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rhombobedra. With hydrogen the metal forms a crystal-
line hydride, CaHa. Calcium is not attacked by chlorine
in the cold, but at 400° the chloride is formed. It burns
in oxygen at 300^ with a brilliant light, and at a dull red
heat, in a current of air, both the elements of the atmo-
•pbere are fixed. Water attacks calcium at ordinary
temperatures! slaked lime being formed.

The Atomic Weight of Tellurium in relation to
the Multiple Proportions of the Atomic Weightt of
other Simple Bodies.-— H. Wilde.

Potitiont of Tellurium and Iodine in the Periodic
System of the Elements. — H. Wilde. « These two
papers are unsuitable for abstraAion.

Caleium Amalgam. — T. Fer6e.-— The amalgam is
very difficult to prepare and almost impossible to keep,
owing to its rapid oxidation. The author has prepared
small quantities of it by the eledrolysis of the chloride,
using a mercurial eledrode or a porous diaphragm, sepa.
rating the two eledrodes, to prevent the aAion of the
chlorine on the amalgam produced. To avoid rise of
temperature lin the vessel, cold water is kept circulating
round it. The solid amalgam produced by this method is
porous and whitish green in colour. It oxidises rapidly
in the air and decomposes water. It appears to correspond
to the formula Ca3Hg4. Heated in a current of hydrogen
to a high temperature, it loses more mercury. When
heated in a current of nitrogen the nitride is produced.

Adtion of Metallic Sulphates on Paratungstate of
Potassium. — L. A. Hallopeau.— The author studies the
double tungstates formed when solutions of metallic
tungstates ad on potassium paratungstate. He has ob-
tained, by a careful preparation, (i) the paratungstate of
potassium and magnesium, —

iaW.03.5UKaO + 4MgO)+24HaO,
a crystalline body, which ads energetically on polarised
light. It loses 17 molecules of water at loo^ (a) the
paratungstate of potassium and manganese, —

xaWO3.3KaO.aMnO + i6HaO,
a yellowish-white solid, quite insoluble in water, also
eAing on polarised light.

Decomposition of a Normal Saturated Hydro-
cerhon by means of Aluminium Chloride.— C. Friedel
end A. Gorgen. — One of the authors, in collaboration
with J. M. Crafts, has notified, almost from the beginning
of their researches on the syntheses effeaed by means of
aluminium chloride, the decomposing adion exercised by
this reagent on certain hydrocarbons— #.^., the decom-
position (i) of hexamethyl-bensene into durene and other
hydrocarbons ; (a) of naphthalene into bensene, dinaph-
tbyl, and hydrides of naphthalene ; (3) of bensene (at a
high temperature) into diphenyl, toluene, and other
hydrocarbons. The present paper discusses the treat-
ment of normal hexane with aluminium chloride. The
hexane employed was prepared by decomposing propyl
iodide with sodium, and also by treating mannite with
hydriodic acid, and subsequently submitting the iodide
thus obtained to the aAion of zinc dust. It was intro-
duced in successive stages into the tube containing the
alnminium chloride, first passing through a little tube
containing bromine, to remove any trace of hexene. The
mixture was warmed, and the produAs passed through a
condenser into two U-tubes surrounded with ice, the first
containing a little water to retain the hydrochloric acid
evolved ; the apparatus terminated in a vessel of mercury
to collea gaseous prod u As. Finally, a mobile liquid was
ohuined from the U-ii>l>«"> *nd fraAionally distilled. It
consisted of unchanged hexane, of pentane, and other
more volatile hydrocarbons. The gas coUeaed over
mercury consisted chiefly of butane. Thus the aAion of
AlCi3 on hexane consists essentially in removing a CHj
groopp which is replaced by a hydrogen atom and yields


pentane. The latter, in its turn, may be similarly con-
verted into butane, which, on account of its volatility,
would be but little transformed into propane. At the
same time hydrocarbons, richer in carbon than hexane,
are found by extraAing the aluminium chloride with water.
Amines and Amides derived from Aldehyde. —
Marcel Del^pine. — In a series of previous papers the
author has discussed, from a thermochemical point of
view, a certain number of combinations engendered by
the action of aldehydes on ammonia or certain amines.
The general type of reaAion is as follows : —

n aldehyd + "•{^rrmin^} ""'^ body +^H,0.

The author now classifies the data obtained, with a view
to generalising, as far as is possible, from the substances

jfoumal de Pharmacit it d4 Chimii, vol. vii.. No. la.

