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only of the Apostolic Council of Acts xv, but of the story of
Cornelius. The reason why, in dealing with St. Peter, St. Paul
does not produce the Apostolic Decree * in support of his position '
is quite simple, even if we do not follow Mr. Emmet in dating



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366 Short Notices. July

the Epistle before the Council. St. Paul has no need to support
his position, since St. Peter plainly does not challenge it. St.
Peter is charged not with error, but with action inconsistent
with his real convictions, and Professor Windisch's arguments
fall to the ground. Is it uncharitable to suggest that Professor
Windisch is not profoundly interested in St. Paul's ' doctrinal '
arguments, and ceases to pay exact attention when he arrives
at them ? At the same time, we frankly admit that the
difficulties about the Apostolic Council are real, and, though
Mr. Emmet's dating of Galatians removes some of them, it
hardly removes them all.

Of the third main division little needs to be said. President
McGiflfert gives a good account of ' the Historical Criticism of
Acts in Germany,' and Mr. J. W. Hunkin of British work on the
Acts. The contrast is instructive. German work is mostly
done in the study alone ; English, from James Smith of JordanhiU
and Lewin to Professor Ramsay, largely in the open air by travel
and the spade. We have no need to be ashamed for the result,
nor has St. Luke. The more closely we approach sohd facts,
the more the accuracy of St. Luke is confirmed. The strength
of the book before us is German rather than English strength.
We admire the learning and ingenuity, which are so abundantly
displayed. Few will fail to find much that wiU be new to them,
and not a little of permanent value. What we sometimes miss
is the soUd ground of undoubted fact, and, we will add, of sym-
pathetic understanding of Christian faith and the background of
Church life. Theology is not altogether neglected ; there is, e.g.,
a valuable comparison of the Lucan writings with the Apostles'
Creed, but some of the contributors seem to write rather as
' those that are without ' than as those that are within. The
book ends with some interesting appendices, the most valuable
being an elaborate Commentary by Professor Cadbury on St.
Luke's Preface to the Gospel. This he regards as a Preface to
both St. Luke's books ; and, though he does not here altogether
convince us, we know of no other Commentary upon this to be
compared with his.



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1922 Short Notices. 2l^y



Philosophy of Reugion.

Essays and Addresses on the Philosophy of Religion. By Fried-
rich von HOgel. (London : Dent. 1922.) 155. net.

In this volume Baron von Htigel has coUected papers and
lectures which have been contributed by him to various
magazines, and has added four new essa}^. The subjects dealt
with are all connected with the study of religion, but there is
no general theme or argument running through the book.
Those who are acquainted with recent work in the Philosophy
of Religion will not need to be told that anything from
Baron von Hiigel's pen is of the highest importance, and they
will be glad to learn from the preface to this volume that he is
engaged upon a large and systematic work on the philosophical
aspects of the religious life. The essays here presented to us give
a clear account of some of the fundamental positions which the
author has taken in his previous writings, and which will doubt-
less form the basis for his promised treatise. From this point
of view the two papers on ' Religion and Illusion ' and ' Religion
and Reality ' are specially interesting. In these he is grappling
with the problem of the validity of religious experience. The
argument against the alleged illusory character of religious
experience is specially directed against von Hartmann, but the
discussion is sufl&ciently general to cover the whole question.
The alignment is carried forward in the following essay, the
central contention of which is the presence of objectivity, of
' givenness,' in every level of human activity, whether theoretical
or practical. ' In all these cases,' says the author, * we have
an absorption of the Subject in the Object, and a response —
an assuredly gradual, ever only partial, yet a very real, self-
revelation — of the Object to the Subject.' Thus the fact of
revelation is discernible in experience other than that which
we should describe as specifically religious. But it is the
religious experience that ' gives us Revelation at its fullest, not
only as to Revelation's content but also as to Revelation's form.*
It cannot be said that Baron von Hflgel has made his view
completely clear with regard to the relation of religious experience
to other forms, and the reader may be left in some doubt whether
he holds religion to be different in essence from philosophy,
for example, though having some elements in common. This
and other questions will doubtless be dealt with more at length



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368 Short Notices. July

in the larger work which is promised. We have not space to
do more than call attention to other valuable essays. The
summary and criticism of Troeltsch will be useful to many
who are unable to give the time to study for themselves the
writings of that voluminous and somewhat difficult thinker.
The papers on the Apocal3^tic Element in the teaching of Jesus
and the Essentials of Catholicism are worthy of careful attention.
Baron von Hugd has not lost his gift of happy and homely
illustration, nor his power of illuminating abstract discussion
by anecdotes drawn from the lives both of saints and ordinary
people. We feel while we read him that we are in contact with
a mind that is great and full, but also profoimdly exercised in
the deep things of the spirit.



