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thought,
But seized each moment what the rao

ment brought.
So have my ships sailed far on many seas.
So have my towers risen to th6 skies,
And, as the summer hum of laboring

bees.
My hives have sung of many industries.
And now, too late,
I, the unthinking clod,
Crouch here before the gate
Of my forgotten God."



Now was the third made bold

To lift his head.

He least among the dead.
" My tale," he said,
" Is brief and quickly told ;

For I have neither dreams nor deeds to
bring,

A tribute to the King.

In life I suffered wrong and want and
pain—

Perhaps I shall again."

As on his breast the holy sign he made,
The first said, " It is dawn."
The second said, " I am afraid."
The last one said. " The bar is drawn.



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YELLOW FEVER AND MOSQUITOS



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" Now hand in hand
Together let us stand,
And, as our bodies fade,
Watching our souls remade,
Enter the door ;
Here shall the dear old clay
Crumble and melt away
Forevermore.

" Come closer, closer, brother,
And let your hold be tight ;
One may not see the other
Here in the blinding light.
The morning air grows colder,
A great wind chills my brow.
Press shoulder close to shoulder ;
I scarce can feel you now."



They came from very far, they said. —

Three poor spirits of the dead, —

The way was long and hard ;

But now at last

All else was passed

And the great door stood unbarred.

Then did the three,

With eyes that strained to see,

Forgetting all before.

Behold one perfect soul

Pass to its goal

Across the door.

They made no mournful cry ;

They asked not what it meant.

For each was well content,

And, fading, each one murmured, " It is L"




YELLOW FEVER AND MOSQUITOS



BY L. O. HOWARD




|AST December a very distin-
guished body of men met in

j Washington, under the aus-
pices of the Bureau of Ameri-

I can Republics. These men
were the most active and learned sanita-
rians of their respective governments.
They came from Cuba and the Central
and South American republics, as well as
from many parts of the United States.
They constituted the Third International
Sanitary Convention, and their discussions
related almost solely to yellow fever. The
writer attended the convention by invita-
tion, and was greatly impressed by the fact
that this body, representing the most ad-
vanced medical thought of the Americas,
and undoubtedly the soundest judgment
in sanitary matters, unanimously accepted
as an absolutely demonstrated fact that
certain mosquitos carry yellow fever. Less
than two years had elapsed since the
" British Medical Journal " had said of the
experiments of the United States Army
Yellow Fever Commission, "At the most
they are suggestive '* ; and yet every one
of these autliorities acknowledged himself
convinced, and the majority of them an-
nounced the opinion, that these mosquitos



constitute the only means by which the
disease is spread. I wonder whether Dr.
James Carroll, the only survivor of the
American members of the commission,
who was present at the meeting, felt any
greater pride in this acceptance of the won-
derful results of the work of our Army
Medical Department than did the layman
who writes these lines.

Yellow fever has prevailed endemically
throughout the West Indies and in certain
regions on the Spanish main virtually since
the discovery of America. The Barbados,
Jamaica, and Cuba suffered epidemics be-
fore the middle of the seventh century.
There were outbreaks in Philadelphia,
Charleston, and Boston as early as 1692,
and for a hundred years there were occa-
sional outbreaks, culminating in the great
Philadelphia epidemic of 1793. Northern
cities were able, by sanitary and quarantine
measures, to prevent great epidemics after
the early part of the nineteenth century;
but from the West Indies the disease was
occasionally introduced, and it prevailed
epidemically in the Southern States. In
1853 it raged throughout this region. New
Orleans alone having a mortality of eight
thousand. The last extensive epidemic



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occurred in 1878, chiefly in Louisiana,
Alabama, and Mississippi, and the total
iportality was sixteen thousand. In 1889
it again prevailed in Jacksonville, Florida,
and certain other restricted places. The
actual loss of life from the disease itself
has been but a small part of the affliction
which it has brought to our Southern
country. The disease once discovered in
epidemic form, the whole country has be-
come alarmed: commerce in the affected
region has come virtually to a standstill;
cities have been deserted ; people have died
from exposure in camping out in the high-
lands ; rigid quarantines have been estab-
lished; innocent persons have been shot
while endeavoring to pass these quarantine
lines ; all industry for the time has ceased.
And yet these conditions, bad as they have
been, do not sum up the total danger to
national prosperity. Subject to occasional
epidemics as they have been supposed to
be in the past, cities like Galveston, New
Orleans, Mobile, Jacksonville, and Charles-
ton have not prospered as they should
have done, and the industrial development
of the entire South has been retarded.

