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mixture. A precipitate occurs at the junction of the fluid and agar-mixture, and is not dis-
solved when the antigen is in excess. The specific effects of the various dilutions of the anti-
body can be readily determined.

The antibody (precipitin for horse serum) was found to be entirely in the globulin frac-
tion of the serum. The antigen of horse serum was present in both the albumin and globulin
fractions.

Heat of boiling water for 5 minutes almost completely destroyed the antibody, and
treatment of horse serum with a mixture of alcohol ana ether removed the antigenic fraction
of this serum. — S. B-J.

149B, Serologische Versuche mit Antigenen und Antikdrpem an der Oberlebenden hUnstlich
durchstrdmten Leber, (Serological Tests unth Antigens and Antibodies on the Living Liver
by Means of Perfusion,) Martin Hahn and Emil v. Skramlik. Biochem. Ztschr.,
Berl., 1919, 98, 120-140.

A preformed substance is found in the liver cells, which is able to increase the action of
cobra toxin on sheep red blood cells. Under the influence of the toxin this substance passes
out into the circulating fluid. Its presence in the liver cells may also be demonstrated by
studies of the expressed tissue juices. The circulating cobra toxin evokes a destruction of
liver tissue as evidenced by the appearance -of protein m the perfused fluid. The remaining
cells are so altered that even after complete washing out of tne toxin, newly introduced red
blood cells are hemolyzed.

Blood cells laden with amboceptor are retained in the capillary region of the portal vein
as a result of agglutination. Bordet's assumption that hemagglutination is a precursor of
hemolvsis is confirmed. Hemolytic amboceptors are taken up by the liver cells.

Circulating agglutinins are taken up b^ the liver tissue. They are not removed by per-
fusion and agglutmate bacteria which are mtroduced. All of these phenomena show the evi-
dent relatioi^ip of the liver to the various serological processes.— R. E. B.

149s. 'Etudes sur le pneumococque, (Oruihme memoirs) Races du pneumococque, (Studies on

the Pneumococcus, XI, aaces of the Pneumococcus,) M. Nicolle and E. Debains.

Ann. de I'lnst. Pasteur, Par., 1920, 84, 177-180.

Evidence is presented somewhat opposing the doctrine of specific type of pneumococci.
The different types, corresponding to tne American classification, were partially distinguish-
able by agglutination tests with sera of horses immunized to separate strains of pneumococci.
Each type of pneumococcus is regarded as a mosaic of antigenic substances, ana it was found
that the Type II antigen predommated in the h3rperagglutinable strains. No other propertv
of the pneumococci, except the mucous growth of Type III, was found to correspond with
the agglutination' reactions.

Bactericidal, lytic tests and complement fixation tests do not distinguish between the
types as based upon agglutination reactions. — S. B-J.



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270 SEROLOGY

14B4» Complementary and Opsonic Functions in their Relation to Immunity, A Study of the
Serum of Guinea Pigs Naturally Deficient in Complement, Hiram P. Moobe. J. Immu-
nol., Bait. & Cambridge, Eng., 1919, 4, 425-441.

A stock of guinea pigs that nad been bred at the Veterinary Laboratory of the Vermont
State Agricultural Experiment Station was found to be very deficient in complement. In
fact, 1 cc. gave practically no hemolysis when tested with sensitized horse, sheep, and himian
cells. With this favorable material, a number of experiments led to the following conclusions:

1. After injection of a series of complement deficient and normal guinea pigs with killed
bacteria, no increase in the complement content of the blood was noted confirming the original
observation of Von Dungem that the complement content of the blood is not affected bv the
process of antibody formation. Ten days after the last injection of these animals with the
killed bacteria, live bacteria were injected. The fatalities were such in the normals and
complement deficient pigs that the writer concludes that the deficiency in complement did not
interfere with immunity acquired through systematic inmiunization.

