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** Monumenta Kempiana ;" and in 1724, when
the society resolved to have an account drawn
up of all ancient coins, the Roman coins were
undertaken bj him and Roger Grale. His
next publications were two short archso-
logical tracts ; the one entitled "IJEION,
sive, ex Veteris Monumenti Isiaci Descripr
tione, Isidis Belubrum reseratum," 4to. 1729,
consisting of only four pages, besides the
dedication to James West, Esq. ; the other
entitled " De Clypeo CanuUi antiquo," 4to.,
1734, which had previously appeal^ at the
end of the ** Museum Woodward iannm," or
account of the antiquarian collections of Dr.
John Woodward, published after Woodward's
death in 1728, under the superintendence of
Ainsworth, by whom it was in part drawn
up. His Latm Dictionary, the work that has
preserved his name, is said to have been
suggested by the booksellers so early as about
the year 1714 ; and the first edition of it ap-
peared, with the title of ** Thesaurus LingusB
Latins compendiarius ; or, a Compendious
Dictionary of the Latin Tongue, designed,
principally for the use of the British Nations,"
in one volume, 4to., in 1736. It was inscribed
to Dr. Mead in a Latin dedication, written
with Ainsworth's usual elegance of style.
The republication of his early tract by Curll
the same year was probably occasioned by
the reputation to which Ainsworth was im-
mediately raised by this performance, which
was certainly much superior to any work of
the kind that had previously appeared in this
country, and, with the improvements made
upon it in successive editions, long continued
to be our best Latin and English Dictionary.
It appears that the sum Ainsworth received
from the booksellers for this first edition, in
which he is supposed to have been assisted
by Dr. Samuel Patrick, was 666i 17 s. 6df.,
and his executors were paid 25021 more for
what he had contributed before his death to
a second edition, which was brought out in
1746, under the superintendence of Patrick,
with a preface containing a short biographical
account of the deceased, author. Dr. John
Ward is also said to have assisted in this
edition, which, like the former, was in one
volume 4to. A third edition, little if any-
thing more than a reprint, followed in 1751,
under the care of Mr. Kimber ; and a fourth,
in one volume folio, in 1752, with great im-
provements by the Reverend William Toung
(the Parson Adams of Fielding's ** Joseph
Andrews"), assisted by Ward. Young's
edition was reprinted in 1761 ; in 1773 an-
other edition, in two volumes 4to., was pro-
duced under the care of the Rev. Thomas
Morell (the learned author of the Greek
Prosodiacal Lexicon); and several other
editions have since appeared. The latest, we
believe, is that published at London in one
large 8vo. volume, revised by the Rev. B. W.

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B. Beatdon, A,M., of Pembroke College,
Cambrid^ and farther revised and corrected
by William Ellis, Esquire, A. M., King's
College, Aberdeen. There are also abridg-
ments by Toung and by Mr. Nathaniel
Thomas. {Biog, Brit, principaUy on the
anthority of Patrick's Preface to the Die-
iUmary; ArchaciogicL, vol. I p.xxxyiL; and
Ainsworth's yarious publications.) G. L. C.
. AiO, AYON, or AJO'NE, younger son of
AdelgisQS, prince of Beneventum, succeeded
his elder brother, Radelchis, a.d. 883, in
omsequence of a revolution. His reign was
a troubled one. He had to fight against Wido,
duke of Spoletum, who took hun prisoner,
but he was afterwards liberated. Waider,
nephew of Adelgisus, who had put himself
under the protection of the Byzantines, made
also war against Aio, and, being supported
by the Emperor Leo, took fr<»n him the
greater part of his dominions. In 890 Aio
died, and was succeeded by his in£mt son
Ursns, and in the following year the By-
zantines took possession of Beneventum,
and put an end to the Longobard dynasty,
which had lasted 330 years. (Qiannone,
Storia Civile del Regno ai Napdi; C. Pere-
grinius, Historia Principum LangobcwdorunL)

