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hn^ec If there was anything great or
praiiewortky in his actions, we must look for
It in his rel^^oos foundations aad his taste for
tfdutecture. He built the grand mosque
named after him, Ahmedye, and he expended
immense sums in embellishing the holy cities
of Medina and Mecca. The Ka'bah was
onamented by him with a sun composed of
pneioiis stones set round a diamond <^ extra-
OTdmary size and beauty, fbr which he had
paid 50,000 ducats. The following remark-
able circumstance was looked upon as omi-
noos by the true believers. Ahmed, the twice
•erenth snhan of the Osmanlis, lived four
times seven years, reigned twice seven, and
when he ascended the throne he was also
twice seven years of age ; so that the three
Best remarluible events of his life are sepa-
ttted by two epochs of twice seven years
each ; he had seven grand vizirs ; he had
•even annts, whom he married to seven great
men of his court ; and he concluded treaties
▼ith seven European powers. (Hammer,
Geaekickte des Osmanuchen Beichea, voL iv. ;
KnoUes, Generai History of the Turks, 6th edit
▼oL il n. 837—944. ; D'Ohsson, Tableau
9^»iralde V Empire Othoman, foL voL ii p. 67,
etc ; QmstitMtiomes Paeis inter fiomanorvm et
TWiicacM imperatorem, 1606 ; Nayma, FesliAet
■/ Tewdrikh CCoBectioH of History), 2 vols. fol.
CoQstantinc^le, a.h. 1147 (a.d. 1734), voL iL
^417.) W. P.

AHMED IL, sultan, son of Sultan Ibra-
him, was bom a.h. 1053 (a.d. 1643), and
neoeeded his brother, Mohammed III. m
1691, after passing ibiW-eight years in the
•erai^ He there cultivated letters, poetry,

T<M^ I.



and music, to alleviate the dulness of his
secluded life ; but he became a prey to
bigotry and the darkest melancholy. Such
a temperament and such tastes could hardly
produce an energetic prince ; nor had Ah-
med in reality more than the name of sul-
tan. He left all the cares of government to
his grand vizir Koprili, the third of that
name who attained the high office of first
minister. Kopnli, an excellent man, and
well worthy of the titles of holy and virtuous,
which were given him by his contemporaries,
had prepared everything for placing Ahmed
on the throne ; but neitibier the minister nor
sultan could extricate the Porte from the
dangerous situation in which it stood at thaC
epoch. The war with Germany was raging
with the utmost fiiry. The Imperialists,
commanded by the greatest captains of the
age, such as Prince Eugene and Prince Louis
of Baden, always had the advantage ; until
the Turks, having received reinforcements,
made a stand at Slankamen, to measure their
strength with the enemy. A bloody batde was
fought on the 19th of August, 1691 ; the Im-
perialists lost Duke Christian of Holstein, and
the Ck)unts of Kaunitz and Starhemberg ; but
the Turks were routed with dreadfiil slaughter.
They lost 150 cannons, with their camp
and military chest ; and the enemy obtained an
inunense booty. The ^p*and vizir Koprili,
Safer, the aga of the Janissaries, and Ibrahim
Pasha were left dead on the field with 5,000
Turks. The fbrtress of Grand- Waradin
soon surrendered to the Emperor Leopold I.
Dangerous intrigues in the seraglio, the
plague, fiunine, and a violent earthquake at
Smyrna, completed the calamity. Ahmed,
infiiriated by so many misfortunes, changed
his ministers, and beheaded or strangled many
eminent men. But the people, exasperated
by these calamities, were still more provoked
by the imprudent measures of the sultan, and
showed their dissatisfiustion in the usual man-
ner by setting fire to the houses. On the 5th
of September, 1693, a dreadfiil conflagration
broke out in the most populous quarter of
Constantinople, and raged without inter-
ruption for twenty-three hours ; and, as a
Airther addition to the public calamities, the
Arabs pillaged the grand Mecca caravan.
The war with Austria was still continued
with unceasing animosity on the part of the
Turks, whose pride was m nowise humiliated
bjr all their reverses. Lord Paget, the En-
glish ambassador at the Porte, in vain offered
himself as mediator between the sultan and
the emperor. France, to whom this war was
most advantageous, contrived to frustrate all
attempts at mediation on the part of England.
The result, however, was unfiivourable to the
Turks; they were beaten at Lippa and Wara-
din in Hungary, and discomfited in Dalmatia
by the Venetians, who seized the island of
Chios and threatened Smyrna in 1694.
Overwhelmed by so many humiliating



