Sir William Crookes.

The Chemical news and journal of industrial science; with which ..., Volume 33 online

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ar substances and Portland or other cement, powdered lime, or cla^,
and consists essentially, as means for hardening and rendering said
stone more durable, in wetting or soaking the said blocks, bricks, tiles,
or other forms after pressure or moulding, and after they have been
exposed to the atmosphere for some time, with or m water containing
or holding lime in solution or suspension.

Improvements in the manufacture of gas. R. P. Spice, Parliament
Street, Westminster. December 18, 1874.— No. 4365. This invention
relates to the manufacture of illuminating gas when what is commonly
known as " water gas ** is uved in combination with the vapour of
petroleum or other similar spirit or oil. The apparatus to be em-

Eloyed is not necessarily, but greatly by preference, that for which
.etteri Patent, No. 4178, dated December 19, 1873, were granted to 1
me; and the present improvements consist in causing the gas imme- I
diately after it has left the condenser, or diredt from the retorts, and
while it is hot, to pass through a vessel containing petroleum, whereby
not only the light but the heavier spirits are vapourised and caused to
combine with the water gas. By these means, in coniun^ion with
those descrioed by me in a Provisional Specification, No. 3269, dated
September 24, 1874, the whole of the vapourisable portion of the
orainary petroleum of commerce may be utilised, and the objeA of the

f)re8ent invention attained. The gas after passing through the petro-
eum may be condu<5ted to the condenser if necessary, and subsequently
to the purifying and storing apparatus in the crdioary way.

Improvements in the processes of and apparatus for treating and
purifying the refuse " pickle '* of tin-plate works, also in treating the
sulphuric acid obtained, and tn purifying the *' scour ing-water " used
at such works. W. J. Pughsley, Kidwelly, Carmarthen. December
19, 1874- — N0..4373. This invention relates to certain improvements
in connedtion with the invention for which Letters Patent were
granted to me on the 21st day of June, 1864, No. 1530. In lieu of
bottling the sulphuric acid obtained from the refuse " pickle,"
according to my said invention, diredl from the lead tank for the use
of the picklers.by the present improvements I cause it to run into the
upper compartment or cistern of a filter through a suitable receiving

Eipe, and from which it escapes (through a coarse flannel strainer
aving a perforated copper plate at its top) to and permeates a deep
layer of charcoal in the lower compartment, and then through a layer
of*^ small pebble stones obiamed from fresh water, and lastly escapes
from the filter through a perforated wooden chamber, and a wood tap
fixed therein, into a glass bottle, and it is then ready for re-use by
white or black picklers as previously. The discolouration of river* or
other stream-water adjacent to tin-plate works is caused by the
*' scouring water" used at such works, in a tank containing which the
plates are placed, after having been taken put of the " pickle," until the
acid is removed from them. To prevent this discolouration I construe
a filtering apparatus in the watercourse of the " scouring-water," and
eause the latter to pass first through a layer of limestone, which will
retain any dirt that may have accumulated. The filter I construct of
bricks, and form it of an upper layer of charcoal separated by a per*
forated elm plank from a lower layer of burnt bones. The bonns
absorb the acid, aud prevent any from escaping to the stream. The
white pickle I run into a tank (instead of into the river or stream), in
which I allow it to settle, and subsequently over into a filtering appa-
ratus of the construAion hereafter described, and thence to the black
plate picklera to be re-used, mixed with bebt vitriol. Subsequently I
cause all the black and white pickle to pass through the processes
described in the Specification of my above referred to Letters Patent,
■o as again to obtain the sulphuric acid for re-use. The tank laitly
above referred to may be made of brick, or of any suitable substitute,
such as a palm-oil c&bV, arranged so as to receive the pickle from the
pickUr's pot. The filtering apparatus I construct of wood, with a
nltering medium of charcoal only. I also provide it with a wood tap,
by which the filtered acid can be withdrawn for the black picklers.

New or improved apparatus which may be used for condensing
vapours or gases, for heating liquids, for purifying and bUaching oils
and gases, and fvr other analogous turpoies. R. Speir, Greenock,
Renfrew, N.B., and J. Mather, Gateshead-on-Tyne, Durham.
December 2t, 1874 —No. 4386. The feature of novelty which consti-
tutes this invention is the arrangement and construAion of the
apparatus.

