Sir Henry Cole.

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to receive them. The old hall of Wolsey, we know, was
hung with tapestry. In the inventory of his goods there
is the following memorandum: — **That in the moneth of
Auguste, anno xv^ Regis Henrici VIII. seven peces of
the lozenge verdours within written were shorne and newe
dressed on the wronge side, and made mete for the hang-
ing of the halle at Hampton Courte, by reason whereof
they were demenyshed in depth.** A whole day may be spent
in contemplation of these tapestries. They are fine remnants
of the chief decorations with which our ancestors rendered
their d wellings beautiful and warm. The churches, being safe
from violence, were adorned with paintings cm the walls ; but
castles, and other residences less secure, employed tapestry,
which was constantly moved. In the Wararobe Account,
taken in the first year of Edward VI., above five hundred
pieces are specified as being at Hampton Court, exclusive
of cloths of estate. There was tapestry suitable to the
importance of the day. In Wolsey*s inventory mention is
made of ** olde peces of hangings whiche served for the hang
log of Durham^ Halle of mferior days.** All the tapestries
now in the hall certainly belonged to the palace when it
was occupied by Henry VlII. For the superior excellence
of its design, the tapestries under the Music (xallery deserve
the first notice. They may possibly have belonged to the
series in the " Legatees Chamber** in Wolsey's time, (Note F.)
The composition of many groups is very graceful, and the ex-
pression of the figures full of meaning. The allegory of the
first, near the entrance, seems to alluae to man*s submission
to sin, and his pardon. *Figures are labelled ^Justicia**
(Justice), "Fides** (Faith), and "Caritas** (Charity). In
the left comer is a woman, '* Femme,** holding a label in
scribed **Ascendit mors per fenestras,** (Death ascends
through the windows.) Justicia, with a sword, is threat-
ening the sinful " Homo** (man), whilst Misericordia (Mercy)



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22 A HAND-BOOK FOB HAMPTON COURT.

interferes on his behalf. Above are three kings ^perhaps in-
tended for the Trinity) ; "Pax" (Peace), Misericordia, Ve-
ritas (Truth), and Justicia, are pleading before them. A^^
other group consists of the same man, ** Gracia dei** (Goa*8
ffrace), presenting armour to him, whilst " Pax** is holding
his helmet. Another label, held by a male figure, is in-
scribed "Reddam ultione hostibus dent xxxiL** (?) A
group, high on the right, consists of "Luxuria** (Luxury),
** Avaricia** (Avarice), " Gula** (Gluttony), &c., about to be
dbpersed by " Spes (Hope). Further on the right sits a
king, attended by various figures. " Humilitas" (Humility)
on his left.
The legend of the next is as follows : —

" Ante Jadioem in Yirtatnm presencia,*'

(Before Uie Judge, in Vlrtae's presence,)
*' Arglciunt Josttcia et Misericordia,**

(Plead Justice and Mercy.)
** Minatnr culpa a Justida,"

(Threatened is Crime by Justice,)
" Sed reconsiliatur a Misericordia,"

(But is reconciled by Mercy.)
** Ubi apparet Fortitude benedicta,**

(Where appears Fortitude blessed,)
" Campum desenmt semper delicta,*'

(The field desert always sins.)
" Peccata in etemum castigrmtur"

(Sins etemaUy are chastised)
** Per v irtu tes quee non moriuntur,"

(By virtues which never die.)

On the third piece, which is thus inventoried among Henry
Vill.'s goods at Hampton Court — " One pece of Tapistre of
seven d^lie synnes, lined with canvas*' — are the following,
the first being rather untranslatable : —

** Per colum indirfens lurimo vanum,"

(By a vain nedc, he beginning at first,)
" Mortale fit atqne prophanum,*'

(Mortal becomes and profttne.)
*< Septem peccata sicut generantur*'
« (The seven sins, as they are generated)

" In mundo, figuralitur hie volantur,"

(In the world, figuratively here are fleeting.)

We may trace each sin associated with some animal or non*
descript, as in the descriptions of the poets of the time, though
the association is not always similar. Thus, in the procession
to the " sinful house of Pride,** in the " Faerie Queen**—

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THE TAPESTRIES. 28

Sluggish Idlenem, the none of lin.
Upon a slothfiil ass he chose to ride.

Loathsome Gluttony ,
Deformed creature, on a filthy swine.

