen tuonut


lienemme tuoneet


2. lienet tuonut


lienette tuoneet


3. lienee tuonut


lienevat tuoneet


Negative.




Sing.


Plur.


I. en liene tuonut


emme liene tuoneet


2. et liene tuonut


ette liene tuoneet


3. ei Uene tuonut


eivflt liene tuoneet


JSimple Conditional.


Affirmative.


Sing.


Plur.


1. toiain (4)


I. toisimme


2. toisit


2. tolsitte


3. toiBi


3. tolsivat


Negative.




Sing.


Plur.


I. en toisi


I. emme toisi


2. et toisi


2. ette toisi


3. eitoisl


3 eivat toisi



81



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8a FINNISH GRAMMAR.





Compound Conditional. Affimuxtive.
Sing, Plur.
I. oliaintuonut oliaimme tuoneet
a. ollsit tnonut olisitte tuoneet
3. olisi tuonut olisivat tuoneet




Negatwe.
Sing, Flur.
I. en olisi tuonut emme olisi tuoneet
a. et olisi tuonut ette olisi tuoneet
3. ei olisi tuonut eivat olisi tuoneet


I.

3.


First Future.
Sing,
olen tuova (tuopa)
olet tuova (pa)
on tuova (pa)


Affirmative.

Plur.
olemme tuova or tuovat (pa)
olette tuova or tuovat (pa)
ovat tuova (pa)


I.
a.
3.


Negative.
Sing. Plur,
en ole tuova or tuopa emme ole tuova or tuovat
et ole tuova ette ole tuova
ei ole tuova eivat ole tuova




Imperative. Affirmative.
Sing. Flur,

1. — tuokaamme

2. tuo tuokaa(tte)

Negative.
Sing, Plur.

I. alkaamme tuoko

2. al& tuo ftlkaft tuoko




Optative.
Sing.

2, tuo'os

3. tuokoon


Affirmative.

Flur.

tuokoot




Negative,
Sing. Plur.

a. alios tuoko

3. alkOOn tuoko alkOOt tuoko



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THE VERB.

Infimtvoe.

I. tuoda'

Transl. tuodakse (zd)
II. Iness. tuodessa
Instr. tuoden
III. tuoma used in nearly all the cases
TV, Norn, tuominen

Part tuomista
• y. Adess. Plur. tuomaisiUa (ni) {dltoays with suffix)

Participle$»



H



I. tnopa


or taova


II. tuozmt




Passim Voice.


Present


Aff. tuodaan




Ne^, eituoda


Imperfect


Aff. tuotiin




Nesf, ei tuotu


Perfect


Aff. on tuotu




Neg, ei ole tuotu


Pluperfect


Aff. oli tuotu




If eg. ei oltu tuotu, or ei oUut tuotu


Concessive


Aff. tuotaneen




Neg. ei tuotane


Concess. C<mp,


Aff lienee tuotu




Neg, eiliene tuotu


Conditional


Aff. tuotaisiin




Ne£f. ei tuotaisi


Cond. Comp,


Aff. oUsi tuotu




Neg. ei oliai tuotu


Optative


Aff. tuotakoon




Neg. alk66n tuotako


Infinitive. The only forms used are —


IL


Iness. tuotaessa


in.


Instr. tuotaman




Farticijples.


I. saatava, tuotava


II. saatu , tuotu



O 2



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84 FINNISH GRAMMAR.

Similarly lyo, to strike, makes in the present lyon, lyot, lyo,
lydmme, lyotte, lyovat ; imperfect 16in (by rule 4) ; concessive
lyonen ; conditional loisin (4) ; imperative lyo, lydkaamme,
lyokaa ; infinitives lydda, lyddessa, lyoman, lydminen,
lyomaisillani ; participles lydva and lydnyt ; passive lyodaan,
etc.

So also satuloi, saddle, forms present indicative satuloin,
satuloit, satuloi, satuloimme, satuloitte, satuloivat; imperfect
Batuloin (5); concessive -satuloinen; conditional satuloisin;
imperative satuloi ; optative satTiloi^os ; infinitives satuloida,
Batuloidessa, satuloiman, Batuloiminen, satuloimaisillani ;
participles sataloiva, satuloinut; passive Batuloidaan.

Second Conjugation.

The second conjugation has the following characteristics : —

(i) The root ends in a short vowel.

(2) The consonant at the beginning of the last syllable is
liable to the usual changes, when that syllable becomes closed.