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AHMED.



events, Ahmed sank under the disease from
which he had long suffered, and died <^
dropsy on the 6th of February, 1695. He was
succeeded by Mustafii IL Ahmed, having
passed the greater part of his life in the seraglio,
was weak and credulous. But his piety fre-
quentlv prevented him from indulging in
those fits of passion to which he was naturally
subject, especially after drinking, for he was
addicted to spirituous liquors. He was
passionately fond of music, and he wrote
several poems in the Persian language ; his
handwriting was beautifuL These occu-
pations fillMl up his time, for he always left
tibie cares of government to others. The fol-
lowing trait is honourable to his humanity.
After his accession to the throne, ** I have
been," said he to his deposed brother Mo-
hammed III., ** forty years a prisoner, whilst
you were on the throne. Yon suffered me
to live, and I will do the same by you : be
not idarmed on that head." (Hammer,
OeachiclUe dea Osmanischen Beiehes, vol. vi.,
who cites Rashid I., foL 172—205.) W. P.
AHMED IIL, sultan, son of Mohammed
IV., was bom on the 3d Ramazan, a. h. 1084
(12th December, 1673). He ascended the
throne on the 10th of Rebiul-akhir, a.h.
1115 (23d August, 1703), after a mutiny of
the Janissaries, who deposed his brother
Mustafa IL Ahmed, contrary to the cus-
tom of his predecessors, announced his ac-
cession to the throne to the emperor, the
kings of England and France, and other
Christian princes, from whom he received
congratulatory answers. The first years of
his reign were troubled by intestine com-
motions of eyerj kind, and sudden changes of
ministers ; for m fifteen years he had four-
teen grand vizirs. In 1707, religious quarrels
broke out among the Armenian Catholics at
Constantinople, who were excited by the
Jesuits and supported by France, who also
protected at the same time the revolted Pro-
testants of Hungary. But after the decapitation
of the Armenian patriarch Sari, on the 5th of
November, 1707, the disturbances ceased. In
the same year the Turkish army attacked the
Tcherkesses and experienced a severe defeat.
Upon this, Ahmed chose for his grand vizir
'Ali Chorlili, an active and enterprising
man, who increased the navy, and estaolished
a foundery for casting anchors, which, till
then, had always been procured from Eng-
land. These events were simultaneous with
the war between Peter the Great and Charles
XII., who after the loss of the battle of Pul-
tawa suddenly appeared on the Turkish
territory. It is generally believed that
Charles XII., in advancing into the Ukraine,
had merely fc^owed his own rash councils ;
but it is now known that in penetrating so ftu*
his object was to get nearer to Turkey,
whose alliance had been proposed to him
some time before by an agent named Mo-
hammed Efendi, despatched to him at Danzig
522