The Religion of Plato. By Paul Elmer More. (Princeton
University Press. 1921.) los. 6rf. net.

The distinguished author of the Shelbume Essays here presents
us with the first volume of a series in which he intends to trace
the Greek tradition from the death of Socrates to the Coimcil
of Chalcedon. The assumption on which the author proceeds
is ' that Greek literature, philosophic and religious, pagan and
Christian, from Plato to St. Chrysostom is essentially a unit
and follows at the centre a straight line.' The first instalment
of this ambitious undertaking fills us with eagerness to read the
discussion of Christianity which is to follow. Expositions of
Plato and Platonism are very numerous, but Mr. More has
succeeded in giving a fresh and in many respects provocative
outline of Plato's thought, in the course of which he has trans-
lated many long passages — a plan which helps the general
reader to gain some insight into the Platonic method. Mr.
More, rightly in our opinion, objects to the tendency to interpret
Plato as an imperfect forerunner of Hegel and lays great stress
on the radical dualism of the Platonic theory. There are signs
that the author regards Christianity as a popularized Platonism,
and we doubt whether he is likely to do justice in his succeeding
volumes to the Jewish foundation of the Gospel, but it would
be unfair to deduce what the writer will say from what he has
said. We have to thank him for an interesting book, written
as we need hardly say in a lucid and easy style and illuminated
here and there by quotations from the store of Uterature of
which Mr. More is master.



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1922 Short Notices. 369



Comparative Religion.

The WitcfhCuli in Western Europe. A Study in Anthropology,
By M, A. Murray. (Clarendon Press. 1921.) i6s. net.

The two main characteristics which are likely to impress them-
selves upon the reader of this extremely interesting book are
its learning and its confidence. The witch-cult of which Miss
Murray writes is ' the religious beUefs and ritual of the people
known in late mediaeval times as " witches." ' She claims that
' the evidence proves that underlying the Christian religion
was a cult practised by many classes of the community, chiefly,
however, by the more ignorant or those in the less thickly
inhabited parts of the country. It can be traced back to pre-
Christian times, and appears to be the ancient religion of Western
Europe.' She gives it the name of the ' Dianic cult,' from
Diana, the feminine counterpart of a god who * is found in Italy
(where he was called Janus or Dianus), in Southern France
and in the English Midlands,' and who appears as a man with
two faces. It is always a little disconcerting to be told at the
outset that a case has been proved, and it is apt to raise uneasy
doubts in a student's mind as to the writer's acquaintance
with the nature of proof if his own limited opportunities of
investigation have chiefly impressed him with the difl&culty of
arriving at more or less probable inferences. But Miss Murray
has no such unworthy timidity. We read again : ' It is now a
commonplace of anthropology that the tales of fairies and elves
preserve the traditions of a dwarf race which once inhabited
Northern and Western Europe.' ... ' As the conqueror always
regards the religion of the conquered as superior to his own in the
arts of evU magic, the dwarf race obtained the reputation of
wizards and magicians, and their god was identified by the
conquerors with the Principle of Evil.' At the risk of seem-
ing to be merely sceptical we are conscious of desiderating
several not unimportant qualifications in regard to both these
statements.

