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colloidal suspension and svphiiitic serum, that the pig serum acts as an ant inoccu lent toward
the syphilitic serum, at the same time losing some of its hemolytic activity. By measuring
the degree of hemolysis by an artificial color scale, he is able to determme the degree of
specific S3rphilitic change in the human serum in question. — C. E. T.



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BBBOLOGT 163

841» Die Seroreakiian auf Lues rKich Vemes. {The Vemes Serchreaction in Lues.) Schweiz.
med. Wchnschr., 1919, 1, 51-63.

The technic suggested by Vernes was controlled by the regular Wassermann method in
testing about 1200 sera. The tabulated results show:

Complete conformity in 900 cases; —76.7 per cent

Both positive in ; 204 cases

Both negative in 581 cases

Both questionable in 115 cases

Slight differences noted in 205 cases; —17.4 per cent

W. R. stronger than Vemes' method in 58 cases

W. R. weaker than Vemes' method in 147 cases

Strong differences noted in 57 cases; — 4.8 per cent

W. R. stronger than Vemes' method in 6 cases

W. R. weaker than Vemes' method in 51 cases

Absolute non-conformity in 13 cases; — 1.1 per cent

W. R. positive, Vemes' negative in 1 case

W. R. negative, Vemes' positive in 12 cases

— G. H. S.

84£, Note 8ur la riaction de la gomme mastic, (The Mastic Reaction,) Belarmino Rodrioubz.

Compt. rend. Soc. de biol., Par., 1919, 82, 1352.

The mastic reaction was performed in parallel with the Lange test and the Wassermann
reaction in 30 patients. It is concluded that in a majority of cases the mastic test and the
Lange test are equallv sensitive, although the latter test is perhaps the more sensitive and
more constant. — G. H. S.

84$, Further Observations on Complement Fixation, S. A. Pbtroff. Am. Rev. Tuberc.,

1920, 8, 683.

Complement and serum have- been dealt with. The importance of the hydrogen ion
concentration of salt solution and of cleansing the glassware has been pointed out. A review
of antigens has been presented and their nature and chemical comi)osition discussed. Sub-
stances corresponding to lecithin, kephalin, sphyngomyelin, camithin and cuorin were sejpa-
rated from tubercle bacilli, and a comparative study with some other antigens rich in proteins
of tubercle bacilli was made. Lipins were anticomplementary in large doses^ and had no
antigenic properties in small doses. Proteins from tubercle bacilli do not give as strong
reaction as an extract which contains proteins and lipins. Primary incubation time (antigen,
antibodies and complement) is of great importance, and from one and one-half to two hours
will give best results. Complement fixing antibodies are probably either globulins or sub-
stances absorbed with the globulins. We are still i^orant as to what is responsible for this
reaction. The view that the precii>itate formed during the union of antibody and antigen is
responsible^ could not be substantiated by us. We have as yet failed to demonstrate such
precipitate m complement fixation tests in tuberculosis. The temperature is of great import-
ance, and the optimum seems to be between 35"* and 40'*C. We consider the complement fixa-
tion test in tuberculosis more specific than the Wassermann test, basing our conclusions on
experimental data. Complement fixation is only one of the many links in the tuberculosis
diagnostic chain. In order to obtain reliable results the technic must be standardized and the
test performed only by well trained workers.— T. G. H.

844, Report on the Value of the Complement-fixation Test as a means of Differentiating between
Enteric-Vaccinated and Typhoid-Infected Persons. W. D. O'Kelly. J. Path. & Bac-
terioL, 1919, 22, 235-246.

The sera exanuned were derived from, (1) persons who had been vaccinated against
typhoid and the paratyphoids, (2) cases of typhoid at various stages of the disease, and (3)
persons who had neither been vaccinated nor had had typhoid. Saline extracts of the bac-
teria were used as antigens. The hemolytic system employed consisted of sensitized sheep's
corpuscles and two hemolytic doses of complement. Tne sera to be tested were inactivated
ana 0.1 cc. used in each test.