AIO was, according to the history attri-
buted to Ingulphus, a monk of Croyland, who,
when that monastery fell into decay on the
death of King Athelstan, a. d. 941, retired to
that of Bialmesbury, and remained there till
recalled to his former place of residence by
ihe abbot Turketul, b^ whom the house at
Croyland was re-established in 947, the second
year of King Edred. Of the former monks,
originally twenty-eight in number, there re-
mained at this time, besides Aio, only four
other old men: brother Brunus, who had
taken refuge in the monastery of Winchester,
and brothers Clarenbaldus, Swarttingus (else-
where called Swarlingus) and Thur^arus,
who had never left Croyland. Aio is de-
scribed as learned in the science of law (juris-
peritus), and well acquainted with the ancient
muniments of the monastery, and on that
account he was appointed by Turketul to
arrange an account of the house fh)m its
fimndation, on the information of the other
iged Invthren, and especially of Thurgarus,
who had been brought up in it fh)m his in-
fimcy and remembered the sacking of the
^aee and the massacre of the monks by the
Danes in the year 870. Another monk,
Bamed Swetmannus, was assigned to assist
him in the work, who is described as an ex-
edknt notary or scribe (optimum notarium),
and whose duty was to be to take down
ibt statements of the ancient brethren, that
Ihej might be afterwards arranged and put
into a good style, probably by Aio. The
history is said to have been actually brought
down to the foorteenth year of King Ed^,
that k| the year 974, in which both Aio and

Brunus died. The great age which Thtirjgiarui
must have attained, who is represent^ as
having survived Aio for two or three years,
has been made an objection to this story ; but
that is comparatively nothing. Ingulphus, or
the writer of the history which passes under
his name, is a very bold narrator. It is true
that he makes Thurgarus to have died in 976,
at the age of 115; but he has just before
stated that Swarlingus died in 975, at 142, and
Clarenbaldus, as well as Aio and Brunus, in
974, at 168 (reduced in the more modest
manuscripts to 148). No part of the his-
tory prepared by Aio and his colleagues re*
mains, although In^phus seems to speak
of it as existing in his time. (Ingulphus, His-
toria Croyland, in Gale, Rerum Angh Scrip-
tores, p. 29, 30. 32. 48. 61.) G. L. C.

AIR AY, HENRY, D.D., a divine of the
Church of England, who has been ranked
among the Puritans on account of his non-
conformity to certain minor observances ap-
pointed by the Church of England, such as
bowing at the name of Christ He was bom
in Westmoreland in 1660, and educated
under Bernard Gilpin, by whom he was sent,
at the age of nineteen, to Oxford, where he
studied first in St Edmund's Hall, and after-
wards in Queen's College, of which he be-
came provost He was vice-chancellor of
the university in 1606, when Laud was called
before him to answer for sentiments alleged
to be popish, which he had expressed in a
sermon at Oxford. Dr. Airay died on the
6th of October, 1616, at the age of fifty-six,
and was buried in the inner chapel of Queen's
College. His religious opinions were Cal-
vinistic, his piety was sincere and unaffected,
his character was such as to draw upon him
a degree of admiration from which his mo-
desty shrunk, and his government of his
college was most efficient His works were —
1. "Lectures upon the whole Epistle to the
Philippians, 1618." 2. "The just and ne-
cessary Apology touching his Suit in Law
for the Rectory of Charlton on Otmore, in
Oxfordshire, 1621." 3. " A Treatise against
bowing at the Name of Jesus." (Wood's
Athena Oxonienses, i. 348. ; Brook's Lives of
the Puritans, iL 247.) P. S.

Italian lady of a noble family of Genoa,
devoted herself to painting as a profession.
She was the pupil of Domenico Fiasella of
Sarzana, and executed several works of con-
siderable merit An altar-piece which she
painted for the church of Gesu e Maria at
Genoa has been praised for its tasteful com-
position. She painted also several pieces for
the convent of San. Bartolomeo dell' Olivella,
of which she was a sister, and in which she
died, according to Orlandi, in 1670. (So-
prani, Vite de^±*ittori, ^c, Genovesi; Orlauidi,
Abecedario Pitiorico.) R. N. W.