by the Pasha of Oczakow. [Charges XIL]
Charles found means to rekindle the war be-
tween Turkey and Russia, and Baltaji Mo-
hammed, the new grand vizir, reduced the
czar to a very dangerous situation on the
Pruth ; but, weak-minded and covetous, he
traitorously sold the honour of his country
and the fortune of Charles by the peace of
the Pruth (22d July, 1711), which was not,
however, altogether without advantage to die
sultan, as Russia restored to him the fortress
of Azof In 1714 the war with Vadce and
Austria began. Ahmed placed himself at the
head of his army to oppose the Venetians,
and accompanied it as ftur as Larissa in
Thessaly. The Morea was conquered in a
single campaign ; but the Turkish forces
were less fortunate in Hungary. On the
5th of August, 1716, the grand vizir Damah
'Ali Pasha, at the head of 150,000 men, was
completely defeated by Prince Eugene, at
Peterwaradin, and the grand vizir was left dead
on the field of battle, with 6000 of his men.
The issue of the war was decided on the
16th of August, 1717, by the battle of Bel-
grade, in which the Turks were routed with
great slaughter. Peace was concluded at
Passarowicz on the 21st of July, 1718. Of
her Venetian conquests Turkey retained
the Morea, but was obliged to cede to Aus-
tria, Belgrade, Orsowa, Temeswar, Servia,
and a part of Walachia. A fire desolated
Constantinople on the 17th of July, 1718,
which continued to bum for twenty-four
hours. Ahmed concluded an ** eternal
peace " with Russia on the 16th of November,
1720, on the footing of the treaty of the
Pruth, but he recognised Peter only as czar
and not as emperor. In the same year
a Prussian agent named Jurgowski app^ired
at Constantinople for the first time. in
1723 Ahmed declared war against Persia,
occupied Georgia, and made several conquests,
which he divided with Peter the Great. For
the retrieving of his affairs he was indebted
to the grand vizir Ibrahim Pasha, a man of
superior abilities, who administered the go-
vernment from 1718 to 1730. Ibrahim not
only made the Porte respected abroad, bat
consolidated the internal peace of his country.
He published proclamations against luxury
and the rage for flowers, whicK was then
as great in Turkey as in Holland : whole
palaces were filled with tulips, and with lamps
placed between them of colours to correspcmd
with the flowers, thus producing the most
brilliant effect Ibrahim established two im-
perial libraries, and three for public use, at
Constantinople ; and in 1 727, a printing-office,
the first in Turkey, was founded at Constanti-
nople under the patronage of Ibr£him, by the
Hungarian renege Ibrahim Basmaji, who in
less than twelve years published sixteen c^reat
works concerning history, moral and gram-
matical science. [Ibra'hi'm Basma'ji'.]
Able writers translated into Turkish the



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AHMED.



AHMED.



(Jnirenal History of the Arabian A'yni, en-
titled '*Akd-ul-jeman fi Tarikhi Ehlif-
xeman" {** Coral-knots of the History of
Contemporaries''), and another universal
history written in Persian by Rhuand. Under
Ahmed IH. and his yizir Ibrahim the in-
fluence of the West oyer the East made great
progress. In 1730 Turkey was suddenly
inyaded by Tahmasp, Shah of Persia, who
took up arms to recover the provinces, which
had heea lost 8C»ne years before. Ibrahim
was ready to march against him, and the
Saltan himself had resolved to aeccmipany his
army, when news arrived that the Turkish
forces had been completely beaten, and that
the Shah was advancing by forced marches.
The saltan and grand vizir were in the
conntry at the time, little expecting such a
misfortane. Suddenly, on the 15th of Re-
bhd-ewwal, A.H. 1143 (28th September,
1730), the Janissaries, who attributed the
reverses of the army to the grand vizir,
boTBt out into open rebellion. The sultan
and his vizir hastened to Ck)nstantinople, and
there Ibrahim was assasdnated, and Ahmed
was compelled to abdicate on the 17th (18th?)
of Rebiol-ewwal (30th September, or 1st Oc-
tober). His nephew ascended the throne
onder the name of Mahmud L

Notwithstanding his reverses, the reign of
Ahmed HL waa glorious. He was a person
of majestic stature, and of a mild but eom-
reanding presence ; his voice was remarkably
harmonioiis, and he possessed every quality
ealeolated to win the affections of women.
He was tenderly beloved by his wives, by
whom he had thirty-one children. He
lored whatever gratifies the senses, such as
nnging birds, sweetmeats, flowers, rich
eloUies, and fine buildings ; and he cultivated
letters and poetry with some success. He
died oi apoi^exy m the month of Moharrem,
1152 (AprU, 17S9), at the age of sixty-six,
nine years after lus deposition. (Hammer,
OetcftadUe des Oamaniacken Eeickes, vol. vii.
book 62 — 65. ; Storia ddU due BibeUioni,
mguUe in Coiutantmopol^ neR 1730 e 1731,
ftma Depogizione de Ahmed IIL, jfc., com-
poeta tojpra Mcmuscritti originaU^ m Fenezto,
1787, Sva ; Luigi di St filer, Lettere par-
tieolari tcritte in C(m8tarUin(moli dal 1720
mod 1724, regnante Ahmed lIL, Bassano,
1737, 4.; Ferrari Girolamo, NoHzie histo-
rkke dtSa Lega tra S. M, Carlo VL e la
BepmbL di Venezia contro Ahmed IIL, Ve-
BCiia, 1723, 4to., and 1736, 4to.) W. P.

