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Gallus, charged with treason. Tiridates, exiled king of Parthia, visits
Augustus in Spain, bringing with him the young son of his successful rival
Phraates. Death of the polymath M. Tcrentius Varro {ox 21),

M Ninth consulship of Augustus. New office of * Praefectus Vrbi * conferred on
Messalla; his resignation after a few da3rs; the office long remains in
abeyance. Successful attacks on the Cantabri and Astures in Spain, the
Salassi (sub-Alpine tribe) and on some German tribes. Expedition of Aelius
Gallus to Arabia. Augusta Emerita (Merida) founded ; also Augusta Praetoria
(Aosta). Marriage of lulia and the young Marcellus. Agrippa completes
the Pantheon. Numidia joined with Africa. luba king of Mauretania.

24 Tenth consulship of Augustus, who reaches Rome near the end of the year.
He siurenders the young Parthian prince to Phraates. The first three books
of Horace* s Odes,

28 Eleventh consulship of Augustus, which he resigns during a critical illness.
The * potestas tribunicia ' conferred on him for life in a new form ; also (ac-

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cording to some authorities) the *proconsulare imperium*. Great commission
in the East given to Agrippa; but he retires to Mitylene, for two years.
Death of Marcellus (late summer). The *praefecti aerarii' replaced by two
of the praetors.

23 Famine and pestilence cause the people to damottr for Augustus to accept
a dictatorship and censorship for life. He declines an offer of a life
consulship, but accepts a special 'cura annonae'. Censors appointed, the
last, excepting Claudius, and the Flavian emperors, who held the office.
• Ludi publici ' transferred to praetors, with a subvention from the treasury.
Conspiracy of Caepio and Murena. Fresh revolts in Spain. Cyprus and
the Prouincia Narbonensis transferred to the Senate. Augustus leaves for
the East.

21 Augustus, elected consul, declines ; electoral riots ensue. Agrippa is compelled
to divorce the emperor's niece, and to marry lulia. He is placed in charge
of affairs at Rome. Augustus in Greece and at Samos.

20 Visit of Augustus to Asia Minor, where he makes many changes in the status
of cities, peoples and princes. Tiberius commands an expedition to
Armenia. Phraates surrenders the Roman standards. Birth of Gaius, son
of Agrippa and lulia. Tlie first book of Horaces Epistles.

10 Augustus reaches Rome (n Oct.). *Ludi Augustales ' instituted to celebrate
annually the day of his return. Dedication of a temple of Roma with
Augustus at Pergamum. The Cantabri exterminated by Agrippa. Death
of Virgil at Brundisium^ on his way back from Greece t in company of
Augustus (ii Sept.). Death of Tibullus.

18 *Imperium proconsulare', given in ay, renewed for five years (so Dio; but
more probably ten). The *'potestas tribunicia* given to Agrippa for five
years. Lex lulia de adulteriis passed, but a Mex de maritandis ordinibus '
rejected by the comiiia. Senate reducsd to 6oo members. Herod visits Rome.


17 Birth of Lucius, son of Agrippa and lulia, who leave Rome for the East. The

emperor adopts, as his sons, his two grandsons. The Mudi saeculares',
with Horacis * carmen saeculare\

16 Defeat of Lollius in Germany. Augustus goes with Tiberius to Gaul.
Noricum made a province, under a 'procurator*. Risings in Illyricum,
Istria and Thrace. T. Statilius Taurus named *Praefectus Vrbi* during
the absence of Augustus from Rome. Death of Propertius.

10 Victory of Tiberius and Dnisus over the Raeti and VinddlTci (i Aug.).
Annexation of their country as a procuratorial province. Pacification and
organisation of sub- Alpine districts. Augustus reserves to him<%elf the right
to coin gold and silver for the empire, leaving to the Senate the copper
coinage (now resumed, after a long period of abeyance). Birth of Germanicus
(son of Drusus) and of Drusus (son of Tiberius).

14 Many colonies founded about this time, especially in Spain and Gaul. Agrippa
confirms Jewish privileges in the cities ot Asia. Privileges conlerred on the
Jews by Agrippa.

