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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



^MAKING
YOUR OWN WORLD

f

Being the Second of a Series of

Twelve Volumes on the Applications

of Psychology to the Problems of

Personal and Business

Efficiency

BY

WARREN HILTON, A.B., L.L.B.

FOUNDER OF THE "SOCIETY OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY



ISSUED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF

THE LITERARY DIGEST

FOR



NEW YORK AND LONDON
1919



COPYRIGHT 1914

BY THE APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY PRESS
SAN FRANCISCO



Ed. - Psych.
Library



Chapter



CONTENTS

IJIIC1

I. THE TWO FUNDAMENTAL PROC-

ESSES OF MIND Paea

MIND AS A MEANS TO ATTAINMENT 3

THREE POSTULATES FOR THIS COURSE 4

EXPERIENCE AND ABSTRACTIONS 5

PRIMARY MENTAL OPERATIONS 6

II. SENSATIONS AND OUR PERCEP-

TION OF THEM

MIND'S SOURCE OF SUPPLIES 9

DOES MATTER EXIST? IO

FIRST-HAND KNOWLEDGE I I

SECOND-HAND KNOWLEDGE I 2

ETHERIC VIBRATIONS AS CAUSING SENSATIONS I 3

THE ROAD TO PERCEPTION 14

THE PLACE WHERE SENSATION OCCURS 15
LABORATORY PROOF OF SENSE-PERCEPTIVE

PROCESS 1 6

REACTION-TIME 1 7

THE HUMAN TELEPHONE I 8

THE LIVING TELEGRAPH 19

THE SIX STEPS TO REACTION 2O

UNOPENED MENTAL MAIL 21

SELECTIVE PROCESS THAT DETERMINES CONDUCT 2 2

IN TUNE WITH LIFE-INTEREST 23

PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF PERCEPTION PROCESS 24



Contents

Chapter

III. SENSORY ILLUSIONS AND

SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR USE .

rtc*

UNRELIABILITY OF SENSE-ORGANS 2J

BEING AND SEEMING 2O

USE OF ILLUSIONS IN BUSINESS 3 I

MAKING AN ARTICLE LOOK BIG 32

TESTING THE CONFIDENTIAL MAN 33

TESTS FOR CREDULITY 3 A

WHAT COLORS LOOK NEAREST 35

TESTING THE RANGE OF ATTENTION 36

A GUIDE TO OCCUPATIONAL SELECTION 37

TEST FOR ATTENTION TO DETAILS 38

OTHER BUSINESS APPLICATIONS 39

IV. INWARDNESS OF ENVIRONMENT
FACTORS OF SUCCESS OR FAILURE 43
SHOULD SEEING BE BELIEVING? 44
HEARING THE LIGHTNING 46
IMPORTANCE OF THE MENTAL MAKE-UP 47
UNREALITY OF "THE REAL" 48
"THINGS" AND THEIR MENTAL DUPLICATES 49
EFFECT OF CLOSING ONE*S EYES 50
IF MATTER WERE ANNIHILATED 51

IF MIND WERE ANNIHILATED CZ

AS MANY WORLDS AS MINDS 53

V. ESSENTIAL LAW OF PRACTICAL

SELF-MASTERY

OPTION AND OPPORTUNITY 57

PRE-ARRANGING YOUR CONSCIOUSNESS j8

HOW TO DEFINITELY SELECT ITS ELEMENT* 59



Contents

AN INFALLIBLE RECIPE FOR SELF-POSSESON
USING "UNSEEN EAR PROTECTORS*'
HOW TO AVOID WORRY, MELANCHOLY
PUTTING CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER FOOT
RUNNING YOUR MENTAL FACTORY
ACQUIRING MENTAL BALANCE
DISSIPATING MENTAL SPECTERS
HOW TO CONTROL YOUR DESTINY



THE TWO FUNDAMENTAL
PROCESSES OF MIND



CHAPTER I

THE TWO FUNDAMENTAL
PROCESSES OF MIND



N THE preceding book, " Psychol- Mind as a

- Means to

ogy and Achievement, we estab- Attainment



Ilished the truth of two proposi-
tions :

I. *All human achievement comes
about through bodily activity.

II. All bodily activity is caused, con-
trolled and directed by the mind.

To these two fundamental proposi-
tions we now append a third, which
needs no proof, but follows as a natural
and logical conclusion from the other
two:



A Applied Psychology

Three HI. The Mind is the instrument you

Postulates .

for this must employ for the accomplishment of
e any purpose.

With these three fundamental prop-
ositions as postulates, it will be the
end and aim of this Course of Reading
to develop plain, simple and specific
methods and directions for the most
efficient use of the mind in the attain-
ment of practical ends.