Improvements in the manufacture of hydrogen gas, and in the
utilisatton of the by- or secondary products obtained in such manufacture.
J. H. lohnson, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Middlesex. (A communication
from J. O. E. More«u, Paris.) December 21, 1874.— No. 4387. This
invention relates to the application in the manufadlure of hydrogen

gas suitable for illuminating and heating purposes of a material not
itherto used in such manutadtore, whereby a considerable saving is
effeAed in the cost ol production, and (in the case of lighting-gas)
greater illuminating power is obtained ; and it consists in the employ*
ment of the slime or ooze composed of the detritus of floating plants,
aquatic vegetables, and the like, which settle on the bed or bottom of
rivers, lakes, and similar watercourses or sheets of water, and there
collect, forming strata or layers, which in a short time become decom-
posed. The invention also relates to the utilisation of the by- or
secondary produCta in the mannfaaure of coke, artificial fuel, manure,
and diaixue^anta.



NOTES AND QUERIES.

*^* Our Notes and Queries column was opened for the purpose of
giving and obtaining information likely to be of use to our readers



generally. We cannot undertake to let this column be the
means of transmitting merely private information, or such trade
notices as should legitimately come in the advertising columns.

Dry Rot. — Can any of your correspondents inform me if there is
any preparation that can be applied to timber in a house to prevent
the soread of dry rot, and what is the best method to pursue ?— Dry
Rot.

Black-Ash Making.^Will some correspondent be kind enough-
to inform me what weights of salt cake, limestone, and slack are found
in practice the best? what is the a^ual loss of salt cake in black-ash
marking ? and what, if any, is the loss of alkali usually found in lixivi-
ating? What percentage of sodium oxide should be found in an
average ball made 'from whatever is considered to be an average
charge ?— ENQUiRb^



MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK.



Saturday, Feb. X2th.— Physical, 3. . (Annual General Meeting.

Election of Officers, 8tc.)
Monday, 14th.— Medical, 8. '

London Institution, 5.

Rojral Geographical, 8^30.

Society of Arts, 8. Cantor LeCtures.



Steel Manufacture,"
F.C.S.



*' Iron and
by W. Mattieu Williams.



Tuesday, 15th.— Civil Engineers, 8.

- Zoological, 8.30.

Royal Institution, 3. " On the Classification of the

Vertebrated Animals,*' b^ Prof. Garrod.

Society of Arts, 8. (African Section). " Ostrich

Farming and the Ostrich Feather Trade of South
Africa," by P. L. Simmonds, F.S.S.
Wednesday, x6th. — Society of Arts, 8. " The Combustion of Gaa,

and its Application to Heating Purposes," by

John Wallace.

Meteorological, 7. " An Improvement in Ane-

roid Barometers," by the Hon. Ralph Aber-
cromby, F.M.S. " Meteorology in India in
relation to Cholera," by Colonel J. Packle,
M.^.C.

Society of Public Analysts, 6.30.

Thursday, 17th.— Royal, 8.30.

Roval Institution, 3. "On the Cfiemistr> of the

Non-Metallic Elements," by Prof. Gladstone.

Chemical, 8. *' On some Points in the Analysis ot

Potable Waters," by Dr. Frankland.

Royal Society Club, 6.30.

Zoological, i.

London Institution, 7.

Friday, x8th.— Royal Institution, 9. '* ACtion of Light on Selenium/*
bj; C. W. Siemens.

Society of Arts, 8. Indian SeCtion." Suez Cannl." by

C. Magniac.

Geological, i. (Anniversary).

Saturday, 19th.— Roval Institution, 3. " On the Vegetable Kioe-
dom," by W. Thiselton Dyer.

ROYAL SCHOOL OF MINES.
Prof. RAMSAY, LL.D., F.R.S., will "com-

^ mence a Course of Forty LeAures on GEOLOGY, on Monday
next, February 14, at Two o'clock, to be continued on each succeeding
Tuesday. Wednesday, Thursday, and Monday at the same hour. Fee
for the Course £4.

Mr. WARING TON W. SMYTH, F.R.S., will commence a Coarse
of Forty Lectures on MINERALOGY on Monday next, February 14,
at Noon, to be continued on each succeeding Tuesday, Thars<l«y.
Friday, and Monday at the same hour. Fee far the Course £4.

TRENHAM REEKS, Registrar.



Silicates of Soda and Potash in the state of
Soluble glass, or in CONCENTRATED SOLUTION ot first
quality, suited for the manufacture of Soap and other parposes,
supplied on best terms by W GOSSAGB and Sons, Sonp
Works Widnes, Lancashire.

London Agents, CLARKE and COSTE, 19 and 20, Water Lane
Tower Stifeet, E.C., who hold stock ready for delivery.