It was found that 4 + reactions occur only within the first month after vaccination:
3 + reactions for 3 months: 2 + reactions for many months. 73 per cent of uninoculated
persons gave negative results, the remaining 27 per cent giving only incomplete fixation.
Typhoid convalescents gave complete fixation only after the thirty-fifth day of the disease.

It is concluded the complement-fixation test is of little importance as a diagnostic pro-
cedure in the entericas. — C. G. B.

845, Sur la fixation du compliment chez Us iuberculeux. (Fixation of Complement in Tvber'
culous individuals.) Fern and Arloing and Ren£ Biot. Compt. rend. Soc. de bioL,
Par., 1919, 82, 1333.

The authors question the statement of Boez and Duhot; namely, that the presence of
antibody does not seem to indicate a process of defense but rather a process of infection. —
G. H. S.



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164 8EBT7M THERAPY

846. Die Methode des dicken Tropfens in Anwendung auf die Opsaninbestimmung. (The
Method of Thick Drops in its Application to the Estimation of Opsonin.) P. Frosch.
Centralbl. f. Bakteriol. (etc.), Jena. I. Abt., Orig., 1919, 83, 400.

The author calls attention to the fact that in the original Wright method of opsonin
determination, in which the capillary pipettes are incubated, there is danger that bacteria and
leucocytes will be retained within the capillary tube. A substitute method whereby a hang-
ing drop is used in place of the capillary pipette during the time of incubation, is proposed,
and its advantages are pointed out. — R. £. B.

847. Experiments on the Action of Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Lipoids on Amylolytic and
Hemolytic Phenomena. Percy Stocks. J. Path. & Bacteriol., 1919, 23, 1-14.

The author summarizes his findings as follows:

1. "Sodium oleate and other oleates inhibit the action of diastase in starch.

2. ''This inhibitory reaction exhibits the quantitative characters of a chemical combi-
nation between the two substances.

3. ''The diastatic activity of normal blood serum is also inhibited by oleates.

4. "Pure fats and other lipoid substances were not found to inhibit diastase.

5. "Inactivated human serum showed no anti-diastatic property.

6. "This inhibiting action of oleates on the diastase-starch reaction affords a simple
method of detecting and estimating oleates in a solution.

7. "Oleates in sublytic concentration enter into combination with washed red blood
corpuscles, and can be completely removed from a solution by separating the corpuscles with
a centrifuge.

8. "The affinity of red corpuscles for oleates is more powerful than the affinity between
diastase and oleates, and oleates can therefore be removed from the diastase-oleate complex
by the agency of corpuscles, leaving the diastase unchanged.

9. "Oleates can be completely recovered from the corpuscle-oleate complex by hemolys-
ing the cells with distilled water, the oleate being then found in solution.

10. "Oleate-treated corpuscles are more readily hemolysed by most hemolytic agents
than normal corpuscles.

11. "The same phenomenon was noticed in a few instances after treating corpuscles with
sublytic concentrations of other hemolytic agents (e.g., saponin), but not in other cases (e.g.,
iodine).

12. "Cholesterin inhibits the hemolytic power of saponin, and the reaction between the
two substances exhibits the quantitative characters of a chemical combination.

13. "The cholesterin-saponin reaction affords a method of estimating; cholesterin in
blood-serum or body fluids containing cholesterin associated with other lipoids.

14. "From a limited number of cases there appeared to be some indication of a lowered
mean cholesterin content in the blood serum of syphilitics, but individual variations in
cholesterin content of blood serum from the mean are too great to make this of any use in
diagnosis." - C. G. B.

848. Chemical Structure and Antigenic Specificity. A Comparison of the Crystalline Egg
Albumin of the Hen and the Duck. Henrt Drtbdale Dakin and Henrt Hallett Dale.
Bio-Chem. J.. Liverp., 1919, 13, 248-267.