{3) In the third person sing, present indicative the final
vowel is lengthened.

(4) The first infinitive has the termination a (a).

(5) The root of the passive ends in tta (tta), and hence
the present passive in taan.

(6) The first participle active cdwaya ends in ya (va).
To this conjugation belong : —

A. All roots ending in o, 6, u, y.

B. All dissyllables ending in a, a, and polysyllables ending
in ta (ta) after h, 1, n, r, s, t ; heitta, to throw ; tappa, to kill ;
armahta, to pity ; sivalta, to strike ; ymnxarta, to understand,

(i) In these verbs a or a is always changed to e before the
termination of the passive, kaata, kaadetaan.



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THE VERB. 85

(2) Before the i of the imperfect, polysyllables always reject
a or &, pelasta, peXasti, etc.

Dissyllabic verbs vary in their treatment of a, thoibgh a is
always rejected. If the vowel of the first syllable is o or u ;
then a is generally rejected. Otta, take, imperfect ottl;
muista, muisti. But if the vowel of the first syllable is a or e,
the a of the last syllable generally becomes o ; laula, lauloi,
sing] anta, antoi, give. But a great number of verbs
ending in ta, and having a in the first syllable, use both forms )
ahtoi or ahti, blow', kaxttoi or kartti, to avoid] saattoi or
saattiy to lead.

If a verb ending in Ita, nta, or rta (or the corresponding
forms in a) elides the vowel before 1, then t becomes s ; kielta,
to deny, kielsi ; kumarta, to adore, kumarsi, etc. The same
change occurs after a long vowel in the forms loysi, fownd ;
tiesi, hfiew; taisi, knew how to; pyysi, asked; kaasi, threw
down ; huusi, shouted. Most verbs of this type, however, take
ti, though some have double forms.

C. All verbs ending in i.

D. All dissyllables ending in ke, te, pe ; e. g. luke, to read ;
lahte, go away ; kylpe, to bath.

This e is elided before i, and t is sometimes changed to s;
tunte, to fed, tunsi.

In infinitive II either the e of the root or that of the termin-
ation is changed to i, generally that of the root ; lukiessa or
lukeissa, but never lukeessa.

Examples of conjugation II : — Roots repi, to tear ; luke, to
read. The p of repi becomes v in a closed syllable, and the
k of luke drops out (by rules 34 and 27).

(^^ I \ Present. Affirmative. v£^ J

Svng. _^ Plur.

*^— X^jcevin ' * d^- ^' <• >\^ ^ revimme

2. revit revitte

3. repii repivat



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86



FINNISH GRAMMAR.



Negative, (The root closed by the aspiration.)
8ing, Plur,

I. en revi emme revi

3. etrevi etterevi



3. ei revi



eivftt revi



Ifnjperfeot. Affirmative,



Sing,
I. revin
3. revit
3. repi

Sing,
I. en repinyt
3. et repinyt
3. ei repinyt

Perfect,

Sing.
I. Glen repinyt
3. olet repinyt
3. on repinyt



Negative.



Flur,
revimme
revitte
repivat

Plur,
enune repineet
ette repineet
eivat repineet

Affirmative.

Flur.
olemme repineet
olette repineet
ovat repineet



Negative.



I. en ole repinyt
3. et ole repinyt
3. ei ole repinyt



Plur,
emme ole repineet
ette ole repineet
eivat ole repineet



Plu(peffect. Affirmative,

Sing, Plur.

I. olin repinyt olimme repineet

3. olit repinyt olitte repineet

3. oli repinyt olivat repineet



Negative,
Sing,
I. en oUnt repinyt
3. et oUnt repinyt
3. ei oUnt repinyt



Plwr.
emme oUeet repineet
ette oUeet repineet
eivat oUeet repineet



t)igitized(b\



a



j6ogk





THE VERB.




Concessive. Affirmative,


Bing.


Flur.


I. repinen


repinemme


2. repinet


repinette


3. repinee


repinevat




Negative,


Sing.


Plur,


I. en repine


emme repine


3. et repine


ette repine


3. ei repine


eivat repine



87



Con^mmd Conditional. Affirmative.
I. lienen repinsrt lienemme repineet

(The formation of the remaining persons will now be clear.)

Compotmd Conditional. Negative.



I.


Sing. Plur.
en liene repinyt emme liene repineet




Conditiondl, Affirmative.


I.

3.

3*


Sing. Plur.
repisin repisimme
repisit repisitte
repisi repisivat


I.