P W. HART, Manufa(5turer and Dealer in

^ • Apparatus and Chemicals for Scientific Pursoits. Labor**
tonr Fitter and Fumtsber. Photographic Appaintns nnd Matcrinln

, 8, KXNQtLAHD GRXIN (WbST SU>B), LONDON.



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Feb. i8, X876. J



New Sulphuretted Hydrogen Generator;



67



THE CHEMICAL NEWS.

Vol. XXXII. No. 847.



NEW . SULPHURETTED HYDROGEN

GENERATOR.

By P. CASAMAJOR.

The gas generator, which it is my purpose to describe
here, has been in use for several months. It possesses
two important charaderistics, which, as far as I am
aware, are not found combined in any apparatus suitable
for producing large quantities of gas. These charac-
teristics are : —

1. That it gives sulphuretted hydrogen immediately

whenever it is wanted.

2. That it does not give it when it is fiot wanted, except

for a few minutes after being used.
Kipp's apparatus,, which is the one most generally used
for the produdion of sulphuretted hydrogen, fulfils the
condition of being ready to give off the gas at any time,



This plan is troublesome and 'inconvenient. If parti-
cular care is not taken to wash the sulphuret of iron with
water and weak carbonate of soda, and drying it well
before putting it away, it will be found oxidised and use-
less when wanted.

Besides thest two generators, which are in general use,
others have been proposed, of which I can say that those
which have come under my notice have either failed in
the important requisite of ceasing to give sulphuretted
hydrogen when it is not wanted, or are ill adapted to the
production of gas in any considerable quantity.

The new apparatus for generating sulphuretted hydrogen
is represented in the woodcut accompanying this article.
The bottle marked A is provided with two tubulures,
through one of which passes a glass tube, ending at its
lowest part in an enlarged portion F, which must, how-
ever, be narrow enough to pass through one of the tubu-
lures of the bottle A. This tube must pass through a
rubber cork capable of closing the tubulure a perfedlly.

Before introducing the tube through the tubulure a, the
enlarged portion is filled with some coarse fibrous material,
such as coarse tow. After the tubulure a shall have been
perfectly closed by the rubber cork, a quantity of shot
(about No. 3) is poured into the other tubulure so that it
will rise in the bottle to a height of two or three inches.
After levelling the shot, pieces of sulphuret of iron are



but it has the drawback of being an almost constant I
generator of gas, which defedt is inherent to its construc-
tion. One cause of this is that the sulphuret of iron is |
placed on a wire gauze diredily over the dilute sulphuric
acid in the lowest globe, and that it keeps falling through
and around the wire gauze, causing a constant produdion
of gas, which must eventually escape either through the
glass stopcock, or through the gafety tube on top of the
highest globe.

Another cause of the constant produdion of gas is that,
when the stopcock is closed, the dilute sulphuric acid is
driven back to a height of about 15 inches. This main-
tains a pressure in* the apparatus which forces the ^as out
at some part of the ground joints. After a certam por-
tion of the gas has escaped, the dilute sulphuric acid rises
in the lowest globe so that it reaches the sulphuret of
iron on the sieve, and a fresh supply of gas is produced,
driving the liquid to the upper globe as before, and re-
establishing the pressure in the apparatus.

The use of Kipp's apparatus having been found incon-
venient, I adopted for several years the- plan of putting up
an apparatus when one was wanted, emptying it out
again when not required for use. This generator was
merely a bottle with two tubes, one for the egress of the
gat, and the other for the introdudion of dilute sulphuric
acid, which Utter served also as a safety tube.



introduced in the bottle, where they will lie on top of the
shot.

The presence of shot in contad with the lower part of
the tube before mentioned accounts for the necessity of
providing this tube with an enlarged portion F, as by this
means sufficient space is left for the passage of liquid
between the grains of shot, which otherwise would close
almost entirely the lower end of the tube. The objedt of
stuffing the enlargement F with tow is to prevent the shot
from rising up to the narrow portion of the tube.

After the shot and sulphuret of iron have been intro-
duced, the other tubulure b is closed lightly with a rubber
cork provided with a tube to lead the gas generated to a
wash bottle. The two portions forming the outlet tube
are united by a rubber tube, which may be entirely closed
by means of the screw pinchcock D.

The bottle B is provided with a wide mouth, bearing a
rubber cork with two tubes, one pf which extends down
to the bottom of B and communicates by means of a
flexible rubber tube to the glass tube which enters into
the bottle A through tlie tubulure a. The other glass
tube of bottle *B terminates in a flexible rubber tube which
may be tightly closed by means of the pinchcock C.
The bottle B is filled to about two-thirds of its height
with dilute sulphuric acid, which is allowed to go to the
bottle A whenever the' gas is to be generated, and which



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68



Nature and Origin of Meteorites.