18 First consulship of Tiberius (passed in Rome). Return of Augustus to the

capital (4 July). Drusus in sole command in Gaul and on the Rhine.
Return of Agrippa and rencMral of his 'tribunicia potestas* for five yeais;
he leaves to suppress a great revolt in Pannonia. Death of Lepidus,
formerly Triumvir (vacating the office of 'Pontifex Maximus'). Probable
date of the fourth book of Horace's Odes and his Epistle to Augustus,
12 Election of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus (6 Mar.). After this the office is
restricted to the emperors. Death of Agrippa. Tiberius succeeds him in

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173—175] THE FIRST CENTURY B.C. 135

Pannonia, while Drusus repels the Sicambri and other tribes on the Rhine.
Important operations of a Roman flotilla on the Rhine and the sea-coast
between Rhine and Weser. The Epistle of Horace to Florus.

U Dedication of the theatre of Marcellus (4 May). Death of the emperor's sister
Octavla. Tiberius compelled to divorce the daughter of Agrippa, and to
marry lulia. Victories of Drusus on the Rhine. Campaign of Tiberius in
Pannonia. Trouble in Thrace and Macedonisu lUyricum transferred
from Senate to Emperor.

10 Augustus inaugurates (i Aug.) the 'ara Romae et Augusti' at Lugudunum.
Claudius bom there on the same day. Continuance of the war in Germany
and Pannonia. Herod completes Caesarea, so named in honour of Augustus.

Dedication of the * ara pacis Augustae ' (30 Jan.). Drusus penetrates to the

Elbe, but during his retreat dies from the effect of a fall from his horse
(14 Sept.). Tiberius brings the body to Rome. The name 'Germanicus'
bestowed on Drusus and his descendants. Triumph of Tiberius over
Dalmatians and Pannonians. Horaces Epistle to the Pisones. Uv^s History
ended with this year.
8 * Imperium proconsulare ' renewed for ten years. The * mensis Sextilis' becomes
'mensis Augustus*. Victories of Tiberius over the Sicambri and other
Germans. Census of Roman citizens. Fresh municipal organisation of
Rome ; creation of 14 *regiones' and 165 *uici'. The arch at Susa erected by
Cottius in honour of the emperor. Death of Maecenas. Death of Horace,


7 Triumph of Tiberius for German victories. Fresh campaign in Germany.

6 Bestowal of the 'tribunicia potestas* on Tiberius for five years. He is sent on
an important mission to the East, but retires for some years to Rhodes. The

* tropaeum Augusti * at Turbia erected to commemorate the subjugation of
46 sub- Alpine tribes.

6 The prince Gaius assumes the * toga uirilis * and among other honours is named

* princeps iuuentutis * by the Equites.

4 Death of Herod. His will, dividing his dominions among three sons, con-
firmed by Augustus. Census of the Jews carried out by the legate of Syria,
P. Sulpicius Quirinius. Disturbances in Judaea. Birth of L. Annaeus
Seneca cU Corduba,

a Augustus receives the title * pater patriae*. Recipients of corn at Rome
reduced from 320,000 to 3oo,ooa The prince Lucius assumes the * toga
uirilis' and receives honours (including the title 'princeps iuuentutis').
Banishment of lulia (with her daughter lulia) and punishment of her

1 Gains goes, on a mission of importance, to the East.
A.D.I Gaius consul (though in S3rria).

2 Gaius meets the Parthian king on the Euphrates. Death of his brother Lucius

at Massilia (20 Aug.). Rising of Cherusd and Chaud. Return of Tiberius
to Rome.

8 * Imperium proconsulare' renewed for ten years. Gaius wounded in Armenia.


4 Gaius dies of his wound in Lycia (21 Feb.). Augustus causes Tiberius to
adopt as his son Germanicus, son of Drusus ; then Augustus adopts both as
his own sons. Grant of * imperium proconsulare ' and * tribunicia potestas '
to Tiberius for ten years (so Dio ; five years, Suet.) ; he defeats the Cherusci.
The lex Aelia Sentia. Temple at Nemausus in honour of Gaius and Lucius
{^Maison Ccurit' at Ntmes),

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5 Roman army marches to the Elbe, and is met there by the flotilla. Famine at


6 Creation of the ' aerarium militare '. Imposition of the ' uicesima hereditatum '

and the * centesima rerum uenalium \ Sore famine leads to the creation of
a new equestrian office, the * praefectura annonae *. The corps of * uigiles *
established, under an equestrian * praefectus '. The provinces of Sardinia
(with Corsica) and Moesia transferred to the emperor. Judaea (with Samaria)
becomes a procuratorial province, on the expulsion of Archelaus. Tiberius,
about to attack Maroboduus, is further menaced by a great insurrection in
Dalmatia and lUyricum, but is saved from destruction by a compact with

7 Victory of Germanicus in Dalmatia and of the army of Tiberius in Pannonia.

The arch of Pavia erected. Exile of Agrippa Postumus, the last surviving
grandson of Augustus.
3 The force of the rebellion is broken.