Lustful Lechery t
Upon a bearded goat.

Greedy Avarice did ride
Upon a camel loaded all with gold.

Malicious Bnoy rode
Upon a ravenous wolf.

Revenging Wrath,
Upon a lyon, loth for to be led.

In the tapestry before us —

*' Superbia'* (Pride), rides on a nondescript.

M Gula*' (Gluttony), on a goat,

•* Impenitentla" (Impenitence), on a camd,

" Luxuria*' (Luxury), on a pig,

•< Invidia'* (Envy), on an ass.

'* Lra'* (Wrath), on a griffin.

(Indistinguishable) with an i^.

The arras in the hall consists of eight compartments, be-
longing to a series of ten pieces, each one representing in-
cidents in the history of Abraham : as specimens of an art
nearly extinct, there are none Uke them for splendour — the
highlights being worked in gold — ^to which the public enjoys
a right of access in this country. In the survey of Henry*8
effects (Bib. Harl. 1419) they are thus described : —

Item— Tame peoes of newe anras of ttiistorie of Abraham, whereof
One containeth, in lengtti, ix yardes quart iii nailes ; in depth, vyardes quart.
Theaeoonde. . . . viii yardes iii quarters . . . . v yardes quart.
. viii yardes iii quarters one naile . v yards quart.
• tx jiardes di quarter . . • • . v yards quart
. viii yardes iii quarters di . . . v yards quart.

. viii yardes di v yards quart

. viii yardes iii quarters di . . . ▼ yards quart

. X yardes di v yards quart

. ix yardes one naile ▼ yards quart

. tx yardes di quarter . . . . v yards quart



Thetfairde .

Thefonrthe .

Thefyveth .

Thesixte . .

The seventh .
Theviiitfa

Thenyneth .



It has been conjectured that they maj have been presented
to Wolsey by Charles V., or by Francis I. to Henry VIII.
Most likely Henry bought them. They are attributed to
Bernard Van Orlay^ RafiGaelle*s disciple. Several figures —
that, for instance, of the angel most forward in conversine
with Abraham, in the compartment on the dais of the haU,
which bears a strong resemblance to Christ in Raffaelle*8 car-
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21



A HAND-BOOK FOB HAMPTON COURT.



toon of the Cham to Peter— make it quite evident that the
artist had taken Raf!kelle as his modeL It is a German edi-
tion of Raffikelle, it is true. The stiff legs, defective composi-
tion, and awkwardness of many of the figures, belong entirely
to an early state of German art.

Evelyn, speaking of the contents of Hampton Court, in his
Memoirs in 1662, mentions some ^ hangings designed by Ra-
phael, very rich with gold." " Of the tapestrys,** he adds,
* I believe the world can show nothing nobler of the kind
than the story s of Abraham and Tobit, (see p. 45.) They
were bought by Oliver Cromwell, and valued in the Common-
wealth inventory at 8260/.** It is not quite clear that he alludes
to these. In aemy VIIL*s inventory are named " ten peces
of hangings of arras of thistorie of Tobias, bought of Erasmus
Skotte, merchaunt**

The first of the series commences on the left side of the
hall as you enter ; but why are they not hung according to
the proper chronology of the incidents they depicture P Each
subject Dears a descriptive Latin legend, worked on the skin
of some animal, in tne centre. An arabesque border is at
each side, and below each principal design. The fig^es on
this border are exquisitely conceived, and are emblematical of
the sentiments the chief subject is calculated to inspire. We
have deciphered these legends, some of which are not very
intelligible, though quite legible. When a doubt has arisen,
we have indicate it; and for those that may need it, we have
added a translation, taking the words of Scripture themselves,
wherever suitable.

No. I.

The Lord »ppe«n mito Abrun. " The Lord said to Abrun, Get thee

out of thy ooontry So Abrun departed And there he bnUded

an altar nnto the Lord, and called npon the name of tiie Lord.*' — Gbn. zil.



Appuritio.








Aaimi
promtUudo.


Benedietio.
BUatlmff.






BonitM.
G^odnett


Obtdiene*.


Lfttria.

WOTMkip.


XxUiam.
BaiU.


Animi
pxomtitudo.


Innocentiiu


SimpUtM.
Simplieit,/



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THE TAPESTRIES.



25



No.n.

(The order of tnbject would make it No. VI.)