To comprehend these mental meth-
ods and to make use of them in busi-
ness affairs you must thoroughly under-
stand the two fundamental processes of
the mind.

These two fundamental processes are
the Sense-Perceptive Process and the
Judicial Process.

The Sense-Perceptive Process is the



Making Your Own Jf^orld r

process by which knowledge is acquired Experience
through the senses. Knowledge is the Abstractions.
result of experience and all human ex-
perience is made up of sense-percep-
tions.

The Judicial Process is the reasoning
and reflective process. It is the purely
"intellectual" type of mental operation.
It deals wholly in abstractions. Ab-
stractions are constructed out of past
experiences.

Consequently, the Sense-Perceptive
Process furnishes the raw material,
sense-perceptions or experience, for the
machinery of the Judicial Process to
work with.

In this book we shall give you a clean
idea of the Sense-Perceptive Process
and show you some of the ways in whicH



6 Applied Psychology

Primary an understanding of this process will be

Operations use ^ u l to 7 OU i n everyday affairs. The
succeeding book will explain the Judi-
cial Process.



SENSATIONS

AND OUR PERCEPTION

OF THEM



CHAPTER II

SENSATIONS

AND OUR PERCEPTION

OF THEM

WHATEVER you knOW, Or Mind's Source
think you know, of the of Supplies
external world comes to
you through some one
of your five primary senses, sight, hear-
ing, touch, taste and smell, or some one
of the secondary senses, such as the
muscular sense and the sense of heat
and cold.

The impressions you receive in this
way may be true or they may be false.
They may constitute absolute knowl-



I o Applied Psychology

Does Matter edge or they may be merely mistaken
impressions. Yet, such as they are, they
constitute all the information you have
or can have concerning the world about
you.

Philosophers have been wrangling
for some thousands of years as to
whether we have any real and absolute
knowledge, as to whether matter actu-
ally does or does not exist, as to the re-
liability or unreliability of the impres-
sions we receive through the senses.
But there is one thing that all scientific
men are agreed upon, and that is that
such knowledge as we do possess comes
to us by way of perception through the
organs of sense.

If you have never given much
thought to this subject, you have nat-



Making Your Own World \ \
urally assumed that you have direct Firs

J Knowledge

knowledge of all the material things
that you seem to perceive about you. It
has never occurred to you that there are
intervening physical agencies that you
ought to take into account.

When you look up at the clock, you
instinctively feel that there is nothing
interposed between it and your mind
that is conscious of it. You seem to feel
that your mind reaches out and envel-
ops it.

As a matter of fact, your sense-im-
pression of that bit of furniture must
filter through a great number of inter-
vening physical agencies before you
can become conscious of it.

Direct perception of an outside re-
ality is impossible.



1 2 Applied Psychology

Second-Hand Before you can become aware of any

Knowledge J /

object there must first arise between it
and your mind a chain of countless dis-
tinct physical events.

Modern science tells us that both
light and sound are due to undulations
or wave-like vibrations of the ether.
These vibrations are transmitted from
one particle of ether to another, and so
from the thing perceived to the body
of man.

Think, then, what crisscross of ether
currents and confusion of ether vibra-
tions, what myriad of physical events,
must intervene between any distant ob-
ject and your own body before sensa-
tions come and bring you a conscious-
ness of that object's existence!

Nor can you be sure, even after any



Making Tour Own If^orld \ *
particular vibration has reached the Etherie

. . .-, . Vibrations as

surface of your body, that it will reach causing
your mind unaltered and intact!

What goes on in the body itself is
made clear by your knowledge of the
cellular structure of man.

You know that you have a system of
nerves centering in the brain and with
countless ramifications throughout the
structural tissues of the body.

You know that part of these nerves
are sensory nerves and part of them are
motor nerves. You know that the sen-
sory nerves convey to the brain the im-
pressions received from the outer world
and that the motor nerves relay this
information to the rest of the body
coupled with commands for appropri-
ate muscular action.



Applied Psychology

The outer end of everv sensory nerve
exposes a sensitive bit of gray matter.
These sensitive, impression-receiving
ends constitute together what is called
the " sensorium " of the body.

When vibrations of light or sound
impinge upon the sensorium, they are
relayed from nerve cell to nerve cell
until they reach the central brain.
Then it is, and not until then, that sen-
sations and perceptions occur.

Consider, now, the infinitesimal size
of a nerve cell and you will have some
conception of the number of hands
through which the message must pass
before it is received by the central
office.