Negative.
en repisi emme repisi




Compownd Conditional. Affirmative.


I.


Sing. Plur.
olisin repinyt olisimme repineet




Negative.




Sing, Plur,
en olisi repinyt emme olisi repineet




Imjperative, Affirmative.


I.


Sing, Plur.
repikaamme


3.


revi repikaa



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88



FINNISH GRAMMAR.



Negative,

8ing» Flur.

1. slkaamme repikO

2. alarevi alksarepikO

Optative, Affirmative.

Sing, Phtr.

2. repi'ds

3. repikOdn repikdOt

Negative.

Sing. Plur.

2. alios repikO

3. alkdOnrepikO alkOdt repikO

Participles.
I. repiva
II. repinyt

In/mitives,
I. repia

Transl, repiaksi
n. Ines. repiessa

Insir, repien
III. repima, etc.

rv. Nom, repiminen
Part, repixnista
V. Adess. repiinai8illa(ni)

Passive.
Present Aff, revitaan

Neg. ei revita
Imperfect Aff, revittiin

Neg, eirevitty
Perfect Aff. onrevitty

Neg. ei ole revitty
Pluperfect Aff. oil revitty

Neg. ei ollut revitty, or ei oltn revitty, etc.
Conccessim Aff. revittaneen

Neg. ei revittane
Comp. Concess. Aff. lienee revitty

Neg. ei liene revitty



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THE VERB. 89

Conditional Aff. revittaisiin

"Neg. eirevittaisi
C(m,'p»Cond, Aff, olisirevitty

Neg, ei olisi revitty
Optative Aff. revittak06n

Neg, alkOOn revittakO
Infin. 11. Iness. revittaessft

Participles.
I. revitt&v&
11. revitty

Present. AffirmcUive.
Sing. y .,^ Plur,

Inen (28)^iV^ ; *^^ Inemme

3. lukee lukevat

Negative. (The root closed by the aspiration.)

Sing. Plur,

1. en Ine emme lue

2. et lue ette lue

3. ei lue eivat lue

Imjperfect. Affirmative,

Sing, Plur.

1. luin ^ luimzne

2. luit luitte

3. luki luldvat

Negative.

Sing. Plur,

1. en lukenut emme lukeneet

2. et lukenut ette lukeneet

3. ei lukenut eivat lukeneet

Perfect. Affirmative,
Sing, Plur.

1. olen lukenut olemme lukeneet

2. olet lukenut olette lukeneet

3. on lukenut ovat lukeneet



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90



FINNISH GRAMMAR.



Negative^
Sing,

1. en ole lukenut

2. et ole lukenut

3. ei ole lukenut



Sing.

1. olin lukenut

2. olit lukenut

3. oli lukenut



Plujperfect,



Negatvve.



1. en ollut lukenut

2. et ollut lukenut

3. ei ollut lukenut



Plw.
emme ole lukeneet
ette ole lukeneet
eivat ole lukeneet

Plur,
olimme lukeneet
olitte lukeneet
olivat lukeneet

Plur.
emme olleet lukeneet
ette olleet lukeneet
eivat olleet lukeneet



Concessive*



1. lukenen

2. lukenet

3. lukenee



Affirmative,

Plur,
lukenemme
lukenette
lukenevat



'^^JS-



Negative,
Sing,

1. en lukene

2. et lukene

3. ei lukene

Compound Concessive.
I. lienen lukenut
(The formation of the remaining persons will now be clear.)

Negative,
Sing, Plur,

I. en liene lukenut emme liene lukeneet



Plur,
emme lukene
ette lukene
eivat lukene

Affirmative.
lienemme lukeneet



Conditional.
Sing.

1. luki8in(14)

2. lukisit

3. lukisi



Affirmative,
Plur.
lukisimme
lukisitte
lukiaivat



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THE VERB. 91

Sing, Plur.

I. en lukisi, ete. emme lukis!, etc.

^ Compound Conditional, Affirmative.

Sing. Plur,

I. olisin lukennt, etc. olisimme lukeneet, etc.

Negative.

Sing. Plur.

en olisi lukennt, etc. emme olisi lukeneet, etc.

Imperatvue, Affirmative.
Sing. Plur.

1. lukekaamme

2. Ine lukekaa

Negative.
Sing. Plur.

1. &lkaamme lukeko

2. alalue alkaa lukeko

Optative. Affirmative.
Sing. Plur.