Triumph of Tiberius, and his return to Pannonia. Great defeat of Varus by
Arminius at the * saltus Teutoburgensis *. Tiberius with Germanicus, on Ihe
Rhine. The lex Papia Poppaea, 9 (or 8) Thi * reUgatio ' of Ovid,

10 Rhine defences organised ; four legions in upper Germany, with headquarters
at MoguntiScum (Mainz) ; four in lower, with headquarters at Castra Vetera
(Xanten). Vonones, a hostage at Rome, sent by Augustus to occupy the
Parthian throne.

12 First consulship of Germanicus. Tiberius in sole command on the Rhine.
Birth of Gains (Caligula, son of Germanicus and Agrippina).

IS Triumph of Tiberius for victories in Pannonia, Renewal of his * proconsu-
late imperium ' and * tribunicia potestas * without limit of time. Germanicus
left on the Rhine. Imperial powers of Augustus renewed for ten years.
Piso is * Praefectus Vrbi ' (till 32) in the absence of the emperor.


U Censiis of Roman citizens (nearly 5,000,000 enumerated). Death of Augustus
at Nola (19 Aug.) and succession of Tiberius. Execution of Agrippa
Postumus. The ashes of Augustus deposited in his * Mausoleum*. His
deification (17 Sept.). Powers of the comitia transferred to the Senate.
Great military mutinies in Pannonia and Germany. Death of lulia, daughter
of Augustus. The *" Astronomica * of Manilitis written after the deification of
Augustus. Final composition of the ^ Monumentum Ancyranum\

15 Perilous campaign against Arminius.

16 Germanicus advances to the Elbe, and returns by the river and the sea to the

Rhine. He is recalled, and the attempt to extend the Roman frontier to the
Elbe is abandoned. Birth of the younger Agrippina.

17 Triumph of Germanicus (26 May), who goes to the East. Rising of Tacfarinas

in Africa (not subdued for many years). Annexation of Cappadocia and
Commagene. Death of Ovid at Tdmi, and of Livy at Patavium,

18 Feud between Germanicus and Piso, legate of Syria.

19 Germanicus in Egypt. His death in Syria (10 Oct.). Piso compelled by the

troops to leave Syria. Maroboduus in exile at Ravenna. Lex lunia Norbana.

20 Agrippina brings the ashes of Germanicus to Rome. Piso, charged with

treason and procuring the death of Germanicus, commits suicide.

21 Tiberius retires for a time to Campania. Rising of lulius Florus and lulius

Sacrouir in GauL The arch at Arausio (Orange) erected to commemorate
their defeat. Assassination of Arminius.

22 * Tribunicia potestas * conferred on Drusus, son of Tiberius.

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176—179] THE FIRST CENTURY A.D. 137

S3 Seianus, Prefect of the Praetorians, concentrates them in a camp just outside
the city walls. Death of Drusus, son of Tiberius (attributed by Tacitus to
Seianos). Temple in honour of Tiberias, Liuia and the Senate, at Smjnma.


26 Feud of Seianus with Agrippina. Final departure of Tiberias from Rome,

after which time the new office of * Praefectus Vrbi' becomes permanent (even
in the emperor's presence). Pontius Pilate procurator of Judaea.

27 Hberius settles at Capreae.

28 Appearance of Tiberius and Seianus in Campania. Servility of the Senate.

Death of lulia, grand-daughter of Augustus, in exile. Marriage of the
younger Agrippina with Cn. Domitius.

29 Agrippina the elder and her son Nero exiled. Drasus, another son of

Germanicus, imprisoned.
80 The history of Velleius Paterculus published,
31 Seianus receives the ' imperium proconsulare ', but is soon after destroyed, with

his family and many adherents. Macro succeeds to the command of the

33 Great financial crisis (Tac. Ann. vi 16, 17)'. Execution of Drusus, son of

Germanicus. Death of the elder Agrippina.