2. Live cultures of B. cholerae suis were injected into non-immunized guinea pigs (comple-
ment deficient and complement normal). Of 100 complement deficient, 77 succumbed, while
only 20 of the 100 complement normal pigs similarly treated died. This would seem to indi-
cate that associated with a natural deficiency of complement there is a deficiency in natural
resistance to artificial bacterial infection.

3. The opsonic index was determined in 25 cases with the typhoid bacillus after the
method of Wright. A count of about 100 white cells from each of the 25 normal pigs showed
that they had taken up 16,464 bacteria. A similar determination in the complement deficient
gave a total count of 7817. The average opsonic index of complement deficient serum is 0.4748.
The complement and opsonins bear a definite relation to each other. — R. R. H.

1496, Les sirums antimotiastiques, Leur spicificiti. La reaction de Vantiprotiase, (Anti-
protease Sera. Their Specificity, The Antiprotease Reaction.) L. Launot. Ann. de
rlnst. Pasteur, Par., 1920, 34^249-270.

Animals (rabbits) were injected subcutaneously with filtrates of the cultures of such
proteolytic organisms as B, pyocyaneus, B. prodigiosus^ and V, cholerae. Antibodies were
formed in the sera of these animals, which inhibited the proteol3rtic action of the bacterial
filtrates. The antisera were about 20 times as inhibitory as normal serum. These antibodies
were specific, inhibiting only the protease of the bacterium to which the animal was immun-
ized. The reaction was general for all strains of any particular proteolytic bacterium. For
example, the antiprotease serum of an animal immunized with the filtrate of one strain of
B, pyocyaneus inhibited the proteolytic action of filtrates of other strains of this organism,
regardless of the differences of chromogenesis or agglutination reactions. Antiprotease is a
different antibody from agglutinin. — S. B-J.

1496, On the so^alled Neisser-Wechsherg Inhibiting Phenomenon in Bactericidal Immune Sera^
Th. THJ0TTA. J. Immunol., Bait. & Cambridge, Enp., 1920, 6, 1-38.
The different explanations of the complement-deviation phenomenon given by Neisser-
Wechsberg, Gruber, Lipstein, Levaditi, Gav, Sormani and Brekke are rejected by the writer
as a result of his work with dysentery, rabbit immune sera. The writer follows the usual
methods in such tests and by many carefully planned en>eriments atteimpts to show:

1. The conception of Neisser and Wechsberg that the preat surplus of bactericidal anti-
bodies make the action of complement imi)otent is impossible because, (a) there is no rela-
tion between the bactericidal titer and the inhibiting titer; (b) immune sera are encountered
with high bactericidal titer but without inhibiting action; (c) inhibition is to be found in
sera from which bactericidal amboceptors have been removed by absorption with homologous
antigen.

2. The theory of Sormani that an antibody is produced during active immunization that
renders the bacteria invulnerable to the action of the bactericidal amboceptor-complement
complex is rendered untenable, (a) the hypothetical antibody cannot be absorbed from the
inhibiting serum; (b) bacteria sensitized with the inhibiting serum are as vulnerable to the
bactericidal amboceptor-complement complex as untreated bacteria.

3. The hypothesis that inhibiting antibodies act by attaching themselves to the antigen
thereby interfering with the union of the antigentophil group of the bactericidal amboceptor
is excluded by the fact that, (a) the bactericidal amboceptors can be absorbed from the serum
by the bacteria in the presence of the inhibiting antibodies without the latter becoming at-
tached to the bacteria. They remain free in the fluid.

4. The theory that an antiamboceptor is produced during immimization that fixes itself
to the antigentophil group of the amboceptor is rejected for the reason that, (a) if an anti-
amboceptor connected with its homologous amboceptor could absorb all of the complement,
the nature of the antigen would play no part in the inhibition and the inhibition would take
place against any bacteria tested in an inhibiting serum.