AHMED IV., or more correctly 'ABDU-
L-HAMn> I., was bom on the 5th of Rejib,
A.H. 1137 (20th March, 1725), and suc-
eeeded Mostafii HL on the 3d of Shawwal,
A.H. 1187 (241^1 December, 1773). Ham-
mer, in the genealogical tables at the end of
the eighth volume of his work cited below,
places his tnrth on the 2d of March, 1775 ;
and in Ersch and Gruber's ^ Allgemeine £n-
cyctopsdie," he places fiis accession to the
523



throne on the 2 1st of January, 1774, and his
death in 1780 ; but the first and the third of
these dates are typographical errors, and as
to his accession, it is correct to place it on the
day of the death of his predecessor, who died
on the 24th of December, 1773. It is only
the date of the installation of this sultan,
which took place in the beginning of Janu-
ary, which authorises us to say, as the his-
torians generally do, that he came to the
throne in 1774. Turkey was then engaged
in a dangerous war with Russia, which was
undertaken for the purpose of preventing
Poland from being partitioned among Russia,
Prussia, and Austria. However, the Porte
had not only declared war before she was
able to measure herself with her formidable
neighbour [Ahmed Resmi Pasha], but her
armies were commanded by incompetent
generals. The Russians had conquex^ all
the Turkish provinces north of the Caucasus
and the Danube, and when Ahmed succeeded
Musta& they had crossed that river. Im-
mediately after the accession of the new
sultan, the Turks were beaten at Basaijik,
and routed in the battle of Koslge on the
19th (O. S. 9th) of January, 1774 j and such
was the disorganization of the Turkish army,
that Neyli Ahmed, a pasha of three tails, was
sent to Adrianople for the sole purpose of
preventing the cowards and deserters from
escaping to their homes. Educated in the se-
raglio, ignorant, without experience, without
character and energy, and full of that haughti-
ness which is peculiar to men of high rank
who live in a narrow sphere of life, Ahmed
was overpowered by circumstances. As early
as the 14th of July, the grand vizir, Musa
Oghli, was entirely surrounded at Shumla by
the Russian general Kamenski, who, al-
though he did not force that strong position,
was ready to descend into the plain of
Adrianople, when the Turks, at last, ac-
cepted proposals for peace. It was concluded
on the 17th of July, 1774, at Kuchuk Kai-
naiji, which was chosen by the Russians as
the place of negotiation, because they wished
to humble the Turks, who, some time before,
had gained a battle there over General
Weissmann, who lost his life. For the same
reason the Russian ministers did not sign the
treaty before the 22d of July, which was the
anniversary of the peace of the Fruth, By
this peace, which was concluded without any
foreign mediation, Russia obtained the Great
and die Little Kabarda, between the Kuban,
the Terek, and the Caucasus ; the fortresses
of Azo^ Kilbum, Kertsh, and Yenikale ; the
tract between the Bog and the Dniepr ; the
free navigaticm on the Black Sea and the sea
of Marmara ; the co-protectorship over Mol-
davia and Walachia, as well as the pro-
tectorship over all the Greek churches of
the Turkish empire. The Ehanat of the
Crimea was separated from Turkey, and ac-
knowledged as an independent state, although
H M 2



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it became dependent upon Russia ; and the
sultan yna obliged to consent to the division
of Poland, and to recognise the czars of
Russia as emperors, hj giving them the title
of Padishah.