2. luke'os

3. lukekoon lukekoot

Negative.

Sing, Plur.

2. alios lukeko ^->'—

3. &lk06n lukeko alkOOt lukeko

Participles.

I. lukeva

II. lukenut

Infinitives.
I. lukea

TransL lukeaksi
n. Ines. lukiessa

Instr, lukien
III. lukema, etc.

rV. Nom. lukeminen
Part, lukemista, etc.
y. Adess. lukemaisiUaCni)



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9a FINNISH GRAMMAR.

Passive,

Present Aff. luetaan

Neg, ei lueta
Iwperfect Aff. luettiin

Neg. eiluettu '

Perfect Aff. on luettu

Neg. ei ole luettn
Pluperfect Aff. oli luettu

Neg. ei oUut luettu
Conee98voe Aff. luettaneen

Neg, ei luettane
Camp, Cond. Aff. lienee luettu

Neg. ei liene luettu
Conditional Aff luettaisiin

Neg. ei luettaisi
Camp. Cond. Aff olisi luettu

Neg. ei olisi luettu
Optative Aff. luettakoon

Neg. alkOOn luettako
Infin^ II. Iness. luettaessa

Participles,
I. luettava
n. luettu

Similarly tako, to forge, makes the present taon, taot, ta.koo,
taomme, taotte, takovat (k being lost by 28) ; imperfect taoin,
taoit, takoi, taoimme^ taoitte, takoivat ; concessive takonen ;
conditional takoisin; imperative tao, takokaa; optative
tako'os, takokoon; infinitives takoa» takoessa, takoman,
takominen, takomaisillani ; participles takova, takonut;
passive taotaan, etc.

Otta, to take; present otan (30), otat, ottaa, otanime,
otatte, ottavat; imperfect otin, otit, otti, etc.; concessive
ottanen; conditional ottaisin; imperative ota, ottakaazome ;
optative ottaos, ottakoon; infinitive ottaa, ottaessa, ottaman,
ottaminen, ottamaisillani ; participles ottava, ottanut ; passive
otetaan, etc.



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THE VERB. 93

Bakenta, to huUdf has in the present rakennan (31), rakennat^
rakentaa, rakennamme, rakennatte, rakentavat ; imperfect
rakensin, rakensit, rakensi, etc. ; passive rakennetaan, etc.

Tmmarta, to understand, has similarly present (31) ym-
marran, ymmarrat, ymmartaa, etc.; imperfect ymmarsin;
passive ymnxarretaan.

Pyrki, to strive, makes in the present pyrin, pyrit, pyrkii,
pyrlmme, pyritte, pyrkivat; imperfect pyrin; concessive
pyrkinen; conditional pyrkisln; imperative pyri, pyrkikaa ;
infinitive pyrkia, etc. ; passive pyritaan, etc.

Tappa, to IciU ; present tapan, tapat, tappaa, etc. ; imperfect
tapoin, tapoit, tappoi, (7); concessive tappanen; condi-
tional tappaisin; imperative tapa, tappakaamme ; infinitive
tappaa, tappaessa, tappaman, tappaminen, tappamaisillani ;
passive tapetaan (11).

Third Conjugation,

This conjugation comprises all verbs where the radical is
liable to become closed by the loss of the final vowel, from
which results a variety of consonantal changes. The verbs which
are conjugated in this way fall into two classes.

I. Dissyllabic roots ending in le, ne, re, se, and all polysyllabic
roots ending in the vowel e.

These verbs have the following characteristics.

A. The root is closed —

(i) Before t in infinitive I and II and in the passive verb ;

(2) Before n in the conditional and participle II active;

(3) Before k in the imperative.

B. The root may then be further changed by assimilation —
(i) Before t in the infinitive. The roots tule, mene, pure

make their infinitives tulta, menta, purta, which become tull%



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94 FINNISH GRAMMAR.

menna, purra. Bat roots ending in se, like nouse, keep the
in6mtiye in sta, — ^noucrta ; for at is not a group liable to as-
similation. Further simplifications of consonantal groups may
take place ; for example, root syokse, to throw dovm, shortened to
syoks, infinitive eydksta, becomes eydsta; root sakenoitse,
infinitive sakendits-ta becomes sakenoita.

(2) The I, Ty or t at the end of the closed root always
assimilates the n of the conditional and of participle II active.
The final s sometimes assimilates n ; firequently in participle II,
rarely in the conditional.