** And Abraham took bread, and a bottle of water, and gare it onto Ha^ar,
(patting it on her shoolder,) and the child, and sent her away." Hie
child perishes with thirst Hag^ lifts np her Toice, and weeps : the angi 1
of God consoles her. Ishmael becomes an archer. — Qknbsis, zxL



Denicetio.
Blighting,




Bxpdliiur Afar earn FUio. Abn.
ham dat eommeatiuii. Pser aiti parit. plorat
Altar aM^oa earn aolatnr flt lamael lasittariua.




Liber Pater.


Zelotyp;..








OMiMM.


FcKimaitM.


Fogs.

nigH.


DcapanUio.




OMJMM.


Tita
Siheaiiia.

JbvMlXira.



No. in. Should be No. VHI.)

** And the servant, Eliecer, pat his liand onder the thiffa of Abraham,
his master, and sware to him that lie would not take a wife onto Isaac of
the daoghters of the Canaanites, bat of his own kindred. And the ser-
▼ant took the camels of his master, and his goods, and went to Mesopo-
tamia.'* — Gbnbsis, zxiv.



Viftliittaa.




Jaravit Elieaer tub femore Domini aoi Abraba
miam.




Ubar Pater

BMdbM.


BriUmmi.


Obeiieatia.








BtOdrng.




Promiaaio.

JVVMiM.


DeBtM.


Alaeritaa.
JlMtritf.


Invoeado.


Animi
promtUnJo.



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A HAND-BOOK FOB HAMPTON COUBT.



No. IV. (should be No. H.)

Sarah taken hj the BgTptianti is nturaed with gifts. Ood showB
Abraham the land of Canaan. — OaNstis, ziL



Lvsiu.
MM.




Sara rapta ab iBgyptiu restituU
tndH Ahahm ttnam CaoMui.




Alaeritas.
JImeritf,


Ctfistia.
JhartK








Com^dmet,


lUptut.


Libido.


Conicientia.


Restitatio.
RegtUiOUm.


Promiiiio.
Promist.


Latria.
rronUp.


Yindictia.
Ftngganee,



No.V.



God appears to Abraham ; promises a son ; Sarah langfaed withhi her*
self. Abraham prays for Sodom. It perishes by the fire of heaven, with
other cities. — Gknbsis, xvii.



Bins.
lauffhltr.




cum aliia orbibat celwti igne pent.




Mmrtg,


Trinitak








Vindieta.


Hoapltalitas.
HmtpitaHt,.


Famabona.
Gc9dfam0.


Depxeeatiow
Bntrtmtf,


BimplidCai.
StrnplieUf,


Promiuio.
Fnrnim.



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THE TAPESTBIES.



27



No. VI. (should be No. X.)



Sanh dies. Abnhftm porchues the field m « bvaryiag place. Takes
Ketnrah as his wife. He dies, and is buried.— Gbnssis, zziii., zxv.









9u% moritor. Abraham emit






Jndieio.
JmdffwuKt.


JUmttmNm.


Agmm iUi in MpnUarain duett
Cetnram nxoiem. Moritw Mpelitar.


BoMete.

014000,








InmortBlitBt.
ImmorimtUf.


Twnptts.
Tiau.


AtlOIMM.


CompMnt.


Spet.
Bop0.


PlofitttiT


Plavitiur
iPhratu$n


Oloriiu
Glorp.



No. Vn. (should be No. HI.)

To aroid strife, Abraham gave Lot the chdce of a place for his honse
AlHtdiam dwelled in the laud of Canaan, and Lot departed to Sodom.-*
Qbnssis, xiii.



DiMKtiO.

Diacnthn.




AdvitandajargUAbraliam dedit Loth
eliRrre locum maDBionit Abraham habitat




Concordia.
Cotuord.


JttmimmM,








SeparaHo.
Separatum.


Pax.
Ptaet.


Contentio.


InTocatio.
Intoeatif,


Amidtia.


ae$t.


Bleetio.
CMm.


.PiTltlO.

PaHUiamf



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28



A HAND-BOOK FOB HAMPTON COUBT.



No. Vin. (should be No. VIL)

Abraham U comnwiided by the Divine onde to ofDur his only son, lsanc»
s « bornt s scriJle e . — Gbnbsis, zziL



C«Mf «1Mf.




Abnham Divino oneulo
Jnbetnr immolare iinige>
nitum mmm fllium Isaae.