Now all of these conditions have been
done away with. Fears for the future have
been allayed. It may safely be predicted
that never again in the history of the
United States will an epidemic of yellow
fever occur. And all of this has been
brought about by the discovery that once
more a mosquito must be blamed for one
of the greatest of human ills.

Medical men had been theorizing about
the cause of yellow fever from the time
when they began to treat it. It was
thought by many that it was carried in
the air ; by others that it was conveyed by
the clothing, bedding, or other articles
which had come in contact with a yellow-
fever patient. With the discovery of the
agency of micro-organisms in the causation
of disease, a search soon began for 'some
causative germ. Many such were found
in the course of autopsies, and many claims
were put forth by investigators. All these,
however, were virtually set at rest by Stern-
berg in his " Report on the Etiology and
Prevention of Yellow Fever," published in
1890; but a claim made by Sanarelli, in
June, 1897, for a bacillus which he called
B, icteroides received considerable cre-
dence, and in 1899 it was accepted in full
by two surgeons of the United States Ma-



rine Hospital Service, Doctors Wasdin and
Geddings, who reported that they had found
this bacillus in thirteen out of fourteen
cases of yellow fever in the city of Havana.

In 1881, Dr. Carlos Finlay of Havana,
a Cuban by birth, although of an English
father, proposed the theory that yellow
fever is conveyed by means of a mosquito,
and the species which he designated as
the probable conveyer was Culex (now
SUgomyia) fasdaius. Subsequently he pub-
lished several important papers in which
his views were modified from time to time,
and in the course of which he mentioned
experiments with one hundred individuals,
producing three cases of mild fever. None
of the cases, however, was under his full
control, and the possibility of other meth-
ods of gaining the disease were not ex-
cluded. Therefore his theory, while it was
received with interest, was not considered
to be proved, and it was even thought
that he himself had apparendy proved it
to be incorrect.

In the summer of 1900 came the be-
ginning of the true demonstration. In that
year Surgeon- General Sternberg appointed
a board for the purpose of investigating
the acute infectious diseases prevailing on
the island of Cuba. This board consisted
of Major Walter Reed, surgeon in the
United States army, and contract surgeons
James Carroll, Aristides Agramonte, and
Jesse W. Lazear, of the United States
army. The board arrived at Quemado,
Cuba, on June 25, 1900. Preliminary ob-
servations showed several significant facts :
Non-immune nurses did not contract the
disease. Bacteriological examinations of
the blood and organs of yellow-fever pa-
tients after death indicated no specific
bacteria, and experiments with Dr. Fin-
lay's mosquito were begun. Eleven persons
were bitten by contaminated mosquitos.
With nine of them there was no result;
with two yellow fever appeared. In one
of these two cases there had been possi-
ble opportunity for infection from other
sources, but in one the circumstances were
such as to exclude any other source of in-
fection, and the commission, therefore, in
a modest little paper entitled " The Etiol-
ogy of Yellow Fever— A Preliminary
Note," read before the Twenty-eighth An-
nual Meeting of the American Public
Health Association at Indianapolis, In-
diana, in October, 1900, announced that



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YELLOW FEVER AND MOSQUITOS



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the mosquito serves as the intermediate
host of the parasite of yellow fever.

One of the two cases in which positive
results were obtained in this preliminary
work was a member of the board, Dr.
Lazear, and in this case the result was
fatal. The cause of science has had many
martyrs, but this was one of the saddest,
and was undoubtedly one of the greatest
losses to Jiumanity. Dr. Lazear was a
young man of great ability, admirably
trained, whose work, as Dr. Reed says,
was characterized by " a manly and fear-
less devotion to duty such as I have never
seen equaled." He "seemed absolutely
tireless and quite oblivious of self. Filled
with an earnest enthusiasm for the ad-
vancement of his profession and for the
cause of science, he let no opportunity
pass unimproved. Although the evening
might find him discouraged over the diffi-
cult problem at hand, with the morning's
return he again took up the task, full of
eagerness and hope."