The Value of Tindture of Quiacum as a Test for
Oxidising Agents. — Pierre Breteau. — Guiacum resin,
which becomes blue on contaA with certain oxidising
agents, is specially recommended as a sensitive test for
blood, sulphate of copper, hydrocyanic acid, phosphorus,
&c., either by direA aAion or through the medium of
essence of turpentine. The author has found that this
blue colour will appear under circumstances not yet pub.
lished, and hence errors may easily be made; the
phenomenon of turning blue depends on conditions little
understood, so that, by even slightly varying these con-
ditions, the reagent can no longer be trusted, — for
instance, according to Schoenbein, if equal volumes of
tinAure of guiacum and aerated turpentine mixed, are
shaken up with water, the white precipitate takes an in-
tense blue colour ; but according to the author, if this is
only slightly modified, and the aerated turpeniine is added
to a mixture of water and tinAure of guiacum, the blue
colour does not appear at all, even after prolonged agita-
tion and increase of temperature. Another experiment of
Schosnbein's was repeated with blood, using also pure
distilled water and absolute alcohol, but no phenomenon
occurred ; but on the addition of a single drop of essence
of turpentine the deep blue colour appeared immediately.
It is also shown that traces of copper, which may possibly
be present in distilled water, will cause the blue colour to
appear without the intervention of essence of turpentine.
And again, ordinary ether, alcohol, and benzene have
sometimes been found to turn tinAure of guiacum blue
in the presence of essence of turpentine, while on other
occasions, under apparently the same conditions, no
colouration has been noticed,— doubtless the presence of
copper or other impurities has been the cause of the
colouration. Other experiments are described, using
paper saturated with tinAure of guiacum for the deteAion
of phosphorus and hydrocyanic acid, in which it is shown
that the apparent results may be quite misleading, if even
only a trace of copper is present.

A Method of Estimating Nitrites in Waters.—
Lucien Robin. — Already inserted in full.

Vol. viii.. No. I.

This number contains no matter of chemical interest.
No. a.

The Hydrolysis of the PeAine of Qentian.^E.
Bourquelot and H. H6rissey. — The experiments to which
the authors have submitted the peAine of gentian have
led to the produAion of mucic acid by the aAion of nitric
acid, and the produAion of arabinose, by hydrolysis with
the aid of dilute sulphuric acid. The treatment by
nitric acid was applied to the peAine obtained by
aqueous digestion at zio% using la c.c. of nitric acid to
I grm. of dried peAine : after heating on the water-bath
until the volume is reduced to one-third, it is left to stand
(or twelve hours, to allow the crystals which form towards

Digitized by



Meetings for the Week.


Jan. 0, i8|99

the end of the operation to colled : these are thrown on
a double filter and washed with water, and dried first at
30*, then at loo**. The muctc acid formed melts at 2x5°.
The hydrolysis of the pedine by dilute sulphuric acid is
eflfeAed by keeping 10 grms. of peAine, 500 grms. of
water, and 15 grms. of sulphuric acid at no** for an honr
and a half. It is allowed to cool, and filtered ; it is then
boiled for an hour in a flask fitted with a vertical con-
denser, neutralised while hot with precipitated .chalk,
filtered, and evaporated at 60° down to a syrupy con-
sistency. It is then precipitated with alcohol, and the
alcoholic liquid tvaporated down to the condition of an
extra A, but no trace of any crystals appeared even after
twelve days ; ether was therefore added to the alcoholic
solution, and from the ethereal solution crystals of
arabinose were obtained after partial evaporation.

A General Method for the Preparation of the Mixed
Carbonic Ethers of the Patty and Aromatic Series.
— P. Cszeneuve and A. Morel.— Will be inserted in full.


*t* Oar NotM and Queries colomn was opened for the porpoee of
giving and obtaining information lilcely to be of oae to oox readers
generally. We cannot undertake to let tbie column be the means
of transmitting merely private information, or eucb trade notices
as sbould legitimately come in the advertisement columns.

Estimation of Zinc and Lead.—Wili any of your readers kindly
give me any information on the estimation of (i) xinc from 2 to^ per
cent, and (2) lead from | to 5 per cent, in slags and mattes containing
large quantities of iron and lime ? The methods sbould be rapid and
fairly accurate.— Cox.


WsDNBSDAT, xilb.— Society of ArU. 7. (Juvenile Leaure). ** Some
Ways in which Animals Breathe," by Prof. P.
Jeffrey Bell.