I Chemical Niwt
I Feb. 18, x8;<».



returns to the bottle B when the apparatus is not in
use.

To generate sulphuretted hydrogen with this apparatus,
we may observe that if the tubes by which the bottle A
communicates to the bottle B are full of liquid, it will
merely be necessary to open the screw pinchcock D,
which will remove the pressure from the bottle A and
allow the dilute sulphuric acid in bottle B to flow into
bottle A. If these tubes of communication, including the
flexible tube, are not full of liquid, the screw pinch D
should be kept open, and air be driven into the bottle B
from the mouth through the tube E by opening the pinch-
cock C. The pressure exerted in this way on the surface
of the bottle B drives the liquid it contains into the tubes
of communication, and, after the blowing of air through
the tube £ has ceased, the liquid continues to flow into A
until it reaches the Qulphuret of iron, when sulphuretted
hydrogen is given off.

On account of the offensive nature of the gas, care
should be taken not to draw air from the bottle B into the
mouth. This is easily avoided by filling the mouth and
lungs with air before blowing into the bottle B. If care is
not taken to open the screw pinchcock D before blowing,
the gas in the bottle will not be driven forward, but will
be mixed with the air from the lungs, and partly find its
way into the mouth of the operator. This screw pinch-
cock D is specially useful in regulating the outlet of
sulphuretted hydrogen, and consequently its prqdud ion.

When no more gas is wanted the screw pinchcock
should be closed entirely, after which a certain pressure
is produced in the apparatus from the gas which continues
to be formed. After a minute or .two the pinchcock C
should be opened to remove the pressure from B, and
allow, not only the liquid in A to flow back into B, but
also a certain quantity of gas, by which means the liquid
connexion between the two bottles is interrupted, and
remains so while the apparatus is not in use.



Bi



47Z, Lafftyette Avenue,
iroMclyo, December 20, 1875.



ON THE USE OF THE SPRENGEL VACUUM

PUMP FOR FILLING BAROMETER AND
THERMOMETER TUBES WITH MERCURY.

By ERNEST FRANCIS,
Government Laboratory, Trinidad, B.W.I.

Tub difficulty of filline tubes with mercury so that air
may be excluded is well known, and instruments in which
this condition is attained are highly prized. The ordinary
process of filling barometers by boiling is tedious and
unsatisfactory, more especially to those unused to the
operation.

It has been found that the improved form of the
Sprengel pump afifords an admirable means of accom-
plishing the operation, and adds another to the numerous
good qualities for which the instrument is famed. The
process is easy and would enable barometers to be filled
m the laboratory with perfe^ accuracy. It has the
additional advantage of being applicable to tubes of any
calibre.

The operation is performed by conneding and exhaust-
ing the barometer tube ; the outflow orifice of the pump
being then stopped, mercury passes in and fills the
exhausted tube.

Further details may be gathered from the accompanying
diagram, but the arrangement would vary slightly with
the shape of the tube to be filled. The diagram shows a
Bunsen^s syphon barometer, conneded to the pump at A
by vulcanised tubing, with the joint surrounded by a tube
filled with mercury. After exhaustion the end of the
pump C is closed cither with the finger or by a specially
furnished clamp or ttopcock. The mercury which is kept
flowing from the reservoir then ascends and completely
lills the barometer. The mercury falls over the bend to



the point B, but without sufficient force to break the tube.
The inflow of mercury is regulated by the clamp D.
When full the barometer can be safely disconneded with
a little care, and the excess of mercury poured out. For
filling straight tubes the part A can be bent and conneded
to the barometer inclined downwards. It is almost
needless to add that the barometer during the filling must
be supported by a clip or otherwise.



^



^



li



be



A barometer filled in this manner answered every test
most satisfadorily. The tube became completely filled
with clear bright mercury, no trace of air being visible at
any part. Tested by repeated gentle tiltings U gave no
dull sound, and finally the vacuous part being surrounded
. by hot water, produced no alteration in the height of the
I mercurial column.

In conclusion I would suggest that the same process
might prove satisfadory for filling ihermomettr and other
tubes with mercury.
December 30, 187s.



ON THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF
METEORITES.
By DR. MOHR.

