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Influenza bacillus studied, even the strains isolated from sporadic cases before the start of
the present epidemic."

Sublethal doses of the influenza bacillus or its products injected into animals predisposed
these animals to lung infections with other organisms, spontaneously or artificially when mtro-
dueed into pharynx or into other part of the body. They state "that there is nothing in
the serological evidence to preclude the consideration of this organism [B. influenzae] in ita
influence as an important factor in the disease known as clinical influenza."— L. W, F,

14SS. Influenza and Tuberculosis. A supplementary report and critical review. J. Burns
Anderson, Jr., and Andrew Peters, Jr. Am. Rev. Tuberc, Bait., 1920, 4, 71-83.
This is a supplement to a former report on influenza among the patients at Loomis Sana-
torium. The authors conclude that sufficient evidence has not been produced to show that
tuberculous individuals possess an inununity to influenza not possessed by the non-tubercu-
lous, nor is the severity of attack of influenza less among the tuberculous. On the contrary
statistics indicate that the case fatality was higher among the tuberculous than among the
general population. Often a case of influenza marks the inception of definite pulmonary tuber-
culosis, which may be rapid and inmiediate or insidious and remote. Among those already
tuberculous, influenza may sometimes, to a varying degree, reactivate quiescent lesions. —
T. G. H.

14S4. Influenza at the Hospital for the Insane. London. 7th Annual Rep., Inst. Pub. Health,

Lond., Canada.

An intensive laboratory study of 163 cases of influenza was made. B. influenzae bore no
etiological relationship to the outbreak. Pyogenic organisms played a secondary rdle.
Vaccine therapy was of questionable value as an ameliorative of infection. — C. M. a.

USB. Therapeutic Measures in Influenza. G. E. Beaumont. Practitioner, Lond., 1920. 104.
263-277. ' > »

Drugs and vaccine were used. Treatment must be symptomatic as no one line of treat-
ment appeared better than another. — C. P. B.

Digitized by



1456. Das mediastinale Emphysem, (Mediastinal Emphysema.) Sigmund Wassbrmann.
Wien. klin. Wchnschr.. 1920, 83, 122-127.

There occurs frequently in epidemic influenza-pneumonia a diffuse mediastinal emphy-
sema which is considered quite characteristic as a clinical sign. — B. G.

1457. Zur Behandlung der Grippe. (Treatment of Influenza.) F. Kbaus. Deutsche med.
Wchnschr., Berl. & Leipz., 1920, 46, 226.

Pandemic influenza should be distinguished from the endemic or sporadic t3rpe since the
symptoms and course of these diseases are not alike. Treatment consists of the administra-
tion of eucupin and influenza serum. Where pneumonia complicates the picture, intravenous
inj ection of argoflavin or electrocollargol is suggested. The absolute efficacy of these measures
is not yet known, but symptomatic treatment alone is not the most satisfying procedure in
these cases. — B. C.'

1438, Kritik der LatUerhurg' schen Kritik der GrippeschtUzmasken. (Criticism of LatUerhurg's
Criticism of Protective Masks in Infl^Len^a^ Arnold Josefsox. Schweiz. med. Wchn-
schr., 1920, 60, 395. Erwiderung auf die Kritik meiner Arbeit '^Untersuchunaen Hber die
Bakteriendichiigkeit der GrippeschtUzmasken " im Corr. bl. f. Schweiz. Aerzte, ATr. 47, 1919,
(Reply to the Criticism of my Paper "Investigation on the Penetration of Protective Masks
by Bacteria.) Lautbrbxtrg. Scnweiz. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 60, 395-397.
Polemical.— G. H. S.

14S9. Acetanuria neWinfluema. (AceUmuria in Inflnenza.) M. Ascoli. Policlin., Roma,

1920, 27, 453-454.

In a large majority of cases of influenza, acetone and diacetic acid were present in the
urine.— P. M.


1440. The Diagnosis of Epidemic Encephalitis, Lbo Loewe and Israel Strauss. J. Am. M.

Ass., Chicago, 1920, 74, 1373.