The authors nnd that the ci^stalline albumin from the hen and the duck behaved as dis-
tinct antigens in the anaphylactic reaction. "This difference corresponds to the difference in
structure, as revealed by the fact, when the proteins are racemised, the amino acids escaping
racemisation are not identical in the two tissues." — R. E. B.

849. The Neutrophilic Granules of the Ciradatory Blood in Health and in Disease— A Pre-
liminary Report. G. S. Graham. N. Y. State J. M., N. Y.j 1920, 20, 46-55.

The author's conclusions are: "The application of abenzidine staining method to blood
smears suggests that the neutrophiles of tne circulator^r blood have a characteristic granule
content that seems to vary, in health, only within relatively narrow limits. In acute infec-
tious diseases, and possibly in some other toxic conditions, these granules may lose their re-
activity towards benzidine to more or less marked degree. It is possible that the study of
thes* granule changes may prove of interest through its bearing upon the general question of
the leucocytic defensive mechanism and perhaps through its more immediate employment
as a practical aid in clinical study of disease processes. — F. W. H.

SERUM THERAPY
(See also Number 740

850. Potency of Antimeningococcic and Antipneumococdc Serums. Anon. Pub. Health Rep.,
Wash., 1919, 34, 2657-2664.

All antimeningococcic and antipneumococcic serums, before being released for inter-
state sale, must pass the official test at the Hygienic Laboratory. Antimeningococcic serums
are considered satisfactory which show an agglutination titer or complement fixation titer
against an antigen of each type, at least equafto that shown by the control serum furnished
by the Hygienic Laboratory. Antipneumococcic serums are considered satisfactory which



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SEBUM THERAPY 165

show protection of at least as great a percentage of mitse as are protected by the control serum
fumisned by the Hygienic Laboratory. The article gives complete directions for those tests
as carried out at the Hygienic Laboratory .—C. E. T.

8S1. DetermimUion of Bacieriotropic Content of Antimeningococcic Serum. AucB C. Evans.

Pub. Health Rep., Wash., 1919, 34, 2375-2377.

As neither the phenomenon of agglutination nor of complement fixation appears to play
a necessary part in the human defense against cerebrospinal meningitis, and as the invading
organisms appear to be invested by the leucocytes, a study of the phagocytosis-promoting
bodies of antimeningococcic serum was made in order to develop a reliable test for such
serums. It was found that the important phagocytic antibodies of the serum are not the labile
opsonins which depend upon complement for their activity, but the more stable bacterio-
tropins. It was found that the resistance to phagocytosis cited by early workers is due to
the existence of 4 well-defined groups of strains which are specific only with serum of the same
group. There may be a weakening or loss of tropin-producing properties, or of ability to re«
spond to specific tropins by strains after long artificial cultivation. A comparison was made
of the agglutinin and tropin content of 128 commercial serums, and it was found that the two
tests agreed in about 70 per cent of the serums. The tropin test has proved to be workable
for the testing of antimeningococcic serums. — C. E. T.

8SB, On the Preparation of Anti-toxin and its Associated Proteins From Heat DencUurated Sera.

Annie Homer. Bio-Chem. J., Liverp., 1919^ 13, 45-55.

''For the complete recovery of anti-toxin dunng the concentration of sera, showing a heat
denaturation of 35 per cent more or less, by fractional method employing the use of ammonium
sulphate it is advisable to precipitate the second fraction between 30 and 45 per cent of sat-
uration with the sulphate. If tne upper limit be reduced there will be incomplete precipita-
tion of pseudo^obulm and anti-toxin, and a certain percentage of the latter will be discarded
in the "albumm" filtrate. If the lower limit be raised then anti-toxin will be precipitated
with the first fraction precipitate in a form not readily soluble in brine, and therefore to all
intent and purposes lost."