The discussion of the evidence derived from the statanents
of witches as to the forms in which the devil presented himself
to them would require another volume instead of a review.
The list of the names of the witches given in Appendix III
extends to more than twenty pages, and Miss Murray's collection
of extracts and instances must have cost years of search. There



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370 Short Notices. July

are certain incidental features to which it may be permissible
to caU attention. Thus Elizabeth Sawyer, the witch of
Edmonton, in 1621 says ' he the Divell taught me this prayer,
sanctibecetuf nomen tuutn. Amen.' Andro Man at Aberdeen in
1597 says that the devil ' is rasit be the speaking of the word
Benediciie.' In an alleged meeting with the devil by those
engaged in a treasonable conspiracy for the destruction of
James VI of Scotland in 1590 ' his hienes name was pronunceit
in Latine/ while the devil is represented as speaking French,
and is regarded by Miss Murray as being Francis Stewart, Earl
of Bothwell, nephew of Queen Mary's husband. The Somerset-
shire witches in 1664, as they were carried through the air to
their meetings, used these words as they passed : ' Thout, tout
a tout, tout, throughout and about. And when they go out from
their Meetings, they say Rentum, Torfncntum.' At Aix, in 1610,
' the Magicians and those that can reade, sing certaine Psalmes
as they doe in Church, especially Laudate Dominum de Coelis.
Confttemini Domino quoniam bonus, and the Canticle Benedicite,
transferring all to the praise of Lucifer and the Divels.' In the
ceremony of laying the devil after he had been raised by the use
of the word Benedicite, according to Andro Man's evidence, the
word Maikpeblis was used. Sometimes, e.g. in the Basses-
Pyr^n^ in 1609, an invocation has a Latin beginning and a
vernacular ending. In Guernsey, in 1563, a man-witch claimed
to make cows give blood instead of milk by saying ' Butyrum
de armento.' Elizabeth Francis, a witch tried at Chelmsford
in 1566, said that ' when she wolde wyl him [her familiar] to
do any thinge for her, she wolde say her Paternoster in Laten.'
(The familiar in this case was ' a whjrte spotted Catte ' : it was
called ' Sathan,' and kept in a basket.) All the instances quoted
come from a period and, with one exception, from quarters
where Latin made an impression on the hearers because it had
become, or was becoming, unfamiliar. But there is another
point. Miss Murray's list of witches, as we have said, is long,
though it gives the names, of course, of only a small proportion
of those against whom charges were made in the course of
centmies. But her practice, no doubt a necessary one, of repeti-
tion under different headings, has concealed from her, as it
seems to the reviewer, how relatively slight is the body of
evidence upon which her far-reaching conclusions are based.
It may be regarded as antecedently probable that in certain
parts of England and Scotland survivals of rites and practices
associated with what may loosely be called ' Nature Worship '



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1922 Short Notices. 371

will be found down to comparatively modem times, and the
Vitae Sanctorum Hibemiae provides a starting-point for an
inquiry which would not prove fruitless in regard to Ireland.
And it may well be true that 'pseudo-science has prevented
the unbiassed examination ' of this as of other material. But
it is equally possible for the scientific student to become obsessed
with an idea : thus anthropology has often been in danger of
being made ridiculous by a failure to remember that observa-
tion and interpretation are distinct operations. . ' It would
seem/ Miss Murray tells us, ' that the witches, like the adorers
of animal gods in earlier times, attempted to become one with
their god or sacred animal by taking on his form.' It may be
a correct interpretation, though we do not think that it is, but
two preliminary questions have to be asked. How far do the
cases open to observation suffice for any conclusion at all?
What inference would an unprejudiced observer draw? It
requires far more than isolated, even if parallel, instances to
prove a continuous cultus, a definite organization, an established
ritual. Again, an inference to be valid must be based on a
consideration of all the facts ; thus Miss Murray's suggestion
in regard to the Christian names of the witches as evidence
would need to be supported by an examination of the distribu-
tion of Christian names in England and Scotland, and their
relative frequency and any possible or probable causes — an
examination for which in the greater part of the period with
which she actually deals there is ample material. But of the
influence of the dominant idea there can scarcely be found a
more startling example than her treatment of Joan of Arc
and GiUes de Rais. As to this we are content to ask, would
any impartial historical student who read Appendix IV, with
the evidence there stated and selected by Miss Murray herself,
arrive at her conclusion that Joan ' was put to death as a witch,
and the conduct of her associates during her military career,
as well as the evidence at her trial, bear out the fact that she
bekmged to the ancient religion, not to the Christian ' ?