The authors found that in 78 per cent of cases examined Berkefeld filtrates of nasophar-
yngeal washings produced characteristic lesions when injected intracranially into rabbits.
A filterable organism was found in 64 per cent of the cases. Cerebrospinal fluid of patients
inoculated into rabbits produced the disease in 75 per cent of the cases. Positive cultures
were obtained in 50 per cent of cases. The disease is sharply differentiated from polio-
myelitis.— P. G. H.

144^. UEnc^phaliie Uthargique, (Lethargic Encephalitis.) Arnold Nettbr. Presse m^,

Par., 1920, 88, 193.

A conference of French and German physicians of the Saar Region. Netter discusses
the clinical features; g^ives the mortality at 20-25 per cent. The diagnostic value of examina-
tion of the cerebro-spmal fluid is emphasized, particularly for its sugar content, which aver-
ap^, in six cases, 86 m^. per 100 cc. The disease is characterized as a specific virulent infec-
tion, whose cause manifests an elective affinity for certain regions of the mesencephalon. It
is not to be confused with spironemal sleeping sickness, with poliomyelitis (differences in
epidemiology, severity and permanent sequelae), nor with influenza.

The disease is traced back to Galen, so far as sporadic cases are concerned. It is more
eommon at certain periods under the effect of non-specific ('' cosmic") factors which increase
the virulence of the etiological aeent. These factors are, similarly to those which favor the
epidemioity of influenza, especially prominent in winter. Evidence of contact infection is
scanty but isolation is justified. A similarity to poliomyelitis, rabies and mumps, so far as
etiolo^ is concerned, is advanced. Netter believes that the cause will prove a filterable
virus (Strauss, Loewe).

Urotropin, pilocarpin (to stimulate the elimination of the virus from the parotid gland:
[No proof of its presence is presented save the analogy to rabies]) and injection of terebrinth,
to produce abscesses of fixation, are recommended. Arsenicals are not favored. — L. A. K.

1441^. Influence de la grosseuse sur V evolution de la tuberculose pulmonaire et pleurale, Uanergie
tuberculinique au cours de la grosseuse. Allaitement et tt^erculose. (The Influence of
Pregnancy on the Development of Pulmonary and Pleural Tuberculosis, Tuberculin Hyper'
sensitiveness in the Course of Pregnancy. LactcUion and Tuberculosis.) P. Nobecourt
AND Jean Pabaf. Presse mdd.. Par., 1920, 88, 133.

Twenty-three cases of labor in women with pulmonary or pleural tuberculosis are
described. In 4 cases of fibrous lesions, no exacerbation followed delivery. Among 11 women
with ulcero-caseous lesions, there were 9 deaths. In 8 cases of pleuro-pubnonary or pleuritic
types, all showed evidence of exacerbation, but 7 were discharged apyretic.

One hundred tuberculous women of whom many presented no active symptoms were
tested by the cuti-reaction. In the course of pregnancy, 15 per cent showed a loss or diminu-
tion of reaction. This is interpreted as dimmished immunity.

The question of the effect of nursing on the mother depends largely on the case; in cases
of healed lesions (fibrous), nursing may appear beneficial; it is contraindicated in more active
oases. — ^L. A. K.

Digitized by



144s, UEncephalite myocloniqiie. {Musculo-Clonic Encephalitis.) J. A. Sicard. Presse

m^., Par., 1920, 88, 213.

A description of a new (?) disease characterized by. clonic muscular spasm. The possi-
bility of its relation to encephalitis lethargica is considered. — L. A. K.