It is not surprising, therefore, that when
the board resumed its work late in No-
vember, 1900, and established an experi-
ment station one mile from Quemado,
Cuba, they should name it, in honor of
their comrade, "Camp Lazear." Here
were built the two experiment houses which



have become famous. One of them was
termed the "infected-mosquito building,"
and the other the " infected-clothing build-
ing." The former was screened and well
ventilated, while the other was screened
and poorly ventilated. In the former pa-
tients were bitten by infected mosquitos;
in the latter no mosquitos were admitted,
but the persons submitting themselves to
the experiment slept with soiled bedding
and clothing direct from the yellow-fever
hospitals. Briefly stated, in thirteen cases
where non-immunes were bitten by mos-
quitos which had bitten a yellow-fever
patient at least twelve days previously, ten
contracted the disease, while in the in-
fected-clothing house, although volunteers
had slept there for many nights, no single
case of yellow fever was contracted.

The experiments were conducted with
such care that no criticism is possible.
Criticism was invited from resident physi-
cians in Havana and from medical visitors,
but none was made. The results were per-
fect, and were absolutely conclusive.

The men who submitted themselves to
the experiment were hospital attendants,
American soldiers, and Spanish immigrants,
none of whom had ever had yellow fever.
The heroism exhibited by these persons,
and especially by the Americans, is beyond




MAP SHOWING (IN SOLID BLACK) THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE VELLOWFEVER
MOSQUITO (AFTER THEOBALD)



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EGGS (GREATLY ENLARGED) OF THE YELLOW-FEVER MOSQUITO



praise. Speaking of Kissinger, a young
Ohio soldier who was the first person bitten
by infected mosquitos, Dr. Reed says : " I
cannot let this opportunity pass without
expressing my admiration of the conduct
of this young Ohio soldier, who volunteered
for this experiment, as he expressed it,
' solely in the interest of humanity and the
cause of science,' and with the only proviso
that he should receive no pecuniary re-
ward. In my opinion, this exhibition of
moral courage has never been surpassed in
the annals of the army of the United States."
The next three cases were Spaniards, and
all of these first four contracted the fever.
After that no more Spanish patients could be
secured. They had allowed themselves to
be bitten largely through incredulity and for
a money reward. After the fever appeared,
they lost their interest in the cause of sci-
ence, and preferred safety to money. Other
Americans, however, immediately volun-
teered, and, praising their courage in the
highest degree, we must not fail to point out
here that the inspiration was derived from
Dr. Reed himself. Nothing but the most
absolute confidence in this remarkable man
could have gained him his subjects, and
the confidence was
justified, since this
series of experiments,
the result of which
has already been of
inestimable value to
humanity, was ac-
complished without
the loss of a single
human life.

O ne must be struck
with the modesty
of the men compos-
ing the commission
when, without a sin-
gle symptom of self-
laudation, the results
of this remarkable
experimental work,
destined to revolu-
tionize former ideas,
were published under



the simple title, " The Etiology of Yellow !
Fever : An Additional JVoU " ! (The italics
are the writer's.) •

It was after the publication of the " Pre
liminary Note " that the comment quoted
in our introduction was made by the " Brit
ish Medical Journal." After die publica
tion of the "Additional Note," however,
the medical profession accepted the result?
and conclusion of the commission wtJi
virtual unanimity. During this work, am!
for months subsequently, continued inves^
tigations were carried on by members U
the commission for the causative micn>
organism of the disease, but it has not yet
been found. It was discovered that the
disease could be conveyed not only by the
bite of the mosquito, but by the injection
of the blood serum of a yellow-fever pa-
tient into the system of a non-immune.
It was fiuther discovered that this blood
serum could be filtered through porcelain
and yet retain its power to convey the
disease. It seems certain, therefore, that
the cause is either some micro-organism so
excessively small as to pass through porce
lain,— so excessively small, therefore, as
to fail to reveal itself to the highest powers
of the microscope, -
orelse that the disease
is conveyed by some
toxin. Experiments
were then made by
submitting the serum
to various degrees 0/
heat, and it was found
that its toxicity was
destroyed by a com-
paratively low tem-
perature—one too
low, in fact, to have
any effect upon any
toxin ; and the con-
clusion is almost un-
avoidable that the
cause of yellow fever
is a micro-organism
in the blood which IS
ultra-microscopic '"
size.