Instruction in


Aooording to Hansen's Methoda

Courses for Beginners, as well as for Advanced Students, in Physi-
ology and Technology of Fermentations. Biological Analysis of
Yeast The Laboratory possesses a numerous colleAion of yeasts
(brewers', distillers', wine, disease yeasts), moulds, and badleria.

Manuafi : B. Chr. Hansen, ** PraAical Studies In Fermentation,"
London (Spon). XB96). Alfred Jdrgensen, ** Micro- Organisms and
Fermentation," London (F. W. Lyon). 1893.

The Laboratory supplies for dire^ use: Cultures of yeast for
breweries, distilleries, wine manufaAories, Ac.

Further particulars on application to the DireAor—

ALFRED JOROBNSBN, The Laboratory, Copenhagen. V.


In any form PuacMAssD for Cash.

Highest prices allowed by

ROBBRT PRINGLB ft CO., Gold and Silvei

Refiners, Ac., 40 and 4a, Clerkenwell Rd., B.C.

Send for Price List.
Photographic Residues reduced and purchased


In thb sTATa of SoLuaLa Olam or in goncbntratso solution.


SnppiUd on 6esl Urmt bf
WILLIAM G088AGB A SONS, Ltd., Soap Worka, Widoea

If incing Lroo, LoodoR B.C., who bold etock raady for delivery.

nr^his issue of the Chemical News contains r

"^ Supplement devoted to->



08, Rby and K.

which, it is hoped, will import a tolerably satisfadlory idea of the

Slan of the work, and the opinions of Eminent Scientists and the
'hemical Press concerning it.

In the small fragment given ae a specimen of iu pages (one-half of
one pase, and that made ap of seleAiona from othen), examples of
many divisions of the " Atlas," and nnmeroas footnotes containinR
rt/ertnees to original sourcss, are necessarily omitted on accoant of
difteient spacs.

Tabulated Qnantiutive Analysis, occupying 18 or ao pages in
columnar form, with catch-line headings, could not, therefore, bt

In that great division, hundreds of methods receive extended con-
eideration ; it is arranged in three sub>sedlions :—

X. Determination of the Element.— Here we find methods (in the
case of K) for eetimating the meul ae KCIO,, Kcl, KaPtCI,, K«COa,
K,SiF„ KNO., K,SO«, Biemutb-thioeulpbate, KHT, indireaiy,
epeAroscopicaily, and volumetrically, ftc.

a. Analvais of Natural or Technical ProduAs.— Schemes for ana-
lysing KBr, KQOa, KCl, KCN.Ferro-, Ferri., and Solpbo-cyanidee,
KHO, the Carbonatee, and Tartrates ; commercial Sulphates, Muri-
ates, ftc. ; Fertilisers, Plant Ashes, ftc. ; for the breaking-op of Sili-
cates (two doxen methods) t and for the Toxicologlcal DeteAton of

, 3* Separation from Other Elements.— In all casee the arrangement
IS as follows:— (a). Name of form of combination in which the meul
IS isolated. (6). Variatione of the method, (c). Brief abstraa of
plan of procedure, {d). Detailed instroaions. {§). Name of author
of method and the reference. (/). Comments of chemists on the
method, and original experiments.

Toxicology, Metallurgy, and Mannfaanre also find no place in the
epecimen; they extend over many pagea, presenting features the
reader will in vain seek for elsewhere.

On application to the author, a two>page seleaion of excerpts from
the work, containing the explanatory introduaion, and accompanied
by descriptive circulars, will be forwarded free.





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The University Court of St. Andrews will, at
a meeting to be beld on January 24. 1809, appoint, for a period
of two years as from January i, 1899. ao ADDITIONAL BXAMINBR
for Graduation in tbe subjedt of Cbemislry.

Further information may be obtained from Mr. C. S. Grace, W.S.,
Secretary of the University Court, with whom applications, with
testimonials, may be lodged until i4tb prox.
St. AodrewS| December, 1898.

Digitized by



Spectrum of a Radio-active Substance. 13



Vol. LXXIX.. No. 2049.





M. A, Lbduc, in a recent paper (" Recherches ror lee
Gm," Ann. Chim. Phyt., September, 1898), has diacuBicd
the relation between the density of argon, its proportion in
atmoapberic nitrogen, the density of the latter, and that
of pnre nttiogen. It appears to me that he has misunder-
stood some of the data given by Lord Rayleigh, Dr. Kellas,
and myself; and as the question whether the found density
of argon corresponds with that calculable from the other
data, is in itself an interesting one, I have the honour to
present this note to the Society,

The data may be divided into two groups, those of
Lcdnc and Schloesing; and those of Rayleigh, Ramsay,
and Kellas. „ . , , .