1444. On the Epidemic Acute and Subacute Nonsuppurative Inflammations of the Nervous

System Prevalent in the United States in 1918-1919: Encephalitis; Encephalomyelitis;

Polyneuritis; and Meningo-Encephalo-Myeloneuritis. L. F. Barker, E. S. Gross and

S. V. Irwin. Am. J. M. Sc, Phila., 1920, 169, 157-193, 337-353.

The authors in an extensive study of an epidemic disease of an inflammatory nature
involving the nervous system (in particular the brain (encephalitis), sometimes the spinal
cord (mvelitis), or both (encephalomyelitis), the meninges and peripheral nerves (meningo-
encephalo-myelo-neuritis) report a series of cases which are fully analysed and discussed.
The clinical phenomena are summarized, including onset, general symptoms, focal symp-
toms, meningeal symptoms, with a study of the cerebrospinal fluid, the blood, and the urine.
The duration of the disease and prognosis, as well as the treatment are considered. Of
special interest is the discussion upon the nature of the disease, and its etiology. It was soon
recognized as an infectious or toxi-infectious process involving the cerebrospinal nervous
system. Probably its epidemic nature had been recorded as earlv as 1718. At present the
problem of etiology "resolves itself into three questions: (1) Is the disease due to the virus
that causes influenza? (2) Is the disease due to the virus that causes the Heine-Medin dis-
ease or to a modification of that virus? and (3) Is the disease due to a virus sui generist"
As concerns the first question, certain facts may be used to support this supposition, while
others are in opposition. But since even the precise nature of the influenza virus is much
in debate, the questions of relationship between the two diseases must be left open until
further knowledge is gained. Whether the virus of epidemic encephalitis is identical with,
or a. slight modification of, the virus (Flexneria noguchii) causing acute anterior poliomye-
litis, is hardly supported by the clinical nature of the two diseases, blood findings, age inci-
dence, distribution of epidemic, etc. From the evidence now available, such a virus is not
much more than an interesting speculation. Some hold that the "causative agent is neither
identical with nor even a modification of any other virus." If this is the case the findings
of both Wiesener and of Wilson may prove to be of extreme importance, although some other
filterable or unfilterable virus may be shown eventually as the true etiological factor. The
authors give numerous references to the important literature on the subject. — L. W. F.

144^. Contagiosity de Venc&phalite IHhargique. {The Question of Contagion of Lethargic Enceph"
alUis.) A Nbttbr. Bull. Acad, de m6d.. Par., 1920, 83, 373-384.

From a study of a number of cases the author believes that lethargic encephalitis is truly
contagious and that the virus is spread by means of the saliva of infected individuals. A
person may be capable of infecting others over a long period of time.— O. H. R.

144^, Recherches expirimentales sur le virus de Venciphalite IHhargique (EnciphaXite epid^n^

ique), {Researches on the Virus of Lethargic Encephalitis.) C. Lbvaditi and P. Har-

viER. Bull. Acad, de m6d., Par., 1920, 88, 365-367.

An emulsion of the brain tissue of a person dead from lethargic encephalitis on the ninth
day of the disease was injected intracerebrally into two rabbits and one monkey. One of the
rabbits died on the eighth day after inoculation. The brain tissue and heart blood of this
animal were bacteriologically sterile and the same pathologic changes were observed as in
the human brain. An emulsion of the brain of this rabbit was injected similarly into two
other rabbits. These animals died on the sixth and seventh days with characteristic lesions.

Further experiments lead the authors to the following conclusions: (1) The incubation
period for intracerebral inoculation is at least 4 or 5 days; (2) the virus can be preserved in
glycerin; (3) the virus of encephalitis is filterable; (4) the virus can be inoculated through
the peripheral nerves or through the anterior chamber of the eye; (5) the virus is pathogenic
for rabbits but not for monkeys; (6) after several passages through rabbits the virus becomes
pathogenic for guinea pigs; (7) the virus is preserved by drjmg in vacuo, over sulphuric acid
or over potassium hydroxide; (8) the virus can be found m the medulla of inoculated ani-
mals; (9) the serum of convalescents does not neutralize the virus. — G. H. R.

1447- Encephalitis Lethargica. A. Howell. Practitioner, Lond., 1920, 104, 290-298.
Clinical and differential diagnosis. — C. P. B.