The evidence, sometimes barely printable, collected by Miss
Murray, would, so far as it goes, support a suggestion of a standard
of moral conduct often associated with one of the lower rather
than one of the higher religions. It is a curious fact that a
fairly wide study of legal records of the main English districts
with which she deals in the same period, while certainly not
indicating the prevalence of a high moral standard, is wholly
opposed to any theory of promiscuity, however motived.



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372 Short Notices. July

We hope that in any future edition Miss Murray will see her
way to withdraw a sentence on p. 179, as a scientist, if not as
a woman, for it will not bear investigation, and by its offensive-
ness mars the general tone of her work.



History and Antiquities.

The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. III. Germany and ike
Western Empire, (Cambridge University Press. 1922.)
50s. net.

The series to which this volume belongs was plaimed by Professor
Bury, though we are expressly told that for the present instal-
ment he has no responsibility. Since the second volume appeared
Dr. Gwatkin, who had been one of the editors from the first,
has died, and the war has intervened, with results which the
student might please himself by comparing and contrasting
with the dissolution of the Carolingian Empire were the situa-
tion less full of uncertainty as well as of tragedy. The labour
of re-oi^anizing the scheme and seeing the book through the
press has fallen to Dr. Whitney, who has discharged a very
difficult task with a measure of success that merits congratula-
tion. He has been assisted in it by Dr. Tanner and Mr. Previte-
Orton, who will for succeeding volumes be joined with him as
editors.

There are few periods of mediaeval history more difficult
for the ordinary student than the 250 years which, roughly speak-
ing, are covered by this volume. Even though it may be true,
as Dr. Whitney points out in his Introduction, that ' History
is alwa3rs changing and transitional,' yet here the specialist
often seeks safety by declining to travel outside a limited field,
and the reader who is not a specialist too often finds himself
bewildered by what seem to him great accumulations of un-
related facts. From this point of view it is a real advantage
that of the 567 pages of text, practically half should be the
work of four writers only, two being French and two English.
Thus Professor Poupardin is able to deal with Louis the Pious
and the Carolingian kingdom (840-918) ; Professor Halphen
with France from 888 to the Eleventh century, the kingdom of
Burgundy, and the Church from Charlemagne to Sjdvester II ;
Mr. Austin Lane Poole with Germany from the election of
Henry I (the Fowler) in 919 to the death of Otto III of
smallpox in 1002, and the reign of Coruad II (the intervening



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1922 Short Notices. 373



period under Henry II is dealt with by Mr. Edwin Holthouse,
and the succeeding reign of Henry III by Miss Caroline Ryley) ;
and Mr. W. J. Corbett describes the history of England from
the death of Offa to that of Edward the Confessor. Side by
side with the story of Tenth-century Germany as told by Mr.
Poole the student will read that of Italy in the same age related
by Mr. Previte-Orton, which affords some interesting points of
comparison. Professor Allen Mawer's chapter on ' The Vikings '
serves as an appropriate introduction to the two chapters on
English history, though it might with advantage have come
earlier still in the volume, and the remaining five deal with

* The Western Caliphate ' (Dr. Altamira), ' Feudalism ' (Sir
Paul VinogradoflQ, ' Learning and Literature till Pope Sylvester
II ' (Dr. M. R. James), and ' Byzantine and Romanesque Arts '
by Professor Lethaby. As will be seen the ground has been
mapped out in a way calculated on the whole to avoid over-
lapping, and though we should have welcomed the inclusion of a
separate chapter upon Law, it was perhaps felt that this could
be placed more conveniently in the next volume.