The peace of Carlowicz had broken the
power of Turkey, but that of Kuchuk Kai-
naiji destroyed its political independence,
and brought it under the direct influence of
Russia. Austria was neutral during this war,
and yet Ahmed was compelled to pay for mere
neutrality by ceding the province of Bur
kowina, the bulwark of Transylvania, by
which Austria obtained an easy communica-
tion between Transylvania and the kingdom of
palicia, her share in the partition of Poland.
A struggle with Russia to recover political
independence became necessary, and was ac-
celerated by the haughtiness of Russia. As
early as 1783 the Empress Catherine the Se-
cond annihilated the ridiculous independence
of the Ehanat of the Crimea, which was
united with Russia, and in 1784 the sultan
was obliged to recognise this usurpation. He
now invited French officers to exercise his
troops, and to fortify the fortresses on the
Austrian and Russian frontier. The alliance
between the Emperor Joseph II. and Cathe-
rine left no doubt that his next war would be
against their united forces. Notwithstanding
the lesson they had received in the last war,
the Turks rashly began hostilities against
Russia in 1787, by assailing the fortress of
Kilbum; and in the month of February,
1788, they were in their turn attacked by
the Austrian troops. On the 17th of De-
cember, 1788, the Russian general Potemkin
took Oczakow by storm, and although the
grand vizir Yusuf gained some advantages in
Hungary over the Imperialists, the state of
Turkey became so hopeless, that the sultan
was obliged to force his subjects to sell him
all their silver at the rate of a hundred pias-
ters for an okka weight, or two pounds and a
half of silver. This was the only means of
providing for the expense of a new cam-
paign, and the treasury thus gained more
than sixty per cent Before the new cam-
paign began, Ahmed died, on the 7th of
April, 1789, in a state of physical and moral
exhaustion. His successor was Selim III.

Besides the political events, the reign of
Ahmed is remarkable for the re-opening of
the printing-offices, which had ceased to be
worked thirty years before his accession, but
which were again brought into activity by
Reshid and Wassif, both Reis-Efendis, and
known as Turkish historians. (Hammer,
Gesckickte des Osmanischen Reiches, vol. viii.
p. 430 — 448. 585. ; Hammer in Ersch und
Gruber, AUgemeine EncyclopcBdie^ s. v. Ab-
dul-Hamid ; Ahmed Resmi Pasha, Khula-
satul-itebar^ translated into German under
the title of Wesentliche Betrachtungen, by
Diez. Berlin, 1813.) W. P.

AHMED IBN *ABDI-R-RABBIHI
524



(Abu 'Omar Ibn Habib Ibn Hodeyr Ibn
Selim), an historian and poet of note, was
bom at Cordova, on the 10th day of Rama-
dhan, a. h. 246 (Nov* A. d. 860). He was de-
scended from an enfranchised slave of Hi-
sham I., second sultan of Mohanmiedan Spain,
of the dynasty of Umeyyah. He studied at
Cordova under the most eminent prc^essors,
and as he was endowed with a great memory,
he soon became deeply learned in sacred tra-
ditions, and acquired great historical inform-
ation. He was likewise an excellent poet,
and passes as the inventor of a species of me-
trical composition, called by the Arabs " mo-
washshahat,'* and not dissimilar in structure
from the old Spanish romances. (Casiri, Bib.
Arab. Hisp. Esc. i. 127) Ahmed's chief
work is an historical cyclopaedia, divided into
twenty-five books, each containing two clus-
ters. The title is " Kitabu-l-*ikd" ("The
Book of the Pearl Necklace"), and each of the
twenty-five books of which it is composed is
denominated after one of the twenty-five pearls
which form a necklace, and have a particular
name in the Arabic language. The con-
tents of the work are various essays upon
history, genealogy, the science of war and
that of government, eloquence, justice, li-
berality, courage, magnanimity ; women and
their good or bad qualities, houses, camels,
weapons, hostages, encampments, &c. The
fifteenth book, entitled " Al-'osgadah fi-1-
kholafa wa iyamihim wa tawarikhihim "
(« The Book of the Pearl, called 'Oqadah"),
treating of the khali& and of their history
and chronology, is undoubtedly the most in-
teresting of all, as it contains much valuable
information on the history of the Arabs, both
in the East and in the West The second
chapter of the same book is wholly occupied
with the history of Mohammedan Spain.
There are in the Bodleian library several
detached fragments of this interesting work,
which in its original state must have con-
sisted of at least ten folio volumes. The
historian Al-homaydi, who in a.d. 1086
wrote a biographical dictionary of illustrious
Moslems bom in Spain, bestows great praise
on Ahmed Ibn 'Abdi-r-rabbihi, whom he
calls the phoenix of his age, and the restorer
of good taste in poetry. He adds that he
saw in Cordova a copy of the " 'Ikd," which
the author had written himself for the use
of ^ Prince Al-hakem, son of 'Abdu-r-rah-
man III. of Cordova, under whose reign
Ahmed lived and died. He wrote also other
minor works, the titles of which have not
been preserved; and he published a diwan,
or coUection of his own poems, which he
entitled "Al-maharat" (" Purifications "), be-
cause every erotic piece in it is followed by
another on morality and devotion ; as if he
had intended to purify the profene j^eas of
the one by the religious sentiments of the
other. Ahmed Ibn 'Abdi-r-rabbihi died on
Sunday, the 18th of Jumada the first, a.h.