144^. Ueber Encephalitis lethargica und ihr Auftreten in ZUrich im Januar/Februar 19tO.
{Encephalitis lethargica and Its Appearance in Zurich in January and February j 19B0,)
Hans W. Maier. Schweiz. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 60, 221-225; 249-254.
A study of 31 cases. Nine of the cases were fatal. Nothing is given with regard to eti-
ology, although it is stated that the disease appears to have no connection with influenza or
post-influenzal conditions. — G. H. S.

Digitized by



144^, Orippe'Encephalitis und Encephalitis lethargica. (Influenzcd Encephalitis and Enceph*
alUis tethargica.) Franz HaoLER. Wien, klin. Wchnschr., 1920, 38, 144r-147.
Influenzal encephalitis is characterized by the severe general cerebral symptoms (stupe-
faction of all grades to complete unconsciousness) which have an acute onset during a grip
epidemic. On the other hand, in encephalitis lethargica, the general cerebral S3rmptoms are
very slight, the most striking feature being sonmolence without stupefaction. This is also
accompanied by an involvement of the eye muscles. — B. C.


iSee also Numbers l»Ut ^^^, i^^f ^^««, ^4^^, t^SS, UTOf H7S, 1489, 1606)

I4BO. Sodium Morrfiuate in the Treatment of Tuberculosis, Leonard Rogers. Indian J. M.

Research, Calcutta. 1919, Special Indian Science Congress Number, 236-256.

The originator of tne use of sodium salts of unsaturated fatt^ acids in the treatment of
leprosy, tuberculosis and other diseases caused by acid-fast organisms, here recounts his first
experiences with the use of sodium morrhuate in tuberculosis. The method of manufacture
and mode of administration of this salt are described. Case reports made by several different
physicians in India who used this treatment are appended. All observers who used the sodium
morrhuate are impressed by its value in tuberculosis. It was given either subcutaneously,
intramuscularly or intravenously as a 3 per cent aqueous solution and in amounts varying
from 0.5 to 2 cc— A. L. W.

I4SI. Incidethce of Tuberctdosis in Husband and Wife, Arnold Minnig. J. Am. M. Ass.,

Chicago, 1920, 74, 1445.

In the authors study marital tuberculosis was found to be 8.76 per cent. When the
consort died the mate was infected in 50 per cent of cases. Adults can be infected and this
fact should always be borne in mind. The figures apply to dispensary caste. In private
life the incidence of marital infection is smaller. — P. G. H.

I4SB, Stdla ricalcificazvme e decalcificazione delVorganismo tubercoloso. (The Recalcification

and Decalcification of the Tuberculous Organism,) E. Cbrasoli. Arch, di farmaool.

sper., Roma, 1919, 18, 93-96.

Lecithins and various salts determine the alkalinity of the blood. In tuberculous persons
the alkalinity of the blood is reduced, due to a disturbance of the chemical et^quilibrium of the
various salts with the consequent abnormal excretion of calcium. This is brought about
by the action of microbial toxins on calcium salts.

The decalcification process disturbs other equilibriums with the resulting elimination of
magnesium phosphorus, chlorides, etc., in the urine. The physiological powers altered by
the elimination of salts may be brought to normal by the introduction of calcium salts in an
assimilable form. This must be done by the hypodermic injection of organic calcium salts.
The calcium salts now given orally are useless as they precipitate in the presence of alkali in
the intestinal tract. — P. M.

I4SS. Secondary Invaders of Tuberculous Lungs, John N. Hates. Am. Rev. Tuberc, Bait.,
1920, 4, 87-99.
This study was made from 90 autopsies performed at United States Army General Hos-

Eital 19. From th^ lun^ and cavities tne more important organisms isolated and grown were
emolytic streptococci, influenza bacilli. Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci and non-hemo-
lytic streptococci. These organisms, and especially hemolytic streptococci, were found in
such a large percentage of cases that the author concludes they are probably factors in cavity
formation. They were often found in the caseation which precedes cavitation. Emphasis
is placed on the importance of mixed lung infection in wards of military hospitals where large
numbers of men are treated. — ^T. G. H.