5. The hypothesis that antiamboceptors of the nature of complementoids, that is, anti-
bodies that act against the complementophil group of the amboceptor may be produced by
immunization cannot be sustained because, (a; such antibodies would not prevent the union
of the bactericidal amboceptor with the bacteria but would prevent the subsequent coopera-
tion of complement. Accordingly bacteria, after contact with an inhibiting concentration



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SERUM THERAPY 271

of immune serum should be invulnerable to the action of fresh active serum, since all the recep-
tors are supposed to be satisfied; (b) an absorbed inhibiting immune serum should possess
bactericidal power as its complement should remain unaltered in the fluid after absorption.
6. The tneory is advanccKi by the writer that during immunization specific antibodies
are produced, which in connection with dissolved antigen, absorb complement with greater
avidity, so that the complement cannot effect its bactericidal action. Tnese are not identicid
with agglutinins, bacteriolysins or precipitins, (a) The titer of inhibition varies with the
dose of complement; (b) bacteria that have been in contact with an inhibiting serum are not
protected in a non-inhibiting serum; (c) the absorbed serum loses all its former bactericidal
action, as no free complement is left in solution. — R. R. H.

llfi^, Ueher die neueren Ausflockungsreahtianen zur Diagnose der Lues. (Newer Precipitation
Reactions in the Diagnosis of Syphilis.) Db. Huebbchmann. MUnchen. med. Wchnschr.,
1920,67,251-253.
A discourse on the Meinicke and the Sachs-Qeorgi reactions and their fundamental

relations.— B. C.

1498. Serologische Untersuchung von Komrade in Mehl und Kleie, (Serological Studies of the
Corncockle in Flour and Bran.) J. Beckbb. Centralbl. f. Bakteriol. (etc.)f Jena, 2.
Abt., 1918, 48, 417-420.
The reco^ition of corncockle in foods and feeds can be carried out with certainty by

means of the serum reaction, particularly if the percentage of corncockle is small or only a

small sample of meal is available.— R. £. B.

14B9. Ueher den Bau des Rezeptorenapparates der paragglutinierenden Bakterien. (The Recep^
tors in Paragglutinating Bacteria.) Paul B5bnst]din. Berl. klin. Wchnschr., 1920, 67,
20ft-210.

Paragglutinating bacteria possess, in addition to their specific ortho-receptors, specific
para-receptors for certain disease conditions. In experiments with a dysentery-paraggluti-
nating strain of B. coli, absorption of one group of receptors reduced more or less tne aggluti-
nating power of the other. The results suggest that the Weil-Felix reaction may be looked
upon as a form of paragglutination. — B. C.

SERUM THERAPY

(See also Numbers 15S7, im, WS)

1500. Vingt-cinq ann6es de s^othirapie antidiphterique. (Twenty-fioe years of Antidiphtherie
Serotherapy.) L. Mabtin. Bull. Acad, de m^d.. Par., 1919, 92, 173-179.
Statistics and charts are presented showing the comparison between deaths from diph-
theria before and after the introduction of diphtheria antitoxin in 1894. The weekly mortal-
ity in the oitjr of Paris for 1893 varied between a maximum of 45 and a minimimi of 14. In
1918 the maxunimi was 4 and the minimum 1. — G. H. R.

1601. Studes sur le pneumococque. (Dizihme memoire.) Priparation et propriitis des sirums
antifneumococciques, (Studies of the Pneumococcus. X. Preparation and Properties of
Antipneumococctc Sera.) C. Tbuche. Ann. de Flnst. Pasteur, Par., 1920, 34, 98-103.
The most satisfactory antiffen for the immunization of horses was found to be a prepara-
tion of pneumococci killed by alcohol and ether. The authors found that senmi from a nprse
immunized against one type of pneumococcus was protective also to a considerable degree
against virulent cultures oi other types of the organism. Antipneumococcic serum was cura-
tive in lobar pneimionia and pleurisy due to the pneumococcus, less so in pneumococcic menin-
gitis and endocarditis. In certain hospitals where this serum was used, the mortality from
pneumococcic pneumonia fell from 30 to 8 per 100. — S. B-J.

150B. Recherches sur la preparation des sirums antimicrobiens et antitoxiques chez le cheval.