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326 (March, a.d.940), and was buried the
next day in the cemetery of the Bern 'Abbas
at Cordova. Shortly after the death of Ah-
med, his large work was abridged by Abu
Isli^ Ibrahim Ibn ' Abdi-r-rahman Al-kaysi,
a native of Guadix in the province of Gra-
nada, who died in a.h. 570 (a.d. 1174-5), as
well as by Jemalu-d-din Abu-1-fedhl Mo-
hammed Ibn . Mukarram Al-khazreji, the
author of an excellent work on rhetoric, en-
titled "Lisanu-l-'arab" ("The Language of
the Arabs "). Some extracts from the " 'Ikd "
have been given by Mr. Fresnel, in his
"Letters." (Al-homaydi, Jadhwaiu-l-mok'-
tabis, MS. BodL Lib. Hunt No. 464. ; Al-
makkan, Mokam, Dyn. L 338. ; Ibn Khal-
lekan, Biog. Diet L 92. ; Haji Khal&h, Lex,
BibL voc. " 'Ikd ; " Casiri, Bib. Arab. Hisp.
Esc. I 157. iL 134. ; Conde, Hist de la Dom.
L 425.) P. de G.

AHMED BEN ABrL-ASH'ATH, an
Arabic physician, whose complete names
were Abu Ja'&r Ahmed Ben Mohammed
Ben Ahmed Ben Abil-Ash'ath. Ibn Abi
'Ossaybi'ah, who has given an account of his
life in his " Pontes Relationum de Classibus
Medicorum," cap. x. § 34., says that he had
many scholars, and notices especially the
greatness of hk abilities, the uprightness of
his mtentions, his love of learning, the quiet-
ness and soberness of his manners, and his
carefolness about the things of heaven. He
died at a great age, about a. h. 360 (a. d.
970-1). He wrote several works, chiefly
medicsd, none of which have been published,
either in the original language, or in a trans-
lation : two of them (namely, his treatises on
Animals, and on Colic) were abridged by
*AMu-*l-lattif. (Wiistenfeld, Geschichte der
Arabischen Aerzte ; NicoU and Pusey, Catal.
Codd. MSS. Arab. Biblioth. Bodl. p. 583.)

W. A. G.

AHMED IBN ABI' MERWAN IBN
SHOHEYD, somamed Abu ' A'mir Al-ashjai,
a celebrated Arabian poet, was bom at Cor-
dova, m A. H. 382 (a. d. 992). He was the
«on of 'Abdu-1-malek Ibn Shoheyd, a dis-
tinguished functionary of the court of Al-ha-
kem IL of Cordova, [*Abdu-l-malek,] and
the grandson of Ahmed Ibn Shoheyd, who
had been Dhu-1-wizarateyn * (holder of
the double vizirate) during the khalifete of
Abdn-r-rahman An-nasir lidinillah, the
ei^ith of the Beni Umeyyah of Spain.
Ahatd was one of the most learned men of
his time ; be was a great favourite of Al-
mnaiir, the hajib (chamberlain) of Hi-
shaa n., who raised him to posts of honour
Md trust, and distinguished bun above all the
other poets oH the court Ahmed wrote the fol-
lowing works : — " Kashfu-d-dakk wa *idhahu-
sh-sh^Lk," ("The unravelling of Subtlety,
and clearing of Doubt"), which, according
to H^i TChftliith (XejT. BiU.), is a treatise

* A tkle giren to those vizfrs who were at the same
timt faivcstcd with dvil and military authority.
525



on legerdemain; " At-tawdbi* wa az-sawlibi',''
which Mr. Fluegel (Lex. Bibliog. No. 3711.)



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