AiSSE', MADEMOISELLE, a Circassian.
P P 3

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%y birth, was icarried off by tbe Turks in
the pillage of a Circassian town, and in 1698,
when about four years of age, was sold to
M. de Ferriol, the French ambassador at
Constantinople, for 1500 fhmcs. She was
Immediately consigned to the sister-in-law of
the ambassador, Madame de Ferriol, under
whose protection she received a careful edu-
cation in all the accomplishments of her time.
When arrived at maturity she went to reside
with M. de Ferriol, who at first treated her
with the affection of a parent, but sub-
seqtiently, abusing the powers and oppor-
tunities which his situation gave him, suc-
ceeded in seducing her. After the death of
M. de Ferriol she received many solicitations
from the Regent Duke of Orleans, who met
her at the house of Madame de Parabdre, but
which she steadily resisted. After a long
struggle she yielded to her passion for the
Chevalier d' Aydie, who appears to have been
well worthy of her affection. As a knight of
Malta he could not marry, but he was anxious
to be freed from his vows in order that he
might be united to her. This sacrifice of his
interests she would never consent to. When
she found herself likely to become a mother,
she confided her situation to her friend Lady
Bolingbroke, who, under the pretence of
taking her with her to England, placed her
privately in a remote quarter of Paris, where
she gave birth to a daughter. The infant
was conveyed to Ehigland by Lady Boling-
broke, and received her early education
there ; she was afterwards placed in a con-
vent at Sens under the name of Miss Black,
niece of Lord Bolingbroke. Although living
at a period when French manners were
characterised by the extreme of profligacy.
Mademoiselle Aisse appears always to have
retained her purity of mind, and to have
erred rather through an excess of romantic
generosity of temper than a want of moral
principle, and some time after the birth of
her daughter she resolved to live with the
chevalier onlpr as a sister. The same
strength of mmd which had enabled her to
resist all sacrifices on his part supported
her in her present purpose, and the remain-
der of her life was spent in penitence. She
died in the year 1733. Her letters, which
are written in a very simple and pleasing
style, and which display much depth of feel-
ing, were printed at Paris in 1787, in 12mo.,
with notes by Voltaire. A subsequent edition
was published at Paris in 1823, in 12mo.,
with a biographical notice by the Baron de
Barante, and explanatory notes by L. S.
Auger. (Barante, Melanges Historiques et
Litiirairea, iii. 333 — 342. } Querai^, La
France Littiraire.) J. W. J.

Philip the Magnanimous, Landgraf of Hesse.
An interest attaches to him, from the manner
in which he threw away his life to preserve

his fidelity io his master and the Protestant
dause. Sebastian Aitinger was bom in
Ulm, in 1508. He was bred a notary, and
acted for some time as secretary to the town
council. On the occasion of some quarrel
with his employers, he quitted their service,
and entered that of the Landgraf of Hesse.
He was employed by that prince as his private
secretary, and thus became acquainted with
all the secrets of the league of Schmalkalden.
When the Emperor Charles V. made Philij>
prisoner, in the beginning of 1547, an eager
search was made by the Imperialists for his
secretary, in order to extort frova. him the
secrets of the Protestant princes who were
members of the league. Sebastian sought
refttge in his native town, where, notwith-
standing his former quarrel with the au-
thorities, he was hospitably received; but
haunted by a constant fear of falling into the
hands of the Roman Catholic princes, and
being forced to reveal the secrets with which
he had been intrusted, he left the town, and
lurked in the vicinity. He was jattacked by
a fever in the beginning of November, 1547,
while stopping at Burloffingen, near Ulm.
On the evening of the 8th, an alarm wa»
given that twenty men at arms belonging ta
the Imperialist army were approaching the
village. Aitinger immediately fled, sick as
he was, swam across the Danube, and took
refuge in the residence of a nobleman who
protected him. Here his fever increased to
such a degree as quickly put an end to his
life. His devotion was long held in thankfiil
remembrance by those who would have
been compromised by evidence which torture
might have forced from him. When Ai-»
tinger's son, many years afterwards, was
presented to the Landgraf Philip, he ob-
served, ** This lad*8 father died for me ;
would that there were more such servants."
(Ersch und Gruber's AUgemeine Encydo^
padie,) W. W.

AITKEN, JOHN, M.D., was one of the
surgeons of the royal infirmary of Edinburgh^
and gave lectures in that city on the practice
of physic, anatomy, surgery, midwifery, and
chemistry. He was admitted member of the
College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1770,
and died in 1790. His works are numerous,
and embrace many of the leading subjects of
medicine; and though several of them are
merely the text-books of his lectures, they
contain much valuable information, are well
written, and show him to have been ftilly con-
versant with the literature and philosophy as
well as the practical department of his pro-
fession. He introduced an alteration in the-
mode of locking the midwifery forceps, so as
to "render this matter easier to the prac-
titioner, and the whole instrument more safe
to the mother and child ;*' and -he invented a
flexible blade to the lever. He likewise in-
vented, and described in his '* Essays and
Cases in Surgery,*' a pair of forceps for