14s 4, Trauma and Tuberculosis, Thomab Oliver. Practitioner, Lond.. 1920, 104, 321-329.
Several cases of tuberculosis following injury are reported. The autnor does not believe
"traumatism per se can bring into existence a disease of the lungs so distinctly microbial as
pulmonary tuberculosis," but is ready to admit a liberation of microorganisms which may
cause any acute infection. — C. P. B.

1455, tiber das Vorkommen rdter Blutkorperohen in dem Miliartuberkeln der Miltz, (The
Occurrence of Erythrocytes in the Miliary Tubercles of the Spleen,) O, Hbitzmann. Vir^
chow's Archiv f. path. Anat. (etc.), Berl., 1920. 227, 174.
The author explams the occurrence of red blood corpuscles in the miliary tubercles of the

spleen and not of those in other organs, by the difference in the blood and lymph circulation

of that organ. — S. A. G.

Digitized by



I4S6. Zur Frage die Kieselsduretherapie bet Lungentuberktdose. {SUicic Acid Therapy in PuZ-
manary Tuberculosis,) A. Kbbslbr. Deutsche med. Wchnschr., Berl. & Leipz., 1920,
46, 23&-240.

In 16 cases that were under observation, administration of silicates promoted an increase
in the number of leucocytes, especially the neutrophils, and improved the blood picture b^
rii>eninj( of the nuclei. Since these blood changes are desirable ones it is concluded that si-
licic acid in phthisiotherapy is to be recommended. Clinical results appear to confirm this
observation. Demineralization of the body through malnutrition is held to be a cause rather
than a result of tuberculous infection. — B. C.

i467. Zur Meikodik der KieseUduredarreichung bei Lungentuberkulose, (Administration of
Silicic Acid in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.) A. KtJHN. MUnchen. med. Wchnschr., 1920,
67, 253-256.

Long continued administration of silicic acid to persons suffering from pulmonary tuber-
culosis is claimed to be beneficial. It increases resorption and stimulates fibrosis and scar
formation. — B. C.


{See also Numbers 1600, 1608)

UBS. Sul comportamento del liquido cefcdorachidiano nella pertosse. (The Behavior of Cerebro*
spinal Fluid in Pertussis.) G. Genoese. Policlin., Roma, 1920, 27, 291-296.
In pertussis the cerebrospinal fluid is limpid, at high pressure, with normal albumin
without reticulum; the chlorides are normal, acetone is absent, and the Boveri reaction is
negative. There is a noticeable increase in reducing substances. — P. M.

1469. '^Diarrhie comune des nourrissons 6levis au lait de vache." (The Ordinary Diarrhea of

Infants Fed on Cows' Milk.) A. B. Marfan. Nourrisson, Paris. 1920, No. 2, 92-96.

After considering the bacteriology of the diarrheas of infants fed on cows' milk, Marfan
concludes :

1. Ordinary diarrhea of infants fed on cows' milk may perhaps at times be caused by an
organism taken into the digestive tract.

. 2. In this diarrhea there is not always a change in the flora of the fecal matter. Most
often there is a predominance of certain organisms which are a part of the normal intestinal
flora: their increase seems to be the result and not the cause of tne process which determines
the diarrhea.

3. It is probable, however, that the multiplication of certain species may lead to an aggra-
vation of the condition and give rise to complications.

According to the predominating organisms, acids and the products of putrefaction irri-
tate the intestinal mucosa and perhaps cause some general intoxication. The blood stream
may be invaded by the bacteria. Usually this occurs only shortly before death*. At times
it occurs earlier causing fever and increased nutritional disturbance, and by localizing of the
colon bacillus may give rise to pyelo-cystitis. — H. A. R.

IJtSO. Specific Nature of the Hemolytic Streptococcus of Scarlet Fever. Ruth Tunniclipf.