(Researches on the Production of Antimicrobial and Antitoxic Sera with Horses.) M. Nic-

OLLB, V. Frasey, E. Debains and E. Nicolas. Ann. de Tlnst. Pasteur, Par., 1920, 34, .

285-333.

The methods of preparing therapeutic sera from horses are described in detail. The sera
studied were antityphoid, antiparat3i>hoid A and B, antimeningococcus A, B, and C, anti-
gonococcus, antishiga, antiflexner, antimelitensis, antioholera, and antigangprene. The paper
contains data on the preparation of the antigens, which were usually bacteria killed by treat-
ment with alcohol ana etner^ on the dosage for immunisation of horses, and the care of animals
during the period of the injections. — S. B-J.

160S. SirothirapiedelallMyretyphclide. Mode dUmploi du sirum. Resultats cliniaues. (Sero^
therapy in Typhoid Fever, Method of Using the Serum and the Clinical Results.) A.
RoDET AND S. BoNNAMOUB. BuU. Acad. de m6d.. Par., 1919, 81, 759-761.
The mortality of cases was 2.9 per cent after eliminating the deaths from complications

and those treated after the twelfth day.— G. H. R.



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272 VACCINE THERAPY

I6O4. La aSrothSrapie antigonococGique. Stuie expSrimental el clinique. (Antigonococcus
Serum Therapy. An experimental and clinical study. ) Jean Pabaf. Thesis, Univ. Paris,
1919, Abs. in Presse. mSd., Par., 1920, 28, 208.
Based on results in experimental ophthalmia and meningitis in animals, Paraf has obtained

good results in localised mfections: arthritis, orchitis, etc. — L. A. K.

ANAPHYLAXIS

150S. Anaphylatoxine et anaphylaxie. (Anaphylatoxin and Anaphylaxis.) A. Besrbdka.

Ann. de Tlnst. Pasteur, Par., 1920, 34, 334-342.

Besredka points out that the so-called anaphylatoxins produced in vitro by the action of
colloids or adsorbents on serum are not similar in their action to true anaphylactic shock.
The most notable difference is that while these anaphylatoxins are poisonous, they do not
render the animal desensitized or in the antianaphylactic condition of an animal which has
survived anaphylactic shock.

Vaccination or immunization against these artificial anaphylatoxins barely protects an
animal against the formerlv fatal dose of the toxic serum or protein split product. But an
animal strictly desensitized to an antigen to which it was origmally sensitive will tolerate an
almost unlimited dose of this non-poisonous antigen. A guinea pig sensitized to horse serum
and also vaccinated against anaphylatoxin will suffer shock when injected with horse serum,
and a desensitized guinea pig will react to anaphylatoxin. The serum of an animal vaccin-
ated against anaphylatoxin contains a substance which neutralizes the latter, but the serum
of a desensitized animal does not contain any such antibody. — S. B-J.

1606. An Experimental Study of the Action of Ultraviolet Light on the Intradermic Tuberculin
Reaction. Edgar Mater. Am. Rev. Tuberc. Bait., 1920, 4, 100-111.
''The intradermic tuberculin test in guinea pigs and patients often gives a reaction of
lessened extent when the injected area is treated locally with short exposures to ultraviolet
light either before or after injection. Recently tanned skin also gives a slightly lessened reac-
tion. Tuberculin exposed for a sufficient length of time (45 minutes at a distance of 2 feet)
to the ultraviolet rays loses markedly, and at times entirely, its power to cause intradermic
reactions."— T. G. H.

1507. Etude sur certains phhiomhnes de choc observes en cliniques. Sianification de VhSmo^
clasie. (A Study of Certain Phenomena of Shock, Observed Clinically. The Significance
of the Blood Crisis.) Fernand Widal, Pierre Abrami and Et. Brisbaud. Presse m6d.,
Par., 1920; 28, 181.