EGGS OF YELLOW-FEVER MOSQUITO IN NAT-
URAL POSITION ON GRASS-STEMS



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YELLOW FEVER AND MOSQUITOS



855



It would be very strange if so great a
discovery as this had not its objectors. At
first, and before the papers of the commis-
sion had been widely read, there were
physicians who announced total disbelief ;
but these were soon silenced. Since then,
and especially in the Southern United
States, there have been a number of physi-
cians who, while admitting that the disease
is carried by mosquitos, still contend that
there probably is some other means of
transmission. These physicians, and no
less a person than Dr. Souchon, president



ments were carried on at Las Animas
Hospital by the director of the hospital,
Surgeon John W. Ross of the United
States navy, and these experiments were
made with the purpose of setting at rest
the still-adhered-to theory of the transmis-
sion of the disease by fomites or clothing
or other articles which had come into con-
tact with yellow-fever patients. Certain
rooms in the hospital were made mosquito-
proof, and numerous bundles containing
bedclothes and bedding which had recently
been used in the sick-rooms and on the




THE YELLOW-FEVER MOSQUITO
Cmltx (SUg0myia/a»ciata) itniatu* ot /asciatus



of the Louisiana Board of Health, who is
a leader, hold that there are many recorded
outbreaks where the mosquito agency is
improbable or impossible, and they hold
that no great variations in quarantine
methods must be introduced until the
matter is set entirely at rest. Additional
experiments were carried on in 1901 by the
Havana Board of Health, under the well-
known yellow-fever expert Dr. Juan
Guiteras, formerly of the University of
Pennsylvania, at Las Animas Hospital. In
a number of cases the disease was experi-
mentally conveyed by the bites of infected
mosquitos, but here, unfortunately, sev-
eral lives were lost. Later in the autumn
and winter of 1901 very careful experi-



persons of patients ill with yellow fever
were placed in these rooms ; eight men re-
cendy arrived on the island (five Spanish,
two Italian, and one English) were taken
as subjects for experimentation. They
were placed under observation for seven
days, and then transferred to the experi-
ment room, where they were kept for
seven days. They were then kept under
observation for seven days longer, with the
result that all emerged from the experi-
ment in good health.

Quite recently experiments of a most
careful kind have been made at Sao Paulo,
Brazil, under the direction of Dr. Adolpho
Lutz, director of the Bacteriological Insti-
tution of the State of Sao Paulo. These



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experiments were extremely interesting,
since the mosquitos chosen were brought
from uninfected places, allowed to bite a
yellow-fever patient, sent to another unin-
fected place several hundred kilometers
away, and allowed to bite non-immunes
who had previously been quarantined and
who submitted to the experiment of their
own accord. Out of six cases there were
three positive results, the fever appearing
from seventy-five to eighty hours after the
biting. All the patients recovered. These
experiments were considered necessary,
on account of the great local opposition
to the so-called mosquito theory. But now
the question is considered solved, and the
practical extermination of mosquitos has
begun.

The beneficial effects of this great dis-
covery were prophesied in the introduc-
tion. They are already evident in a marked
degree in the city of Havana. For many
months not one case of yellow fever was
to be found in the city, although probably
for one hundred and fifty years there had
not been a day in which there were not
cases of the disease. This condition is due
to the fact that, first under the American
administration and afterward under the
Cuban Board of Health, the plain mea-
sures indicated by the discovery were put
into effect. Before the discovery was made
the health of the city improved under the
active sanitary measures introduced and
carried into effect by the imtiring energy
of General Ludlow. In spite of these
measures, however, the fever was present.
After the discovery, however, and under
the very efficient direction of Major Gor-
gas, mosquito extermination began ; breed-
ing-places were abolished, and every yel-
low-fever patient was protected from the
bites of mosquitos. The disease rapidly
died out. With the new light brought to
us by Reed and his colleagues, it is only
necessary, when a case of yellow fever is
discovered on board of a vessel entering a
port, to see that the patient is thus pro-
tected, and there will be no opportunity
for the disease to spread. In regions where
the fever is endemic, all non-immunes
keeping themselves protected from mos-
quito bites will undoubtedly remain free
from the fever.