"In the precipitation of the second fraction from sera in which a denaturation of 25 per
cent or less has been induced, the raising of the lower limit to 33 or to 36 per cent of satura-
tion leads to the production of clearer and more concentrated products than those obtained
by the adoption of a lower limit of 30 per cent of saturation."

"In heated sera showing a denaturation of 35 per cent or less the bulk of the anti-toxin
is associated with the protein precipitated between 36 and 45 per cent of saturation with
ammonium sulphate."

Farther studies of the protein isolated between the limits indicated above show that the
percentage of total antitoxin precipitated between progressively increasing percentages of
saturation with the sulphate is directly proportional to the percentage precipitation of pro-
tein at the respective stages. — ^R. E. B.

8SS. On the Increased Preci^tability of Pseudoglobidin and of its Associated Anti-Toxin from

Heat Denaturated Solution. Annie Homer. Bio-Chem. J., Liverp., 1919, 13, 56-64.

"The increased precipitability of pseudoglobulin from a heat denaturated solution at
concentrations of ammonium sulphate ranging from 26 to 47 per cent saturation is a fimction
of the heat denaturation. The increased precipitation of pseudoglobulin thus induced at
30 per cent of saturation with ammonium sulphate is accompanied by an increased precipita-
tion of anti-toxin. As denaturation increases so the further increased precipitability of pro-
tein becomes a measure of the increased precipitation of the anti-toxin."

"In the concentration of anti-toxic sera by the fractional precipitation of the serum with
ammonium sulphate, there is no need for a preliminary prolonged heating of the serum. The
results that are now obtained from the isolation from the heated serum of the protein fraction
precipitated between 30 and 44 per cent of saturation with ammonium sulphate could be
obtained from the unheated serum between 36 and 50 per cent of saturation with the sul-
phate."

"The heating of the serum reduces the toxicity of the cresylic acid-protein complex.
Means other than fractional precipitation of the pseudoglobulin solutions by salt must be
employed in any successful enort to isolate anti-toxin as a separate entity." — ^R. E. B.

8S4' A Com'parison Between the Precipitation of Anti-toxic Sera by Sodium Sulphate and by
Ammonium Sulphate. Annie Homer. Bio-Chem. J.^ Liverp., 1919, 13, 278-295.
No critical point marked the limit for the precipitation of the individual proteins with
sodium sulphate. Precipitation of serum protems either by ammonium sulphate or sodium
sulphate is influenced by the reaction^ by the dilution of the plasma and by the addition of
cresylic acid. "The percentage precipitation of the anti-toxins with the proteins precipi-
tated at various concentrations of sodium sulphate is a linear measure of the percentage
precipitation of the anti-toxin-bearing protein. This relationship is undisturbed by the
denaturation of the serum proteins induced during the heating of plasma at 68 degrees for
45 hours."



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166 VACCINE TEQBRAFT

''In the concentration of anti-toxic plasma by its fractional precipitation with sodium
sulphate or ammonium sulphate, results can be obtained by the suitable fractionation of the
unheated plasma siiliilar to those which have hitherto been obtained with heated plasma.
While the addition of cresylic acid materially aids the concentration of denaturated plasma,
its use with unheated plasma is to be avoided."

''The agglutination of the particles of precipitated protein in the eu-pseudo-globulin
zone seems to be more satisfactory with sodium sulphate than with ammonium sulphate.
As sodium sulphate, in contradiction to ammonium sulphate, does not hydrolyze in solution,
the sodium sulphate plasma antitoxin mixtures can be heated for four to five hours at 58
without loss of anti-toxin. This method of procedure favors the production of clearer end
products than would result from conducting the heating in the two stages adopted in the
ammonium sulphate method." — ^R. E. B.

866, A Case of Septicaemic Anthrax SuccessfvUy Treated by Intravenous Serum Therapy.