JS, g. The roots tule, pure, kaitse, which in tbeir closed forms
become tul, pur, kait, form the conditionals tullee, purree,
kainnee, and the participles tullut, purrut, kainnut. 19'ouse
forms nousnee, rarely noussee and participle II nousnut or
nouBsut.

C. A strong consonant at the beginning of the penultimate
syllable in polysyllabic words is also liable to softening in forms
derived from the closed root, but not in forms derived from the
full root. Boot rohkene, to dare ; infinitive I rol^eta.

D. The final e is dropped in the imperfect.

E. The third sing, present has ee.

F. Trisyllabic roots in ne change n to t in the imperative,
and have the infinitive I ending in ta preceded by a vowel so
that ne is altogether lost ; e. g. alene ; imperative aletkoon ;
infinitive aleta.

G. The participle I active ends in va, va.

In the verbs nake and teke k becomes h when the root
loses its final vowel.

n. The second division of this conjugation comprises all
trisyllabic roots ending in ta, t& preceded by a short vowel.
Such are lupata, to promise j hakkata, to strike ; pelkata, to
fBor, etc.



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THE VERB. 95

In these verbs the following changes occur : —

A. In the present the t of the syllable ta (ta) is lost, and if
the preceding vowel is a or a, a long vowel is formed. That
is, lupata, pelkata become lupaa, pelkaa. If the preceding
vowel is o, 6, or e, the vowels may be assimilated into one long
vowel or remain as they are. Putota, putoa, or putoo ; kerketa,
kerkecl, or kerkee ; but if the vowel of the penultimate syllable
is Ti, y, or i, such assimilation rarely occurs.

B. In the imperfect the final vowel is lost and t becomes 8
before the i which characterizes this tense ; lupasin, etc.

C. The root is closed in the concessive, and the final
t assimilated to the n; lupata-nen becomes luvat-nen (34),
and then luvannen (30).

D. In the conditional the last syllable of the root is generally
completely lost ; lupaisi for lupata-isi ; but a trace of it
remains in such forms as kokoaisi (alternative for kokoisi)
representing kokotaisi.

V. Similarly infinitives 1, 11, and the passive are formed from
the closed root, and as the formative syllable ta is closed by the
breathing, tt becomes t; that is to say, the full root lupata
becomes the closed root luvat; to this is added the closed
syllable ta*, and luvatta* becomes luvata. Similarly the passive
luvataan.

Eocamjples,

Division I. Eoots tule, to come; closed form tul. Nouse,
to rise ; closed form nous.

Present, Affi/irm>ative*

Sing, Plur.

I. tulen tulemmd

3. tulet tulette

3. tulee tule vat



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g6 FINNISH GRAMMAR.

Negative.
Sing. Plur.

1. en tnle emme tule

2. et tnle ette tnle

3. ei tnle eivat tnle

Imperfect Affirmative.
Sing. Plur,

1. tnlin tnlimine

2. tnlit tnlitte

3. tnli tnlivat

Negative.
Sing. Plur.

1. en tnllnt emme tnlleet

2. et tnllnt ette tnlleet

3. ei tnllnt eivat tnlleet

Perfect. Affirmative.
I. olen tnllnt, etc.

Negative.
I. en ole tnllnt, etc.

Pluperfect. Affirmative.
I. olin tnllnt, etc.

Negative.
I. en oUut tnllnt, etc.

Concessive. Affirmative*
Sing. Plur.

1. tnllen tnllemme,

2. tnllet tnllette

3. tnllee tnUevat

Negative.
I. en tnUe, etc.

Comp. Concess. Affinnative.
I. lienen tnllnt

Negative.
I. en liene tnllnt



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THE VERB. 97

Conditional. Affirmative,
Sing, Flur.

1. tnlisin tulisimme

2. tnlisit tulisiitte

3. tulisi tulisivat

^ Negative.

I. en tulisi, etc

Compoiund Conditional, Affirmative.
I. olisin tullut, etc.

Negative.
I. en olisi tullut, etc.

Imperative, Affirm^ative.
Sing. Plur.

1. tulkaame

2. tule tulkaa

Negative.
Sing. Plur.

1. alkaamme

2. ala tule alkaa tulko

Optative. Affirmative.

Sing. Plur.

2. tullos

3. tulkoon tulkoot

Negative.
Sing. Plur.