BciMdictio.


Ttnutio.
TtmpMUm.






Pramiaaio.
PnmUe,


Fides.
faitk.


mmpUdiv.


ObtHnet.


Anfani


ImmoUtio.
QfMng.


PromUtio.
Pnrnitt.


Spe..

Hop*.



The other two pieces of tapestry, completing this set of ten
pieces, are as follows. They are hung in the King*8 Dining-
room. {Seepostea): —

No. IX.

And Abraham's servant came to the well, and Rebekah, dan^bter of
Bethoel, gave him, at his request, a drink of water, and drew water for
the camds : and he knew she woold be wife to Abraham's son, according
to the word of the Lord. — Gbkksis, xxiv.



BoBus Zdiu.
GoodZttO.




Comitoe peneniMet ad fontem et tibi

PetPoti Batuelii Filia Rebecca ex hydra

Potom dediMet et Camelia haiuaiMet Filio




DUifntia.
JHUgtne^


A4}amtio.


Ka««e«f.










PredMitia.
Fru4tnot.


SoUidtDdo

animL
aoNeUmdt.


Cetaa.

PUni,.


LibaraMtai
Ubtratitv


K


PadieHaa.
ModMtp,



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PRESENCE OHAMBEE — TAPESTBIKS.



29



No. X. (should be No. IV.)



Sodom being besieged. Lot is taJcen prisoner. Abraham retakes the
town. Melctaizedek offers bread and wine to the conqueror, Abraham.^
Gkitksis, xiv.























a




Yictori Abralue offert pAnem et nnam.




4


3

m

1








K
O








M
A




s










ao


Depiedatio.


Gratitudo.


Pugna.


TjnnviM.


•>




Ti^.




Battlt,


IVromir.





THE TAPESTRIES IN THE PRESENCE CHAMBER

are said to have been hung in the time of Wolsey, and they
manifestly belong to a period anterior to those in the Hsdi.
In Henry's Inventory, we find " Three pieces of arras of the
three fatall ladies of Destenye, lyned with blue buckeram."
These hangings are so darkened by time, that it is difficult to
trace the forms of the figures, and to decipher the inscriptions
they bear. Quaint, formal, and incongruous as designs, they
will nevertheless well repay a scrutiny, as historical memorials
of the day when they were executed. A Westminster Reviewer
acutely observed that, ** Neither are the glaring incongruities
and anachronisms of costume to be placed at all to the account
of these particular artists. The want of all just conception
of the history and progress of society and manners, which
these inconsistencies evince, was a grand deficiency, or rather
immaturity, in the intellectual culture of their time, which
equally pervaded the poem, the romance, and the drama, as
well as every branch of imitative art. We of this day, how-
ever, are gaining by this species of historical ignorance in
the writers and artists of that period. It is better for us that
they should have gone the simplest way to work, by dressing
botn classical and scriptural subjects in the manners and cos-
tumes of their own lime, than that they should have made an
ineffectual or even a successful effort to exhibit them with

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so Jl hand-book for HAMPTON COURT.

Eerfeot historical proprietj. In the latter case they could
ave taught us notninff hut what we have more ahunwit and
satisfactory means of learning from other sources; whereas,
in the very simplicity of their notions, and their very want of
a truly learned spirit, they have transmitted to us the most
authentic memorials of the dress and otiier external pecu-
liarities of their time, respecting which we should otherwise
have possessed hut little information.** — No. LXVU.

The subject of the first of the series appears to be Virtae*8
Triumph over Sensuality, but Virtue in its turn is threatened
by the Fates — ^Atropos, Cloto, Lach^sis. The legends ex-
plaining the design, when written tn extenso^ are as follows :

No. 1. (East side, opposite entrance.)

ComUen que l*omme wcA% chaste tout pwliqae
Les Mars fatalles par lear loy aatentiqae,
Ttanchent let nerfi et fiUetx de la vie,
A oela la mort tone les vivans amovie.

Which is illustrated by ** Chastite** in a car, riding over Venus
as Sensuality, and appropriately accompanied by the Roman
hero and heroine of Chastity, Lucretia and Scipio Airicanus,
who, being labelled Chipionlafican, once puzzled a certain
guide to Hampton Court, who has since m^t time preferred
our reading or the legends to his own.

No. 2. (East.)