The distribution of the yellow-fever
mosquito, Siegomyia fasciata, becomes at
once of importance, for wherever the mos-



quito abounds, an introduced case of
fever becomes, without protection, a great
danger. In general, this mosquito is found
in all parts of the world south of 38o north
latitude and north of 38o south latitude.
It is not, however, found at great eleva-
tions, and is mainly confined, in the
United States, to that region of country
known as the lower austral life-zone. This
includes virtually all of the Gulf States,
the Atlantic Coast States north to southern
Virginia, the western portions of Kentucky
and Tennessee, the southeastern comer of
Missouri, and nearly all of Arkansas and
the Indian Territory, southern New Mexico
and Arizona, and southern California. It
is known in Mexico and Central America,
all of the West Indies, the low-lying por-
tions of South America, Spain, southern
Italy, parts of Africa, India, Farther India,
Malay Archipelago, Australia, southern
Japan, and Hawaii.

A peculiarity of the yellow-fever mos-
quito is that it bites by day as well as by
night To protect one's self from malaria,
one has only to avoid mosquitos at night
The yellow-fever mosquito is known in
the West Indies as the day mosquito. It
is sometimes also called the striped mos-
quito. Its appearance is well shown in
the accompanying figures, from which it
will at once be recognized. It is essen-
tially a house mosquito. It is not com-
monly found in the woods, but very
abundantly in cities and about houses,
where it breeds in the roof troughs, in
water- tanks and -barrels, and in any chance
receptacle of standing water. The eggs are
laid singly in standing water, and will with-
stand desiccation. The water in which
they are deposited may dry up entirely,
but when, through rain, the receptacle
again contains standing water, the eggs
will hatch. The larvae are much like those
of other mosquitos; they are true air-
breathers, and are readily killed by a
kerosene film on the surface of the water.

One of the saddest aspects of this bril-
liant discovery is the death of the inspiring
genius of the investigation. Dr. Walter
Reed, who, with health impaired by his
strenuous labors, died suddenly November
23, 1902, before he had fairly begun to
reap the honors which were beginning to
follow his monumental work. He will
rank as one of the great benefactors of the
human race.



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I. DR. JUAN GUITERAS

The well-known yellow-fever
expert, now connected with the
sanitary service of the Cuban
republic, and who conducted the
first corroborative series of mos-
quito experiments in 1901 at Las
Animas Hospital, Havana, Cuba.

2. DR. JOHN R. ROSS.
SURGEON, U. S. N.

He was in charge of Las Ani-
mas Hospital during 1901, and
conducted a series of important
corroborative experiments with
fomites.

3. DR. JAMES CARROLL.

U. S. V.

He was a member of the Army
Commission and is the only sur-
vivor of the American members
of the commission.

4. DR. CARLOS FINLAY

He was the first to conduct ex-
periments with the yellow-fever



mosquito, and the first investi-
gator who announced the opin-
ion that this species of mosquito
conveys the disease.

5. DR. JESSE W. LAZEAR.
U. S. V.

He was a member of the
Army Yellow Fever Commis-
sion, and died of yellow fever in
Cuba in 1900, during the first
experimental work, as the re-
sult of a bite from an infected
mosquito.

6. JOHN R. KISSINGER

A soldier in the United States
army, who offered himself for
experiment.

7. MAJOR WALTER REED,
U. S. A.

He was the president of the
Army Yellow Fever Commis-
sion, and died in Washington,
December, 190a.



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THE WILD BIRD BY A NEW
APPROACH

HY FRANCIS H. HERRICK

Author of " The Home Life of Wild Birds"
WITH PICTURKS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS BY THK AUTHOR



^T^HE future historian of American life
1 and manners for the c losing decades
of the nineteenth and the beginning of the
twentieth century will find an interesting
theme in the renaissance of natural history,
or the return to
nature, which marks
a distinct epoch.

If a desire for
country life has fol-
lowed the conges-
tion of population
in cities, the increase
in wealth, and the
wonderful improve-
ments in transpor-
tation, there has also
grown up in America
a genuine sympathy
for animals and an
intelligent desire for
knowledge in every
department of out-
door nature. This
awakening has been
attended by a re-
newed interest in
the relation of liv-
ing beings to one
another and to their
surroundings, as
well as by the inter-
est in the habits, be-
havior, and intelli-
gence of animals on
the part of both lay-
man and specialist. wren clean i



ANIMAL PHOTOGRAPHY

The photography of wild animals may be



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