36 Pontius Pilate, accused of maladministration, sent to Rome by L. Vitellius,

legate of Syria. Herod Agrippa imprisoned.

37 Death of Tiberius at Misenum (16 Mar.). Phaedrus flourishes under Tiberius

and Gaius.


37 Gaius (Caligula) emperor (18 Mar.). Tiberius (grandson of the emperor Tibe-

rius) forced to commit suicide. Gaius is consul for a few days ; Claudius also
consul (his first office). Birth of Nero (the ftiture emperor).

38 Gaius 'restores the comitia'. He puts to death and then deifies his sister

Drusilla. Riots at Alexandria between Jews and Gentiles, who had tried to
place statues of Gaius in the synagogues. Deposition of Auillius Flaccus,
Prefect of Egypt. Macro's enforced suicide.
89 Numerous executions. Conspiracy of Lepidus and Gaetulicus, on account of
which the emperor's sisters suffer * relegatio *. Herod Antipas exiled. Birth
of Lucan,

40 Gaius visits Gaul. Hearing that an altar erected to him on the borders of

Judaea had been destroyed by Jews, he orders the legate of Sjrria to place
an imperial effigy in the temple at Jerusalem. Herod Agrippa takes over
the dominions of Antipas. Auillius Flaccus executed. After making a
feint on Britain, Gaius returns to Rome (31 Aug.). Deputation of Jews
and Greeks from Alexandria, described by Philo (a member of it) in the
*Legatio ad Gaium*. Herod Agrippa induces Gaius to cancel his order
about the temple at Jerusalem. Murder of Ptolemy, king of Mauretania.


41 Gaius killed (34 Jan.) partly on account of immense taxation and confiscation.

Claudius made emperor next day. The first example of a * donative ' to
soldiers on accession. The murder of Gaius is avenged and his sisters are
recalled. Herod Agrippa's dominions, increased by cession of Judaea, are
now nearly as extensive as those of Herod the Great. Judaea ceases to be a
procuratorial province. lulia Liuilla, sister of Gaius, banished at the instance
of Messalina. This entails the exile of Seneca, who wrote his ' Comolatio ad
Marciam * about this time, and his * Consotatio ad Heluiam ' during exile.

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Curtius Rufus flourishes under Claudius, Commagene restored to a native

43 The Romans for the first time cross the Atlas range. Two provinces of

Mauretania organised (*Caesariana' and 'Tingitana'), under procurators.
48 Expedition to Britain ; Claudius there for 16 days. Defeat of Caractacus and
capture of Camalodunum. The emperor's yoimg son receives the title
'Britannicus *. A- Plautius governor of the new province. Seneca's * Conso-
latio ad Polybium *.

44 Achaia and Macedonia transferred to Senate. Quaestors replace 'praetores

aerarii*. Death of Herod Agrippa. Judaea once olore a province.

46 Edict of Claudius about the Anauni (C. /. Z. v 5050). Tl. Alexander, nephew

of Philo, procurator of Judaea. Birth of Plutarch.

47 *Ludi Saeculares* (11 Ap.). Corbulo in Germany. Victories of Vespasian

and Titus in Britain. Triumph of A. Plautius (the last full triumph accorded
to a subject). Claudius (by 'plebisdtum*) adds three new letters to the

48 Claudius grants the Aedui the right to become senators. As censor he registers

about 7,000,000 citizens. Death of Messalina and her paramour. Intrigues
about a new imperial marriage.

49 Claudius marries his brother's daughter Agrippina (the candidate of Pallas)

after an enactment had been passed permitting such marriages. Seneca
recalled to become tutor to Agrippina's son Domitius. Octauia, daughter of
Claudius, betrothed to Domitius.

60 Claudius adopts Domitius (henceforward L. Claudius Nero). Foundation of

Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) and of Roman colony at Camalodunum,
with an altar to Roma (or Victoria) and Claudius.

61 Burrus becomes Prefect of the Praetorians. Birth of Domitian (33 Oct.).

Continued commotions in the East.