E. N. Bateman and N. H. Fairley. Med. J. Australia, Sydney, 1920,7th year. 1, 32.

B. anthrads was isolated from the local lesion and from blood culture on the fiftn day.
On the fifth day, 40 cc. Sclavo's serum was administered subcutaneously, and on the sixth
d&Yf 40 cc. subcutaneouslv and 60 cc. intravenouslv. The following day the patient's con-
dition was improved and he made an uninterrupted, recovery. — C. P. B.

ANAPHYLAXIS .

866. On the Distribution of the Non-protein Nitrogen in Cases of Anaphylaxis and Peptone
Poisoning. Kambb Hisanobu. Am. J. Physiol.. Bait., 1919, 50, 367-363.

"Peptone intoxication is associated with a marked increase in urea nitrogen and also
more or less in non-urea and amino nitrogen, thus confirming the results which have been
reported by Whipple and Van Slyke. The cnanges in the nitrogenous constituents of the
blood in anaphylaxis are similar to those of peptone intoxication but more intense. Anaphy-
laxis, as well as peptone intoxication lead to an abnormally rapid autodigestion of tissue pro-
tein. The causative factors, as yet undetermined, are probably the same in both cases."
— R. E. B.

867. Protein Fever. The Effect of Egg White Injection on the Dog. Sbtmoub J. Cohbn. J.
Lab. A Clin. M., St. Louis, 1920, 5, 285-294.

A report and discussion of the effect of repeated subcutaneous injection of egg white in
guinea pi^s and dogs. The experiments of Vaughan were confirmed in the case of guinea
pigs but m dogs the temperature curve was not affected. At present the author has no
explanation to offer as to the difference of reaction. — F. W. H.

868. Leucocytes in Anaphylaxis of Serum Sickness. Joseph H. Barach. J. Lab. & Clin.
M., St. Louis, 1920, 5, 296-298.

At the time of the anaphylactic reaction there was a polvmoiphonuclear leucocytosis
followed by the appearance of myelocytes and an increased number of blood platelets. Upon
this a leucopenia followed accompanied by low polymorphonuclear and by relatively nigh
mononuclear coimts. Ek>sinophilia was absent throughout. — F. W. H.

869. Uanafilassi passiva pel riconosdmento delle carni tuber colotiche. (Passive Anaphylaxis
for the Recognition of Tuberculous Meat.) L. Granitoci. Clin, vet., Milano, 1919, 42,
116-126.

Muscle juice of cattle affected with tuberculosis in an advanced or medium degree, in-
duces, when injected once into rabbits, a condition of hypersusceptibility, so that subseauent
injection of tuberculin produces passive anaphyalxis of a grave character. Control rabbits
injected with the muscle plasm of healthy cattle do not react or show but slight disturbance.
In the anaphylactic reaction the animab show hyperthermia. (Abstr. in Vet. Rev.) — ^W. A. H.

VACCINE THERAPY
(See also Number 615)

860. Pitfalls in Determining the Prophylactic or Curative Value of Bacterial Vaccines. G. W.

McCoy. Pub. Health Rep., Wash., 1919, 34, 1193-1195.

The inadequacy of the evidence adduced to support the claims of various influenza and
pneumonia vaccines put forth during the recent epidemic for prophjrlattic or curative use is
very striking. The sources of error are chiefly: (1) the use of a vaccine among a group of in-
dividuals after cases of the disease have appeared, thus making it likely that only the natur-
ally immune receive the vaccine; (2) vaccinating all persons in a group, leaving none as con-
trols, and interpreting failure of the disease to appear or spread as evidence of protection,
and (3) drawing conclusions from too meagre data. In the only examples with which the
author was famuiar in which a vaccine was used on alternate cases, no better results were
secured in the vaccinated than in the control groups. The use of a vaccine should be properly
controlled and sufficient time given for immunity to develop. The failure of one vaccine does
not necessarily mean the uselessness of others. — C. E. T.