Le Cliaste an fort plas sainement peolt vivre,
Qoi se treaye de grans vices delivre ;
Mais a la fln U D7 a roy ne pape
Grant ne petit qui de ses las eschappe.

Here is the triumph of the Fates, who are seated in a car, on
which an abridgement of the old classical motto is inscribed — ^

Qoto. Colnm. B^Jolat net.
Lacliesis. Atropos. occat.

and preceded by a javelin, labelled " Malheur,*' and a dub,
**Fortutudio.** In a duplicate of this arras, on the opposite
side of the chamber, the figure bearing the javelin *^ Malheur**
is entitled ** Courons.**

No. 3. (South.)

La Mort mord toot, mais dere Renomec^
Sor Mort triompbe et la tient deprimee
Dessonbs sea pieds, mais apres ses efTors
Fame sosclte les luMOts fais de fens mors.

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PRESENCE CHABfBBR — TAPESTRIES. 31

'*Renomee** (Renown) is snmmoning the illastrious dead, in
opposition to Fate. A mot\ey group appear, among whom
are named Alexandre, Roi rriam, Rolant, Salatino, Paris,
Hercules, Menelaus, &c. The motto on the oar of the Fates
in No. 2 is here repeated helow.

No. 4. (South.)

Qni par "^^rta ont meritee gloire*
Qa* apres leor Mort de lean fais Boit memoire,
Indite fame neost Jamais congnoisance
De Lethens le grant lac d'onbliance.

The figures which here surround the car of Renown are
labelled Torquat, Cathon, Pompee le Grant, Martias, &o.

No. 5. (North.)

Qooiqne fame indite et honoree,
Apres la Mort soit de longae doree,
Qere et Inysant neantmoins toat se passe
Tout s*6blie par tempe et longues passe.

Below No. 5 and 6.

Temporibiis folcor qaantomlibet incUta foma. Ipsa me dansenmt tem-
pore sera piam.

Quid prodest yizisse dia com fortiter evo. Abdidit in latebris jam me
tenq^osedaz.

The reading given here is very unsatisfactory, but seems to
correspond with the letters of the original. The legend on
the top of this tapestry, as on ^e others, has been de&ced,
and is illegible.

No. 6.

Longnement vivre que t'anra prooAte,
Qoant ta seras es latebres geete
De ce vid temps qui tout ronge et affine,
Et dare apres qae fome meart et fine.

Here is Renown, seated at the feet of Father Time, and
submissive to his slow influence. Gemini, Cancer, and Leo,
the Sun entering the latter, and the Hours, as female figures,
fleetine by, surmount the composition.

A piece of tapestry, on a very different subject — ^the Death
of Hercules — ^is hung on the right as you enter, immediately
opposite the bay window. The legend of this is —



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32 A HAND-BOOK FOB HAMPTON COURT.

Dlanlrm pour 11 oster de oeuure imnnde la

Chemise lai timiumist par licas,
Quit mist a mort et le plus prenz da monde Una,

Les Jours par ce malheureox cas.

The subject of Diomed is covered by the adjoining tapestry.
We throw out for consideration, whether it would not be
worth while transposing the tapestry under the minstrel
gallery to this room, and substituting it at least for the dupli-
cate and the Hercules portion.

On the west side, opposite the bay window, and at the east
corner opposite the nre-place, are two very fine tapestries,
unnamed, both admirable studies for costume and design.
The latter perhaps belongs to the series under the minstrel
gallery.

The graceful drawings above the tapestries are cartoons,
painted by Carlo Cignani. The subjects are — at the south
side — 1009. Cupid on Jove's eagle— 1010. Triumph of Venus
— 1081. Hymen. On the western side — 1012. Daphne and
Apollo — 1013. Jupiter and Europa — 1014. Bacchus and
Ariadne — 1015. Cupid and a Satyr. They were designed,
about 1660, for the frescoes of the Ducal palace at Parma.

The oaken mantelpiece, of the style of Elizabeth, was
removed hither from Hampton Wick not long ago ; Wolsey's
profile is in the centre, and is apparently a modem work.
All portraits of Wolsey are profiles — so taken, because he is
said to have lost an eye. Let us here recal the better portrait
of htm, painted in more lasting materials by our own Shake-
speare, the great popular teacher of English history, who en-
graves scenes of past times on every one's mind, which are
soon forgotten out of Bapin and Henry, Tyrrell, Goldsmith
and Hume.