62 Felix (brother of Pallas) procurator in Judaea.
68 Marriage of Nero and Octauia.

64 Claudius poisoned (u Oct.). Nero emperor (13 Oct.). Claudius deified.
War with Parthia; Corbulo one of the commanders. Birth of Tacitus
(probably), Seneca* s ^ Ludus de morie Claudi* (the ^ Apocolocyntdsis%


66 Nero consul. Pallas ceases to be minister of finance, and is succeeded by
Claudius Etruscus. Dissension between Nero and his mother. Britannicus
poisoned. Seneca* s *De Clcmentia* {dedicated to Nero),

66 Seneca consul. The *quaestores aerarii* replaced by *praefecti aerarii*,
nominated by the emperor.

68 Active operations against Parthia. The emperor proposes to abolish all

' uectigalia *, but is dissuaded.

69 Murder of Agrippina. Success of Corbulo in Armenia. Suetonius Paullinus

legate in Britain.

60 Festus succeeds Felix in Judaea.

61 Vespasian consul. Capture of Mona by Paullinus. Great rising of Iceni

(under Boadicea) and Trinobantes. Camalodunum burnt ; Londinium and
Verulamium captured by insurgents. Great slaughter of Romans and their
allies. Victory of Paullinus, and suicide of Boadicea.

68 War with Parthia continued. Death of Burrus. Tigellinus becomes Prefect
of the Praetorians, with a colleague. Divorce and murder of Octauia.
Nero marries Poppaea. DecUh of Persius.

68 Arrangement with Parthia. 'Latinitaa* bestowed on the people of the
Maritime Alps.

Digitized by


i8o— 182] THE FIRST CENTURY A.D. 159

M Burning of Rome (19-18 July) and execution of Christians.

66 Great conspiracy of Piso, for which many suffer death {induding Lucan and
Seneca) and many exile (anwng them Musonius Rufus), Death of Poppaea.

66 Many executions. Paetus Thrasea killed ; also Petronius {author of the * Satirae ').
Heluidius Priscus exiled. Wide-spread insurrection in Judaea, where Vespa-
sian becomes military commander. The temple of Janus closed for the fifth
time. Nero in Greece.

6f Victories of Vespasian and Titus over the Jews. Execution, of Corbulo.


68 Further victories of Vespasian. Rebellion of Vindex, governor of Gallia

Lugdunensis, who is crushed at Vesontio by Verginius Rufus, l^ate of
upper Germany (March). Galba, governor of the *prouincia Tarraconensis*,
becomes a pretender to the throne. Nero, after being declared 'publicus
hostis \ is killed by a servant at his own request. Galba, accompanied by
Otho, reaches Rome (Oct.). His unpopularity.

69 Vitellius, commander in lower Germany, is saluted as emperor by his troops,

and the legions of upper Germany follow suit (Jan.). Adoption of Piso by
Galba (10 Jan.). Galba and Piso killed by Praetorians, who make Otho
emperor (15 Jan.). After some failures the legions of Vitellius defeat the
forces of Otho at Bedriacum (14 Ap.). Suicide of Otho Vitellius recog-
nised as emperor (middle of July). Vespasian proclaimed emperor at
Alexandria by Ti. Alexander, the Prefect (i July). He is accepted by
the soldiers in the East and on the Danube. His troops sack Cremona
(end of Oct.), and capture Rome (11 Dec), whereupon Vespasian is accepted
as emperor. Death of Vitellius (24 Dec). Rebellion of Batavian cohorts
in Germany under Ciuilis.
TO Vespasian reaches Rome in Oct. The 'lex regia Vespasiani*. Titus takes
Jerusalem (Sept.). lulius Classicus and lulius Tutor proclaim the *imperium
Galliarum ' (early in the year) and are joined by the troops and the Batavians
with Ciuilis. Order restored by Cerealis, the legate of lower Germany.
Institution of professorships by Vespasian; one filled by Quint i Han.

71 First consulship of Domitian. Triumph of Vespasian and Titus over Judaea

(June). Titus becomes Prefect of the Praetorians and receives the * tribunicia
potestas '. Temple of Janus closed for the sixth time.

72 Vespasian and Titus elected censors. Exile and enforced suicide of Heluidius

Priscus (about this time).
78 Sardinia with Corsica transferred to the emperor.

74 * Latinitas ' conferred on all districts in Spain not already possessed of the full

*ciuitas\ The last registration of Roman citizens completed.