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VACCINID TEDBRAFT 167

861. Present Statue of Pneumococcue Vaccine. Russell L. Cecil. Am. J. Pub. Health.

Concord, 1910, 9, 589-592.

12,500 men (about 40 per cent of the total) were inoculated at Camp Upton with a poly-
valent pneumococcus vaccine (Types I, II, III), most of the men receiving 3 or 4 inoculations
at intervds of 5 to 7 days. Total dosage was 6 to 9 billion of Types I andf II, and 4i to 6 bil-
lion of Type III. Excepting a few small, sterile, infiltrations the reaction was generallv
mild. For the 10 weeks during which the men were under observation, the pneumonia death
rate for vaccinated troops was 0.83 per 1000; for the unvaccinated it was 12.8. At Camp
Wheeler a pneumococcus lipovaccine was employed (10 billion of each of the fixed types in
1 cc. of oil). Nearly one-half of the pneumonia occurring at the Camp was being caused
by the fixed types. Of 13^460 men (80 per cent of the total), inoculated with the lipovaccine,
0.7 per cent gave a reaction sufficientlv severe to require hospitalization. The results were
somewhat complicated bv the outbreak of influenza. The death rate for 155 cases of pneu-
monia among vaccinated men one week or more after vaccination was 12.2 per cent; the
death rate of 327 cases among unvaccinated troops was 22.3 per cent. The death r^te for
primary pneumonia among vaccinated troops was 11.9; among unvaccinated troops, 31.8,
almost three times as great.

Cecil discusses the present limitations of pneumococcus vaccination. No vaccine can,
at present, be prepared against the organisms which make up Type IV. Polyvalent vac-
cines, to be efficacious, would have to be given in too large doses. It is difficult to get civilians
to volunteer for vaccination. The severe reactions, fever, headache and backache and occa-
sional sterile abscess (a total of about 100 in 14,000 vaccinated men) point to the great need
for a detoxicated vaccine. — I. S. F.

86ii. De la vaccination corUre les Mate typholdes par la voie bttccale. (Vaccination against the

Typhoid Fevers by the Buccal Route.) A. Besrbdka. Ann. de I'lnst. Pasteur, Par.,

1919, 33, 882-913.

From his experiences with typhoid infections during the war, Besredka questions the
efficacy^ of the usual method of antityphoid vaccination by subcutaneous injections of killed
bactena. He saw numerous severe and fatal cases in thoroughlv vaccinated soldiers, uid
at the same time noted the absence of typhoid infections in men who pave histories of earlier
attacks of typhoid fever. The immunity produced by the usual vaccination is much inferior
to that occurring after an attack of the disease.

As Besredka has shown, rabbits may be infected with typhoid or paratsrphoid bacilli by
mouth when the ingestion of the organism is preceded a day or less by a dose of bile. Ingested
bile renders the intestinal mucosa susceptible to invasion by these bacteria. Rabbits which
recover from such an infection acquire a high degree of immunity. The ingestion of dead
tvphoid bacilli, preceded by a dose of bile, also confers an immunity, though less effective
than that produced when living organisms are used.

During the course of the immunization by the buccal route, agglutinins and protective
antibodies appear in the serum of the animal. After two months or longer, these antibodies
cannot be demonstrated in the serum, while the animal remains highly immime.

These experiments show that the presence of antibodies in the blood does not run parallel
with the actual immunity of the animal. A condition of the tissues is apparently the basis of
the immunity. In this case, the intestine is assumed to have acquired and retained an im-
permeability to typhoid organisms, as its expression of local vaccination. A general cellular
immunity is also acquired, as the animal vaccinated by ingestion of bile and bacteria, sur-
vives intravenous injection of the organisms, which are fatal to unvaccinated animals.

The immunity following vaccination by mouth appears with rapidity (3 days).

It is suggested that the method be applied to man, using killed bacteria administered by



Online LibrarySociety of American BacteriologistsAbstracts of bacteriology → online text (page 34 of 103)