Prom the first group it is possible to calculate the
density of argon, i.#., the crude mixture left after
separating oxygen and nitrogen from air.

From the second group the density of argon may be
calculated ; or if that be assumed, both groups give data
for the calculation of that of " atmospheric " nitrogen. It
baa been thought better to express the results in the form
of the weight of one litre of the gas in question ; but if it
is desired to state them with reference to the density of
oxygen* 16, the conversion may be made by means of the
weight of a litre of oxygen according to both Lord
Rayleigh and M. Lednc.

The data are as follows :—
WeichtofiUtreof LmIoc. Rsyleigb. ScbloMhic. KtUst. RsmMy.

Air 1-29316 1*29327

Oxygen .. •• 1*42920 1*42952
Nitrogen .. 125070 1*25092

., (atmo.) 1-25700 X-257I8 ^ .,.

Argon .... — 17815X — — «7"o

„ in "atmo."

nitrogen.- — — 0*0x183 o*oii86

Weight of X litre argon calcalated from Leduc's and
Schloesing's figures :—

ooxi83Jr-x*257O0-(i*25070 x 0*988x7); hence jf-x*7828.
The difference from the value found is 7 in 10,000.

Weight of X litre argon calculated from Rayleigh*s and
Kellaa's figures :—

o*oix86x-i X-257I8- (x*25092 X 0*988x4) ; hence jf- x*779X.
The difference from the value found is X3 in xo,ooo.

Both of these results are quite satisfadory, considering
that the nature of the calculation involves a ratio of small
differences. The argeement is more striking il the density
of ••atmospheric" nitrogen is calculated from the figures;
for this calculation the weight of x litre of argon is
assumed to be X 78x5 grms. . . .. ,

Weight of X litre of "atmospheric*' nitrogen from
Lednc's and SchIoesing*8 figures :~

jg » (X7815 X 0*01x83) + (1*25070 X 0*988x7) ; whence
Here the difference is only 2 in x25,ooo.

From Lord Rsyleigh's and Dr. Kellas's figures, we

X • (1*7815 X o'oxi86) + (x*25092 X 0-988x4); whence


The difference here is only 3 in x25,ooo.

It is thus evident that either set of figures gives results
as concordant as could be wished ; and that the density
of "atmospheric" nitrogen is corredly given as the mean
of the densities of the constituents, taken in the proportion
in which they occur.

• A Paper read bslofeths Rojsl Society, Decsmbsr ij, 1I98.



M. AND Mdicb* Cvrib have asked me to examine, spedro-
scopically, a substance consisting chiefly of barium
chloride, bnt supposed by them to contain also a new
element. The material was dissolved in distilled water,
slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid. The spark
speArum of this solution was very brilliant. I photo-
graphed the speArum, having prepared two plates, and
giving one double the time of exposure of the other. These
two plates gave pradically identical results. I measured
the lines, and was able to see :~(x) Barium, with great
intensity of both the strong and weak lines ; (2) lead,
recognised bv its principal lines, which were much more
feeble than the others; (3) platinum, due to the eledrodes
and traces of calcium probably from the solvent ; (4) a
line, stronger than the weak lines of barium, with wave
length 38x4*8 (Rowland's scale). This line does net
appear to have been attributed to any known element,
and is probably due to a new substance, for two reasons.
Firstly, that on the plate were no lines, other than these
enumerated, except a few feeble air lines, thus excluding
the presence of all elements having only weak lines in the
neighbourhood of 38x4. Secondly, the methods employed
for the parification of the substance prevent the possibility
of the presence of iron, chromium, cobalt, or nickel, &c.
Barium and lead, I am fully assured, give no line coin-
ciding with this.

This line has been measured bv means of the two
platinum lines, 3818*9 and 38ox*5, which enclose it. It is
near to and distind from a bismuth line of moderate

Conclusion, — ^The presence of the line 38x4*8 confirms
the existence of a small quantity of a new element in M.
and Mdme. Curie's barium chloride,~Coiff/f#s Rindus^
cxxvii.. No. 26.



By A. J0LLB8 and F. NBURATH.

As is well known, the silica contained in water in the form
of hydrated silicic acid, or of an alkaline silicate, is esti*
mated by being transformed into insoluble silica. Although,
as a rule, we take no account of the presence of silica in
potable water, or in water used for boilers, a simple and
rapid method for estimating silica in water might be of
service, if only for determining to what point different
sorts of glass are attacked by water.