A discussion and review of allergic phenomena. Attention is called to the vascular reac-
tion in many anaphylactoid phenomena: lowered arterial pressure and blood coagulability:
leucopenia, diminution of the number ot platelets, sharp changes in the refractive index of
the serum, etc. This crisis is observed in asthma and alimentary urticaria: in vaccine shock;
in milk sickness. Crystalloids as well as proteins may cause this shock wnen injected intra-
venously.

A discussion of the mechanism follows. ''Arguments drawn from the clinic and patho-
logic physiology .... lead us to think that it (shock of this type) is a simple rupture
of the physical equilibrium of colloidal structures." — L. A. K.

VACCINE THERAPY
(See also Numbers ISiS, HIS, im, W7)

1608. StUla vaccinazione antipertossica. (Antipertussis VacciruUion.) T. Luzzatti. Poli-
clin., Roma, 27, 451-453.

A method for making pertussis vaccine according to Nicoile and the technic of admin-
istering same are given. The use of this vaccine in children was attended with very good
results. The positive proofs obtained with prophylactic vaccination show that in all proba-
bility the bacillus of Bordet is the specific s^gent of the disease.

No agglutination could be shown with the serum of patients having the disease actively,
nor in those of the catarrhal stage. — P. M

1609. La vathogSnie du cholira et la vaccination antichol^ique. (The Pathogenesis of Cholera
and Vaccination against Cholera.) J. CANTACUzisNB. Ann. de PInst. Pasteur, Par., 1920,
34, 57-87.

A vaccine made of the cholera vibrio, killed by heat at 56''C. for half an hour, was used
extensively in the Blakan wars and in the recent campaigns (1916) in Roumania. The use of
this vaccine was always followed by a decrease in the mcidence of cholera. Epidemics of
cholera were stopped when all persons of a community were vaccinated. A dosage of 3 to 4
billions of bacteria, given in two or more injections, was essential to the production of a sub-
stantial preventive vaccination. In practice, no harmful effects were consequent upon the
production of a possible negative phase in the persons vaccinated. The author thinks that
subcutaneous injection of the vaccine is followed first by a local immunity of the intestine,
later by general immunity.— S. B-J.



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EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION 273

1610. Essai de traitment du typhus exanthimatique par V injection du liquide ciphciUhrcuihidienne
du mcdade, (An Attempt to Treat Typhus Fever by the Injection of the Patient's Cerehro^
spinal Fluid.) I. SAgal. Presse m6d., Par., 1920, 28, 271. (Suppl.)
A case of t3rphus (in Palestine) was treated by two subcutaneous and one intravenous

injection^ of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid, freshl}^ drawn, quantities of 8-10 cc. being used.

Marked improvement, followed by convalescence ensued. — L. A. K.

1511, Mininaite cSribrospintUe et hactSrioth^apie. {Cerebrospinal Meningitis and BacteriO'
therapy.) H. M£bt and L. Girard. Bull. Acad, de m6d.. Par., 1919, 82, 284-286.
A report of a case treated with an autogenous vaccine. Five subcutaneous treatments
were given at intervals of 2 or 3 days and recovery speedily resulted. Antimeningococcus
serum had been used on this case but with no amelioration of the symptoms. — G. M. R.

151$. OsteO'periostite post-typhique traitie par un autovaccin vivant sensibilise. (Post-typhoidal
Osteoperiositis Treated with a lAving Sensitized Autogenous vaccine.) M. Ciuca and I.
Enbscu. Ann. de Tlnst. Pasteur, Par., 1920, 34, 358-359.

Osteoperiostitis of the radius in a case of convalescent typhoid fever was treated with a
vaccine made from the typhoid bacillus originally isolated from the patient's blood. The
living organisms were sensitized before injection by placing them in contact with the patient's
serum. After four injections of the vaccine, the periostitis disappeared.— S. B-J.

151S. The Sterilization of Lipovaccines. P. A. Lewis and F. W. Dodge. J. Exper. M., N. Y.,

1920, 31. 169.