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diyiding and dimmisliiiig the 8t6iie ia the
bladder, -when too large to be removed entire i
by the wound in lithotomy. His works are
— " Essays on several Important Subjects in
Surgery, chiefly with regard to the Nature
and Ciure of Fractures." London, 1771, 8va
^Essays and Cases in Surgery." London,
1775, 8vo. "CJonspectus rei Chirurgise."
Edinburgh, 1777, 8vo. " Medical Improve-
ment : an Address to the Medical Society of
Edinburgh." Edinburgh, 1777, 12mo. "Ele-
ments of the Theory and Practice of Surgery,"
Edinburgh, 1779, 8vo., which was republished
with the " Elements of the Theory and Prac-
tice of Physic," thus forming two vols., en-
titled " Elements of the Theory and Practice
of Physic and Surgery." London, 1783, 8va
** Outlines of the Theory and Cure of Fever."
London, 1781, 12mo. "Principles of Mid-
wifery, or Puerperal Medicine." 1784, 8vo.
♦* Osteology, or a Treatise on the Bones of
the Human Skeleton." London, 1785, 8vo.
"Principles of Anatomy and Physiology."
Edinbui^ 1786, two vols. 8vo. "Essays
on Fractures and Luxations." London, 1790,
8va CWiiU,Biblwth. BriU,; Aitken's Works,)

G. M.a

AlTOGHDI-ALP, the son of Gundus-
Alp, and nephew of Osman first sultan of the
Oraianlis, whose favourite he was on account
of his valour. He fell by the hand of a
Greek noble in the battle fought in a. h. 701
(iu D. 1301) between Osman and Muzalus,
general of die Byzantine guards, whose army
was defeated. Seventeen years after Osman
avenged his nephew's death, by beheading
die son of the man that killed him, who had
fdlen into his hands at the taking of Brusa,
of which town that young Greek was com-
mandant Altoghdi-Alp was buried near
Brusa, where his tomb still remains, and is
fiunous for the virtues which it is said to
possess, of curing diseased horses that are
kd to look at it (Hammer, Geschichie dea
OtmoMuchm Retches, voL I p. 68.) W. P.

AITON, WILLIAM, was bom m 1731,
at a small village near Hamilton in Scotland.
He visited England in 1754, and became
assistant to Mr. Philip Miller, the author of
the Gardener's Dictionary, who was at that
time the curator of the Botanic Garden at
Chelsea. Whilst with Miller, he assiduously
eokivated a knowledge of plants as well as
their practical management in the garden ;
and in 1759 he was appointed by George III.
to form and arrange a botanic garden at the
iml residence at Kew. He continued in
this nitnation till his death in 1793, and lost
no of^xntunity which his &vourable circum-
stances afforded him of introducing new and
lare finms of foreign plants. He had at one
time under his care in this garden upwards
oi 6000 species of plants, and was remarkable
for the success with which he managed them,
and the iminrovements which he introduced
into their cultivation* In 1783, on die death,

of Mr. Haverfield, he was appointed to the
superintendence of the pleasure and kitchen
gardens. The opportunities that he possessed
at Kew of becoming acquainted with new
plants resulted in the publication of a de-
scriptive catalogue of the plants grown there,
under the tide " Hortus Kewensis, or a
Catalogue of the Plants cultivated in the
Royal Botanic Garden at Kew." London,
1789. 3 vols. 8vo. In this work a descrip-
tion of each species is given, with much in-
teresting incidental matter with regard to
their introduction, cultivation, and other
matters. Aiton received assistance in this
work from Dr. Solander and Mr. Dryander,
foreign naturalists residing in this country,
and the whole of the work is arranged ac-
cording to the system of LinnsBus.

A second edition of this work, in five
volumes, appeared in 1810-13, edited by Mr.
William Townsend Aiton, son of the subject
of this article and his successor in the royal
gardens at Kew. This edition was revised
by Robert Brown, and is enriched with ad-
ditional matter by him. An epitome of the
second edition of this work was published in
London in 1814.

Aiton died on the 1st of February, 1793,
leaving - a wife and three children. His
private character is represented as highly
estimable. He number^ among his friends
Sir Joseph Banks, who during the latter part
of the last and the beginning of the present
century was the great patron of natural
history in Great Britain. (Funeral Sermon by
Smith ; Gentleman's Mag., 1793.) E. L.

here under the designation with which the
title-pages of his works have rendered readers
most familiar. His real name, however, was
Michael von Ejrtzing. His feither, Christofer
Freiherr von Eytzing, an Austrian nobleman,
"<ras oBconomus, or maitre d'hotel, to Maxi-
milian, king of Bohemia, afterwards Maximi-
lian II. of Germany. Young Eytzing, having
received a good elementary education at
Vienna, was sent by his father, in the year
1553, to Louvaine, to study law. At this
time a letter from Ramus, which has been
preserved, speaks of him as a youth ( juvenis) ;
five years later, Mudseus designates him a
young man (adolescens). These vague data
are all that we have to enable us to con-
jecture the time of his birth. Michael von
E3rtzing was probably about seventeen or
eighteen years of age in 1553. In the letter
above alluded to Ramus speaks of him as a
lad of great promise.