"This cardinal,

Thoui^h from an htunble stock, midoabtedly,

Was fashioned to mach honour from his cradle.

He was a scholar, and a ripe and good one.

Exceeding wise, fair spoken, and persuading ;

Lofty and sour, to them that loved him not.

Bat to those men that sought him, sweet as summer.

And though he were unsatisfied hi getting

(Which was a sin), yet in bestowing, madam.

He was most princely j— ever witness for him

Those twhis of learning that he raised in you,

Ipswich and Oxford— one of which fell with him,

Unwilling to outUve the good that did it j

The other, though unfinished, yet so fieunous.

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WOLSEY. 33

So ezceUent in art, and stOl so rising:,

Tbat Christendom sliall erer speak his virtue.

lliis churchman bears a bounteous mind indeed,
A hand as fruitful as the land tliat feeds us.
His dews fall everywhere.

Being not propp*d by ancestry (whose grace
Chalks successors their way), nor called upon
For high feats done to th* crown ; neither allied
To eminent assistance, but, spider-like.
Out of his self-drawing web,, he gives us note.
The force of his own merit makes his way }
A gift that Heaven gives for him, which buys
A place next the king."

"A place next -the King!" His ''Ego ei Rex Mens;
"I and my King," was honest and true, though bad in taste.
In truth, Harry the Eighth played but a second part as long
as Wolsey was his minister.

Hampton Court, the palace in York-place, the Tyne-bridge,
Cheshunt, Battersea, Esher, Apscourt near Moulsey, Ipswich,
and Christchurch, Oxford, each and all attested Wolsey's
architectural talents. Ashley-park, near Walton, has been
said to have been Wolsey's residence. The present owner,
Sir Henry Fletcher, informs me that he knows of no evidence
which connects Wolsey with this house. The College of
Physicians was suggested by him. He knew how to value
Titian, Raffaelle, Erasmus ; and Thomas Cromwell, the prac^
Heal man of the Reformation, which was helped by Wolsey's
suppression of small monasteries, was his own secretary.

In 1504, Wolsey was chaplain to Henry VII. He became
afterwards royal almoner ; dean of Lincoln ; prebendary of
Stowe Magna ; almoner to Henry VIII. ; reporter of the
proceedings in the Star Chamber ; canon of Windsor ; privy
councillor; registrar of the Order of the Garter; dean of
York ; prebend of Bugthorpe ; dean of St. Stephen's, West-
minster ; bishop of Toumay ; bishop of Lincoln ; chancellor
of the University of Cambridge ; archbishop of York ; car-
dinal ; lord chancellor. Papal bulls empowered him to create
knights, counts palatine, apostolic notaries, by whom bastards
might be legitimated as by the pope himself. Degrees in art,
laws, divinity, medicine, and dispensations of all sorts, were
at his disposal. His revenues surpassed those of the king, or
any other sovereign in Europe.

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84 A HAND-BOOK FOR HAMPTON COURT.

BWELL to the great Cardinal I

nding Anne Bole^^n, Henry soon

ot Wolsey*s services. Stripped

by one of all honours and pos-

ons, nature ran her course with

before Henry had time to con-

him to the scaffold. Broken-

ted, he died at Leicester, in 1530.

And here, resting on the benches provided for us, and before

we leave the older portions of the palace, we may hastily

glance at the connexion between Hampton Court and its

possessors after Wolsev. Henry Vlll. added, as we have

already seen, much to this palace, and resided here with many

of his wives. Anne Boleyn went hence to be beheaded;

Jane Seymour came hither to give birth to Edward the

Sixth, and die. In the accounts so often alluded to, is the

following entry relative to her death : —

** Payd to WilL Benston and Harry Frye glasyars, for takyn; down of
eertten panes of glas, withe settyng np the same agayne, in sondry wyn-
dowes in the Qaenes lodgeing» at the Quenes berpall (Jane Seymour), that
the apar might have recourse, every of them at 8tf. the day, by the space of
eight days.*'

Hentzner, who wrote in 1598, was shown the bed in the
Hall, in which Queen Jane died.

Philip and Mary passed a gloomy honeymoon here.
James I. held here, in 1604, his conference with the bishops
and puritan leaders. He talked much Latin, and disputed
with Dr. Reynolds, telling the petitioners that they wanted
to strip Christ again, and bade them get away with their
snivelhng. When they besought leave to hold their pro-


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