It was found that B. subtilis contaminated a pneimiococcus lipovaccine when prepared
by the method of Whitmore and Fennel (i.e., dry in an oven at 53*Cf. over lime, grind in a jar
with steel balls for a number of hours, then add a mixture of anhydrous lanolin and cotton-
seed oil, repeat grinding, and finally add cottonseed oil containing 0.25 per cent chloretone).
The authors, therefore, e^roosed the finished vaccine to a temperature of 130*^0 . for 3 hours in
an electric oven, or to 120 C. for 12 hours, which rendered it sterile. This product was found
to afford a considerable degree of protection to mice for a brief period, apparently in not much
less degree than the unheated vaccine. However, heating of typhoia lipovaccine in a similar
manner appeared to almost totally destroy its antigenic qualities. — W. P. B.

NONSPECIFIC THERAPY

(See Number 1S$6) #

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION

1514. A Study of Experimental Meningitis. I. The Production of Experimental Meningitis

by Direct Inoculation into the Subarachnoid Space. Lloyd D. Felton and Paul Wbgb-

FORTH. Monogr. Rockefeller Inst. M. Research, N. Y., No. 12, 1920, 5-25.

This study was made in an effort to find an organism of high original pathogenicity within
the meninges of laboratory animals in order that infections analogous to those encountered
in man might be produced and therapeutic measures attempted. The cat was used chiefly
for the work.

Routine injections of a number of different organisms were made into the meninges of
cats, most satisfactorily through the obcipito-atlantoid lieament, but sometimes also through
the lumbo-sacral ligament. In a number of cases several strains of the same organism were
tested, 21 varieties and 102 strains being employed in all, falling into 3 general groups:

Group I. Consisted of the bacteria that most frequently invade the meninges of man.
Included meningococcus, M. flavuSf S. hemolyticvsy Staphylococcus albvSf Staphylococcus
aureus, pneimiococcus and B. influenzae.

Group II. Consisted of miscellaneous Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacilli of rela-
tively low virulence for the meninges of the cat. Included B. gallinarumf B. subtUiSf B.
smeqmatis, B. cereus, B. proteus zopfi, B. proteus mirabUis, B. anthracoides, S. metschnikovi,
B. aysenteriae (Flexner, Harris, Kruse, Hiss-Russell, Duval) and B. typhosus.

Group III. Consisted of highly virulent organisms. Included B. coli (especially B. coli
communior), B. pyocyaneus, B. paratyphosus B, and B. mucosus capsulatus (especially B.
lactis aerogenes).

The organisms included in Group I were found to possess but slight pathogenicity for
the meninges of the cat, possibly because the cat is comparatively insusceptible to these same
organisms on intravenous inoculation, especially when they are of human origin. The 2
strains of Staphylococcus albus and 4 of the strains of Streptococcus hemolyticus proved aviru-
lent for the menmges of cats. Pus from staphylococcus infections in the cat and man produced
meningitis, on subarachnoid inoculation, in 6 out of 8 cats, and aggressins in the filtrate from
such pus, when mixed with staphylococci, promoted meningitis.

The organisms included in Group II possessed about the same natural virulence for the
meninges of the cat as those of Group I, but in none of the strains was the pathogenicity
uniform or of sufficient degree for the immediate purpose. Most of these organisms were



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274 EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION

stock cultures, grown for months or years on artificial media, but still capable, on massive
inoculation into the subarachnoid space, of producing fatal meningitis. Tnis indicates that
meningitic infection can be produced in cats by direct subarachnoid injection of any of the
known microoraaisms, provided the strain is of optimum virulence.

Of Group III, B, iactis aerogenes (B. mucoaua capstdattts group) possessed the greatest
natural virulence for the meninges of the cat. The strain employea was isolated at autopsy
from the blood and lungs of a fatal case of bronchopneimionia. It was found to be 40,000.000
times as virulent as B, coli and 1,000,000,000 times as virulent as B. j>araiypho8iu B and B.
pyocyanetu, assuming that the number of organisms in a 24-hour meat infusion broth culture
IS the same with all four organisms. This org^anism, when injected in different dilutions into



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