75 Expulsion of philosophers. Temple of Pax completed, with a forum round it

richly adorned with statues.

76 Birth of Hadrian (24 Jan.). Parthian invasion of Syria.

78 Titus again elected censor. Agricola in Britain. Marriage of Tacitus with
his daughter.


78 Death of Vespasian and accession of Titus (33 June). Destruction of Pompeii
and Herculaneum (Aug.). Death of Pliny the elder.

80 Great fire at Rome. The * Coliseum' (Amphitheatrum Flauianum) and the

* Thermae * of Titus opened.

81 Erection of the arch of Titus. Death of Titus and accession of Domitian

(13 Sept.). Agricola reaches the Clyde and Forth. The 'Dialogus' of
Tacitus composed about this time.

Digitized by



88 * Lex Salpensana * and * Lex Malacitana *. Domitian's campaign in Germany.

Agricola in the extreme N.E. of Britain.
84 Victory of Agricola over Galgacus. He sends his fleet round Britain.
86 Domitian censor for life. Recall of Agricola.
86 The emperor in Moesia to repel the Dacians (under Decebalus). Birth of

Antoninus Pius (19 Sept.). Revolt of Satuminus. Many executions. The

*agon Capitolinus' instituted.

88 Tacitus praetor. ' Ludi saeculares ' celebrated.

89 War with Marcomanni. Peace with Dacians, who receive a subsidy from

Rome. Triumph of Domitian (Nov.). Plutarch in Rome about this time,

90 Edict against philosophers. Retirement of Quintilian. c 90 Death of

Valerius Flaccus^ who had dedicated his * Argonautica * to Vespasian.

92 Domitian's campaign against the Sarmatae and Sueui.

93 Herennius Senecio, Arulenus Rusticus and the younger Heluidius Prisons con-

demned to death. Second edict against philosophers. Dea^h of the finance
minister Claudius Etruscus (servant of ten emperors), and of Agricola.
96 Execution of Clemens, cousin of Domitian, and Glabrio an ex-consul, possibly
for Christianity. 0. 96 Death of Staiius,


96 Murder of Domitian (18 Sept.) and election of Nerua by the Senate (19 Sept.).

The *lex agraria' of Nerua (the last law voted by the comitia).

97 Adoption of Trajan by Nerua. Institution of the * alimenta ',

98 Nerua*s death (25 Jan.). Trajan (absent on the Rhine) succeeds, and passes

the winter on. the Danube. Tacitus consul ; he publishes the * Agricola^ and
writes the * Germania '.

100 The younger Pliny consul. He delivers his * Panegyricus\ Marriage of

Hadrian with Trajan*s niece, lulia Sabina. Death of Herod Agrippa II
(last of the Herods). Extension of * alimenta*.

101 Trajan's first victory over Decebilus. Death of Silius and (about this time) of


102 Capture of Sarmizegethusa, and peace with the Dacians. /Alimenta' estab-

lished at Velleia.
104 New war against Decebalus, ending in 106 with his death and the annexation

of Dacia.
0.106 Tacitus' 'Histories*.
107 Triumph of Trajan.
Ill Pliny, as governor of Bith)mia, corresponds with Trajan about the Christians.

Marriage of Antoninus Pius and Faustina.
118 Trajan begins his campaigns against Parlhia. Completion of the Forum and

Column of Trajan and the 'Basilica Ulpia'. Death of Pliny the younger,
116 Conquest of Mesopotamia. The arch at Beneuentum erected in Trajan's

honour. Jewish agitations begin.

116 Capture of Babylon and Ctesiphon. Jewish risings in several places. The

'Annals* of Tacitus published. o. 116 First Book of Juvenal ^ whose
latest Satires are later than 127.


117 Death of Trajan amid trouble in the East (8 or 9 Aug.). Hadrian, who had

been adopted by Trajan, succeeds and abandons Trajan's Eastern conquests.
He founds the colony of *Aelia Capitolina' at Jerusalem.

118 Conspiracy of old officers of Trajan. Hadrian reaches Rome (7 or 8 Aug.).
C. 119 Death of Tacitus, c. 119—121 Suetonius^ * Lives of the Caesars \

121 Hadrian travels over many of the Western provinces. Birth of M. Aurelius (26 Ap.).

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