We have said that the chapter on the Vikings might have
come earUer, and indeed should be disposed to recommend the
student to read that essay and the one on the Western Caliphate
before turning to the rest of the volume. A glance at the useful

* Chronological Table of Leading Events ' will shew the reason.
It is not merely reflexion on the facts, though they are significant
facts, that the Vikings attacked Seville in 844, and the Saracens
had sacked St. Peter's at Rome in the previous year ; but upon
the introduction of two new factors of far-reaching importance
into the development of the history of the continent of Europe
during this period. ' The influence of the Vikings,' as Professor
Mawer points out, ' varied from century to century, not only
according to the poUtical and social condition of the lands in
which they settled, but also to some extent according to the
nation from which they came.' * When two people come into
contact,' says Professor Altamira, ' the higher civilization
invariably influences the other. Such indeed was the case of
the Arabs in Spain and the Spaniards from the beginning of
the Ninth to the end of the Thirteenth century, when Arab
philosophy and science were at their height. In practical
life Arab influence was even greater, not only in political but
also in legal and military organization.' And if Viking pressure
and influence was inimical, as it certainly was, to learning.
Viking power was based on a theory which, while aristocratic,



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374 Short Notices. July

was at any rate more friendly to liberty than the West Eiiroi>ean
Feudalism which in the eyes of many is the most anti-social
feature as well as, in Sir Paul Vinogradoff 's phrase, ' the dominant
fact of medieval history on the institutional side.' Of course
there were not wanting persons to cloak injustice with a semblance
of legal right, and in practice the system was often successful
where in theory it failed ; but those who have tended to regard
the feudal system as an ordinance of Providence have probably
been less troubled by the theological implications of their doctrine
than were some of the greater minds of the Middle Ages.

It is told of Mr. Andrew Lang, whether truly or not we do
not know, that to the dismay of his publisher he once reviewed
unfavourably one of his own books. Professor Halphen
perhaps more legitimately provides a summary of the contents
of the work. 'The preceding volume,' he says, 'came to an
end with the picture of a vast Empire seemingly destined to
absorb Europe itself. This volume, on the contrary, has offered
Uttle for our consideration save the spectacle of Europe fallen
to fragments, of its kingdoms sundered from one another, and
of disintegration steadily advancing. The alluring dream of
Charles the Great has vanished ; after his death no temporal
prince was found capable of carrying on his work, and it fell
to ruins.' It was a time of travail wherein France and Germany,
whether we consider them as sovereign units or as geographical
expressions, were slow in coming to the birth, and the drama
of Jacob and Esau was played afresh on a larger stage. What-
ever the historical value of the Treaty of Verdun in 843, it set
no barrier either of might or resolution that could not be passed.
It is more profitable, no doubt, to enter into the spirit of the
Querela de divisione Imperii with its lament ' Pro rege est regulus,
pro regno fragmina regni,' than into the egregious nonsense
of Regulus of Cappadocia, who, so Dr. James tells us, in company
with Sedulius of Rome, went without food and sleep for a fort-
night while discussing the inchoative and frequentative forms
of the verb, or the still more absurd Galbungus and Terrentius,
who 'disputed for fourteen consecutive days and nights as
to whether ego had a vocative.' The grammarians of this age
were probably not more completely dehumanized than those
of most other periods, and if the Carolingian scheme of unity
had fallen to pieces, it was not the only possible one, and the
Church was preparing a new Grammar of Assent which in the
interests of another unity formulated supernatural claims
destined to be upheld in only too human a fashion. The story



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1922 Short Notices. 375

is one of fascinating interest, and though the results, as Dr.
Whitney points out, belong to a later volume, we are already
reading the first chapter at least.

We have Uttle space for the discussion of individual con-
tributions. The book deserves to be studied with care through-
out, and while we are not sure that the student will derive an
equally clear impression from all portions, that will depend of
course to some extent upon what he brings to it. There are
probably very few who will not learn much that they did not
know from Dr. James' chapter on Literature, at least in regard
to some of its by-paths ; and if the story is sometimes a little
colourless where in the original authorities it is vivid and even
startling, it must be remembered that we are reading general
history, not a series of essays in biography, nor can a writer in
a work of this kind expect to be allowed space for discussion
of points of detail. Yet we cannot help feeling that the story
of Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland during the period deserved
rather more lifelike treatment, if only for the reason that it
is the side with which most readers will be least familiar.
Dr. Whitney and Mr. Previte-Orton attach less importance
than has sometimes been done to the conjunction of Otto III
and Gerbert of Aurillac, better known as Pope Sylvester II ;
and their opinion is entitled to a good deal of weight. But it
may be doubted whether the ordinary reader would gather from



Online LibrarySociety for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great BThe Church quarterly review → online text (page 35 of 76)