This method enables us to rapidly estimate tmall
quantities of silica, and may be effeAed on very small

Suantities of liquid. We know that the alkaline molyb-
ates give with silica in the presence of free nitric acid
complex vellow compounds, similar to those which they
form with phosphoric and arsenic acids. Among the
alkaline silico-molybdates, the silico-molybdate of potas-
sium is the most soluble, and in aqueous solution has a
pronounced yellow colour, the intensity of which increases
with the temperature, attaining its maximum towards 70*
or 8o^ This coloured reaAion can be utilised for the
approximate estiipation of silica in water,

Digitized by



Analysis of Molybdenum Compounds.


\ an. 13, 1899*

For this purpose we use a solution of molybdate of
potassium, prepared by dissolving 8 K^ms. of this salt in
50 cubic cm. of water, and adding 50 cubic cm. of pure
nitric acid of z*a density. We pour ao cubic cm. of the
water to be examined into a narrow test-tube— the water
should stand about 18 cm. high; we add i cubic cm. of
the molybdic solution, and notice the colour obtained. As
a colori metric scale we use a series of test-tubes as near
as possible of the same form and dimensions as the first,
each containing 20 cubic cm. of pure distilled water, to
which has been added a known quantity of silicate of soda
and z cubic cm. of the molybdic solution. All these
test-tubes are heated together to 8o^ We then compare
the colour produced by the water under examination with
the colorimetric scale, and thus determine approximately
the proportion of silica in the water.

The possible presence of phosphoric or arsenic acid in
the water might have some influence on the colouration
obtained, and consequently on the result of the analysis.
But, generally speaking, the quantity of phosphoric acid
present in a natural water is so slight that it can only be
deteaed after concentrating the liquid. As to arsenic
acid it is.pradically never found in natural waters.

However, we might evaporate the sample down with
nitric acid several times, separate the silica by filtration,
add water to the filtrate, so as to make it up to its original
volume, and repeat the colorimetric test on 20 cubic cm.
of this solution. If no yellow colouration is obtained, the
absence of both phosphoric and arsenic acids may be con-
sidered proved. In the contrary case it must be taken
account of in the final calculation.

To verify the exadness of this method we estimated the
silica in a number of samples, both by the colorimetric
method and by the usual gravimetric method. The re-
sults obtained were satisfaAory. — Ziit.fUr, AugewandU
Chimii^ X898, p. 3x5.




(Coodaded from p. s).

The Estimation of Phosphorus*
PoR various reasons it has become common, after having
separated phosphorus as ammonium phospho-molybdate,
to proceed to estimate some other constituent of the
precipitate, — the volumetric estimation of the reduced
molybdenum with permanganate, for instance. It ap-
pears as though the molybdenum might easily be
estimated gravimetrically by the above process. The
operation is certainly not hampered by any such uncer-
tainty as to whether MoaOj, M08O13, or MoiaOxg, is the
state to which the molybdenum is reduced. A further
examination will show what the relative advantages of
the gravimetric process are.

PS.— The interferences of a very important element —
tungsten — is conspicuously absent. It has not been

Thi Estimation of L$ad as Molyhdati,

In the paper by Chatard (Chemical Nbws, xxiv., 175),
previously referred to, he says ** I tried to determine lead
as molybdate, but without success, as the presence of an
excess of the precipitant seems to exert an injurious effed,
the filtrate or washines speedily becoming cloudy.'*

The fad that molybdate of lead is exceptionally in-
•olnble in the solutions from which it may be precipitated,
that the ratio Pb : PbMo04 is lower than the corresponding
ratio for either the sulphate or chromate of lead, and that
the precipitate maybe safely ignited alon^ with the paper.

are good reasons for seeking to obviate the difficulty
Chatard alludes to.

We have already remarked that, in presence of an
excess of lead acetate, the most easily filtrable form of
the precipitated lead molybdate is obtained by decom-
posing the hydrochloric acid, which is keeping the
PbMo04 dissolved, by means of ammonium acetate. If
a like procedure be followed in presence of an excess of
sodium (or ammonium) molybdate, the lead comes down
as a lustrous silky precipitate, somewhat resembling the
well-known precipitation of manganese as ammonium
manganese phosphate. This precipitate can be filtered
and washed with the greatest ease.

The following differences may also be noticed. If an
excess of molybdate be added to a solution of lead acidi-
fied with HCl only so far as to prevent a precipitate
being formed in the cold, then, on warming, the precipi-

Online LibrarySir William CrookesThe Chemical news and journal of industrial science; with which ..., Volume 79 → online text (page 4 of 92)