In 1556 negotiations were commenced for
the sale of his step-mother's interest in the
seigneurie of Conde to Anne Montmorency,
the countess dowager of Lalaing. The
management of this business was intrusted
to Michael. As soon as the transaction was
concluded he returned to Louvaine ; but in-
stead of confining himself, as before, to the
pp 4

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law, He began to turn his attention to history ;
and either at this time or previous to his
leaving Vienna, he devoted a part of his lei-
sure to the study of mathematics. The
first fruits of his inquiries were a system of
chronology so arranged as to serve the pur-
pose of an artificial memory for students of
history; and a diagram of a perpetual ca-
lendar to facilitate the finding of the true
time of Elaster in any year.

In 1563 Michael von Eytzing undertook a
journey to Trent for the purpose of sub-
mitting his chronological compend and per-
petual calendar to the cardinals and prelates
there assembled. Thence he proceeded to
Home with a warm letter of recommendation
from four of the cardinals present, to Car-
dinal Boromeo, and a letter from the em*
peror to Pius IV. He was allowed to explain
the principle upon which he had constructed
his perpetual calendar to the cardinal legate
at Trent, on the 15th of July, 1663 ; and,
according to his own account of the
matter, it received, at a subsequent period,
the formal sanction of Pope Pius V. In
1565 he presented to the emperor his trea-
tise on Austria and the emperors of the
house of Austria. In 1566 he presented his
inquiry into the age of the world to the
electoral college, hi 1568 he was sent to
Belgium on a mission to the Duke of Alba ; and
before his departure he caused 112 copies of
a map of the Holy Land, which he had com-
piled, to be printed, for the purpose of dis-
tributing them as fiurewell presents among his

The subsequent life of Von Eytzing can
only be traced in the publication of his
works. In 1579 he published his com-
pendium of chronology, in a small quarto
volume, at Antwerp, with the following title-
page : *' Michaelis Aytsingeri Austriaci
rentaplus Regnorum Mundi Antwerpise;
ex officina Clmstophori Plantini Architypo-
graphi Regii. 1579." In 1582, he published
at Cologne his map of the Holy Land, en-
graved by Francis Hogenberg, along with an
historical and topographical account of the
country. The book is a small quarto, the
title-page as follows : — " Terra Promissionis
topographice atque historice descripta ; cum
amplissimis duobus Locorum ac Temporum
Jn^cibus. Per Michaelem Aitsingerum
Austriacum. In utilitatem omnium qui
locorum in eadem terra inspectores, pariter et
rerum ibidem gestarum sectores esse cupiunt.
Francisco Hogenbergio concesso." The colo-
phon informs us of the time and place of
printing : *' Colonise AgrippinsB excudebat
Godefridus Kempensis anno ab origine
mundi 5542 ; k Christ! verd Salvatoris nostri
Nativitate ann. 1582." To this account of
the Holy Land he added, as an appendix, the
perpetual calendar above alluded to. It is
uncertain in what year the first edition of the
historical and topographical account of the

Belgic lion appeared. The earliest edition. In
the British Museum, printed at Cologne in
1585, bears on the title-page to be an enlarged
and improved edition. Some remarks in the
table of errata seem to point to the conclusion
that the first edition was published in 1583.
This work, like that on the Holy Land,
originated in a map of Belgium, which the
author had compiled,, and Hogenberg eo"
graved. In the pre£ace he informs us, that
having been struck with the resemblance of
the boundary line of the seventeen provinces
of the Netherlands to the outline of the figure
of a lion, he had compiled a map of them
under this ^mciful form ; and that Hogen-
berg had engraved it for him, ^ not less
beantifiilly than he did that of Europe, pre*
sented to the Emperor Charles in Italy, in the
figure of a virgin queen, Portugal being the
diadem." , In this his map Von Eytzing in-
troduced horizontal pandlel lines, distin-
guished by the letters of the alphabet, with
perpendiculars falling upon them, distin-
guished by the cardinal numbers, witti a view
to facilitate the finding of any place referred
to in his narrative. And to add to the interest
of his work, he resolved not to confine him-
self to a dry list of proper names, but to add
to the topography of Belgium its history,
from the accession of Philip IL in 1559, to
the year 1583. For undertaking this task he
felt he possessed peculiar advantages, having
resided, one time with another, upwards of
twenty years in the country. Successive
impressions of the work appeared in 1583,
1585, 1587, and 1595 ; each bringing dovm
the narrative to the time of publication. The
title-page of all these editions is, with very-
trivial variations, the same ; the date of each
impression must be learned from the colophon,
or in some cases from the year to which the
annals extend. The title-page is to this
effect : — ** De Leone Belgico, ejusque Topo-

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