Of this long and valuable memoir we can only insert a
few portions: —

If we compare all the fads it appears as the final result
that the meteoric silicates and iron masses have been
formed simultaneously in the moist way, and the iron by
redudtion effeded by organic bodies. The reasons for
this view are as follows : —

X. The silicates contain small quantities of water.

2. The silicates decrease in specific gravity by strong
heating and fusion.

3. Different silicates are crystallised together ; some
parts being soluble in hydrochloric acid, and other parts
are not, as in basalts and phonolites.

4. The olivio, containing protoxide of iron, is green, and
not black.

5. The igneous crust is black in contradistinaion to the
interior of the meteorite.



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Development of the Chemical Arts.



69



6. Certain meteorites contain organic bodies, analogous
to terrestrial hydrocarbons.

7. Meteoric iron contains no chemically combined
carbon, even when graphite is present.

8. The sulphide of iron is contained in single particles
distind from the iron, and not diffused through the whole
mass.

9. Schrcibersite, composed of phosphorus, iron, and
nickel, is likewise found in distindl particles.

10. Brittle meteoric iron becomes soft by ignition if no
sulphide of iron is present.

11. Malleable meteoric iron, containing sulphide of
iron, becomes hot-short on fusion.

12. Meteoric iron, if heated to whiteness in a vacuum,
evolves hydrogen.

13. The *' Figures of Widmannstatt " give proof of an
undisturbed crystallisation.

14. No silicium is present which agrees with theory,
since silica cannot be reduced by organic bodies.

The author here solicits possessors of meteorites to
forward him small fragments, &c., of no value as
specimens, for the purpose of extending his observations.
He next proceeds to the question of the origin of meteor-
ites.

The view formerly maintained that they were projeftiles
from the moon, in which it was supposed that volcanoes
were recognised, is quite untenable. It is fatal to this
theory that the meteorites coincide with the periodically
recurring swarm of shooting stars, which have a planetary
orbit in space, and also, that, as appears from the above,
they display no igneous strudure, and cannot, conse-
quently, have sprung from a volcano. That such things
can have been formed in the air is a notion* built of air.

The constituents of meteors, such as olivin, augite,
anorthite, and their organic matter prove that these bodies
must have been formed upon a planet, warmed by the
sun, or by a sun in absolute rest, and in the lapse of an
enormous length of time, like the terrestrial silicates.
Under what circumstances this planet has been shivered
in fragments does not appear. It must have had a large
collection of waters, a sea, which has likewise been dis-
persed, and which now is to be found in meteoric swarms,
and in comets, as already shown.

The author maintains with Galle and Forster (see
Pogg, Annalen, 148, 172) that the shooting stars of
November 27, 1872, consisted of particles of Biela's
comet, whose orbital plane was intersedted by the earth
at that precise time, and whose direction agreed within a
degree with that of the meteors.

It is striking that such cosmic bodies as we can take in
hand and examine, namely the earth and meteorites, show
not the smallest trace of an igneous formation if we
regard volcanoes, and the fiery crust of meteorites as sub-
sequent modifications, and hot as original features.

The peculiarity of meteorites as compared with our
globe, consists in the circumstance that we find in the
former more produds of redudlion, and except the earths,
no perfe<a oxides. Thus in meteorites we find no ferric
oxide, but metallic iron, sulphide of iron, and phosphide
of nickel-iron. Upon our globe phosphorus occurs only
as phosphoric acid. |lence the hypothetical planet
where the meteorites originated must have been smaller
than our globe, and have had a less dense atmosphere
containing less free oxygen. The sp. gr. of most meteor-
ites, 3*275, agrees with the calculated density of the
planetoids between Mars and Jupiter.

Dr. Mohr does not accept the view of J. R. Meyer that
the beat of the sun is maintained by the infall of meteor-
ites. He considers that in an infinite universe, filled
with radiating suns, our sun can lose nothing which it does
not receive back every moment from its fellows, since the
void space of the universe has been for infinite ages filled
with that sum-total of rays which it is capable of
receiving. — LisbigU Anna len der Chetnit,

* ** Aut der Luft geeriffen,"— a common Oerman phrato for any
view lacking a tabttaBnal basis.



REPORT

ON THE

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHEMICAL ARTS

DURING THE LAST. TEN YEARS.*

By Dr. A. W. HOFMANN.

(Continued from p. 58.)

For the generation of cold by evaporation liquids are
most suitable which require a technical preparation and
possess a considerable value. In the manufadure of ice
on the large scale it is therefore needful to restore the
escaping vapours to their original condition, 1.^., liquids
capable of re-evaporation so that a given quantity of
material may serve again and again, circulating- con-



Online LibrarySir William CrookesThe Chemical news and journal of industrial science; with which ..., Volume 33 → online text (page 17 of 82)