2. alios tulko

3. alkOdn tulko alkdOt tulko

Infinitives,
I. tulla
Transl. tullakse(ni)
II. tulle
Ines. tullessa
Instr. tuUen
111. tuleman
IV. Nom. tuleminen
Part, tulemista

V. tulemaisilla(ni)



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98



FINNISH GRAMMAR^



Participles*



I. tuleva




II. tuUnt




Passive.




Pres. Aff. tullaan.




Neg. eitnlla




Impf. Aff. tultiin




Neg. eittdtu




Cone, Aff. tultaneen




Neg. ei tultane




Comp. Cone. Aff- lienee tultu




Neg. ei liene tultu




Cond.Aff. tultaisiin




Neg. ei tultaisi




Cond. Comp. Aff. olisi tidtu




Neg. ei olisi tultu




Opt. Aff. tultakoon




Neg. alkOOn tultako




Participles,




1. tultava




II. tultu




Present. Affirmative.


Sing.


Plur.


I. nousen


nousemme


2. nouaet


nousette


3. nouaee


nousevat


Negative.




Sing.


Plnr.


I. en nouse


emme nouse


2. et nouae


ette nouse


3. ei nouse


eivat nouse


Imperfect. Affi/rm^tive,


Sing.


Plur.


I. nousin


nousimme


2. nousit


nousitte


3. nousi


nousivat



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THE VERB. 99

Negative,
Sing. Flur.

1. en nousnut or noussut^ exnine nousneet

2. et nousnut ette nousneet

3. ei nousnut eivat nousneet

Perfect, AjffirmcUive,
I. olen nousnut, or noussut, etc«

Negative.
I . en ole nousnut or noussut, etc.

Plujperfect, Affirmaiive.
I. olin nousnut or noussut, etc

Negative,
I. en ollut noujEinut or noussut, etc.

Concessive. Affirmative,

1. nousnen or noussen nousnenune or noussemme

2. nousnet or nousset nousnette or noussette

3. nousnee or noussee nousnevat or noussevat

Negative,
I. en nousne or nousse, etc.

Gomjxmnd Concessive, Affirmative.
I. lienen nousnut or noussut, etc.

Negative.
I. en liene nousnut or noussut, etc.

Conditional. Affirmative,
Sing. Plur.

1. nousisin nousisimme

2. nousisit nousisitte

3. nousisi nousisivat

Negative.
I. en nousisi, etc.

^ The participle is nousnut or noussut.
H 2



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lOO FINNISH GRAMMAR.

Compovmd Conditional. Affirmative.
I. olisin noiumut or noussut, etc.

Negative,
I . en olisi nousnut or noussut, etc.

Imperative, Affirmative.
^%- Plur.



I.



nouskaamme



2. nouse nouskaa

Negative.
Sing. jpi^^

^' alkaamme nousko

2. ala noose alkaa nousko

Optative. Affirmative.
Sing. pinr,

2. nouseos

3. nouskoo nonskoot

Negative.
Sing. Plur.

2. alios nousko

3. alk66n nousko alk66t nousko

Infinitives.

I. nousta
Transl. noustakse(ni)

II. nouste
Ines. noustessa

Instr. nousten
III. nouseman, etc.
IV. Nom. nouseminen
Part, nousemista
V. nousemaisilla(ni)

Participles,

I. nouseva
IL nousnut, or noussut



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THE VERB. loi



Pres. Aff. noustaan
'Neg, ei nousta
Im'pf, Aff. noustiin
Neg. ei noustu
Cone. Aff, noustaneen
Neg, ei noustane
Comp. Cone. Aff. lienee noustu
Neg. ei liene noustu
Cond. Aff. noustaisiin
Neg. ei noustaisi
Cond. Comp. Aff olisi noustu

Neg. ei olisi noustu
Imp. Aff. noustakoon

Neg. alk66n noustako '

Participle.
I. noustava II. noustu

Boots lupata, to promise ; kokota, to collect.
Present Indicative. Affirmative.
Plur.



1. lupaan lupaamme

2. lupaat lupaatte

3. lupaa lupaavat

Negative.



1. en lupaa

2. et lupaa, etc.

Imperfect. Affirmative.

Sing. Plwr.

1. lupasin lupasimme

2. lupasit lupasitte

3. lupasi lupasivat

Negative.
I. en luvannuty etc.



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I02 FINNISH GRAMMAR.

Concessive. Affirmative,
Sing. Plur.

1. luvannen luvannemme

2. luvannet luvannette


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Online LibrarySir Charles EliotA Finnish grammar → online text (page 9 of 22)