J. Am. M. Ass., Chicago, 1920. 74, 1386.

The serum of sheep immunized with hemolytic streptococci from the throat in the acute
stage of scarlet fever has been found to contain opsonms and agglutinins for the hemolytic
streptococci that prevail in the throat and complicating lesions early in the disease, but not
for hemolytic streptococci from other sources. Absorption tests also showed that tne hemo-
lytic streptococcus from scarlet fever forms a distinct group. A serum produced with this
hemolytic streptococcus may prove to be of diagnostic value. — P. G. H.

1461. Sur la diphtMno^ faction (Reaction de Schick). (The Schick Reaction.) J. Rbnaxtlt.
Bull. Acad, de m6d.. Par., 1920, 88, 130-132.

As a result of the study of 281 tests the author recommends the Schick reaction as having
great importance. The susceptible individuals can be selected from a group by this means,
thereby avoiding the use of serum in those not susceptible.^^l. H. R.

(See cdso Number 144^)

1462. II trattamento di alcune infezioni puerperali col siero normale. (The Treatment of Puer^
peral Infections tnth Normal Serum.) O. Cionozzi. Policlin., Roma, 1920, 27, 259-261.
Clinical studies on 100 cases of uterine infections lead the author to the following conclu-
sions: (1) Normal horse serum and especially ass serum exert a definite beneficent action in
intra-uterine infections, which may develop into serious puerperal fever; (2) 60 cc. are
injected daily subcutaneously. In serious cases injections are made from 3-5 days success-
ively, employing in all about 250 cc. of serum; (3) except for some cases of urticaria no reac-
tions take place; (4) the fever falls in 24 to 48 hours after injections; (5) favorable results
are obtained in at least 90 per cent of the cases. The action of the serum is quick and effi-
cacious. — P. M.

Digitized by



146$. Vorschlag zur Verhuiung luetischer Infektianen bei Hehammen und Oebdrenden. (Plan
for the Prevention of SyphUUic Infection in Midwivee and Women in Labor.) L. Hauck.
Mimchen. med. Wchnschr., 1920, 67, 262-263.
"The best effective protection against the spread of ern>hilitic infection during labor

may be attained through enforcement of the rule that miawives wear rubber gloves in the

practice of their duties."— B. C.

{See also Number 1479)

1464' Anthrax: Comparison of Surgical and Noruurgical Methods of Treatment. A Review of
Fifty-one Cases Treated at the Sfassachusetts General Hospital from 1888 to 1918. Albebt
J. ScHOLL. J. Am. M. Ass., Chicago, 1920, 74. 1441.
The patients treated nonsurgically were confined in bed and the lesions left absolutelv

alone ana exposed to the air. No special measures were carried out. Of these 7 per cent died.

Of those treated surgically 44 per cent died. Early diagnosis was made by bacteriological

examination and the anthrax bacilli were found in 81.2 per cent of the cases examined. —

P. G. H.

1466. A Case of Purpura During Serum Disease. H. E. Melent. Am. J. M. Sc, Phila., 1920.

169, 555-561.

The author reports a case of purpura occurring during the course of serum disease follow-
ing the administration of antipneumococcus Type 1 horse serum in pneumonia. The patient,
a young man of 20 years, was admitted suffering from lobar pneumonia. Pneumoccocus
Type 1 was recovered from the sputum. Blood culture gave no bacterial growth. He had
never received antitoxin of any kind. Intracutaneous tests were negative against horse
serum. Intravenous injection of 100 cc. antipneumococcus serum diluted with 100 cc. of nor-
mal saline was given. Another 100 cc. of serum was given after eisht hours, and a third
dose was given twelve hours later. A slight chill with dyspnoea as well as a slight rise (l^C.)
of temperature, followed the first injection; the other two mjections gave no discomfort. On
the seventh day after the first administration of serum, the onset of serum disease occurred
with purpura. This condition did not clear up until after the thirtieth day. The patient's
blood showed precipitins against horse serum on the eleventh day after receiving the first
dose of the antipneumococcus serum and was still present on the thirty-sixth day. The author
gives very full data on the clinical condition with results of blood examinations, etc. The

Online LibrarySociety of American BacteriologistsAbstracts of bacteriology → online text (page 53 of 103)