Many of our sensations, especially
those of touch, seem to occur on the




DIAGRAM SHOWING THE FOUR CHIEF ASSOCIATION CENTERS
OF THE HUMAN BRAIN



Making Your Own W^orld \ r

periphery of the body that is to say, at 77* Place
that part of the exposed surface of the^f*
body which is apparently affected. If Occurs
your finger is crushed in a door, the
sensation of the blow and the pain all
seem to occur in the finger itself.

As a matter of fact, this is not the
case, for if one of your arms should be
amputated, you would still feel a tin-
gling in the fingers of the amputated
arm. Thus has arisen a superstition
that leads many people to bury any part
of the body lost in this way, thinking
that they will never be entirely relieved
of pain until the absent member is
finally at rest.

Of course, the fact is that you would
only seem to have feeling in the ampu-
tated arm. The sensation would really



Applied Psychology

Laboratory occur in the central brain tissue as the
enc- organ of the governing intelligence, the
Perceptive organ of consciousness.

Process , . ,

And you may set it down as an
established principle that all states of
consciousness, whether seemingly local-
ized on the surface of the body or not,
are connected with the brain as the dom-
inant center.

The facts we have been recounting
have been established by the experi-
ments of physiological psychology.
Thus, the work of the laboratory has
shown that between the moment when
a sense vibration reaches the body and
the moment when sensation occurs a
measurable interval of time intervenes.

If your eyes were to be blindfolded
and your hand unexpectedly pricked



Making Your Own Jf^orld j y
with a white-hot needle, the time that Reaction

T "

would elapse before you could jerk
your hand away could be readily meas-
ured in fractions of a second with
appropriate instruments.

This interval is known as reaction- **
time. It varies greatly with different
persons. During this reaction-time, the
cell or cells attacked upon the surface
of the hand have conveyed news of the
assault through numberless intermedi-
ate sensory nerve cells to the brain. The
brain in turn has sent out its mandate
through the appropriate motor nerve
cells to all the muscle and other cells
surrounding the injured cell, command-
ing them to remove it from the point of
danger.

The work of the nervous system in



j 8 Applied Psychology

r jf // " llkm dealing with the ether vibrations that

Telephone

are constantly impinging upon the sur-
face of the body has been likened to that
of the transmitter, connecting wire and
receiver of a telephone. Air-waves
striking against the transmitter of the
telephone awaken a similar vibratory
movement in the transmitter itself.
This movement is passed along the wire
to the receiver, which vibrates respon-
sively and imparts a corresponding
wave-like motion to the air.

These air-waves when heard are
what we call sound.

In the same way, air-waves striking
the ear are communicated by the audi-
tory nerve to the brain, where they
awaken a corresponding sensation of
sound. But these waves must be vibrat-



Making Your Own W^orld

ing at between 14,000 and 40,000 times Th
a second. If they are vibrating so slowly Tdegraph
or so rapidly as not to come within this
range, we cannot hear them.

This process is by no means a me-
chanical affair. On the contrary, it is a
series of mental acts. Every cell in the
living telegraph must receive the mes-
sage and transmit it. Every cell must
exercise a form of intelligence, from
the auditory cell reporting a sound-
wave or the skin cell reporting an in-
jury to the muscle cells that ultimately
receive and understand a message di-
recting them to remove the part from
danger.

Reaction-time, so called, is thus occu-
pied by cellular action in the form of
mental processes intervening between



Applied Psychology
The Six steps the nerve-ends and the brain center, in

to Reaction

much the same way that light and sound
yibrations intervene between the object
perceived and the surface of the body.
For even the simplest of sense-per-
ceptions we have, then, this sequence of
events: first, the object perceived; sec-
ond, the series of vibrations of ether
particles intervening between the ob-
ject and the body; third, the impression
upon the surface of the body; fourth,
the series of mental processes, cell after
cell, in the nerve filaments leading to
the brain ; fifth, when these impressions
or messages have reached the brain, a
determination of what is to be done;
and, sixth, a transmission by cellular ac-
tion of a new message that will awaken
some response in the muscular tissues.



Making Tour Own World 2 1

This process is completely carried Unopened
out, however, in only comparatively
few instances. The vast majority of
sense-impressions awaken no reaction.
They are registered in the mind, frut
they are not perceived. We are not con-
scious of them. They form a part, not
of consciousness, but of subconscious-
ness. They are messages that reach the
mind but are laid aside like unopened
mail because they possess no present
interest.

Wherever and however you may be
placed, you are always and everywhere
immersed in a flood of etheric vibra-
tions. Light, sound and tactual vibra-
tions press upon you from every side.
At a busy corner of a city street these
vibrations rise to a tumultuous fortis-



22 Applied Psychology

Selective simo; in the hush of a night upon the

*ermi?es P lainS the y sink tO P ianissim - Yet at

Conduct every moment of your day or night they
are there in greater or less degree, titil-
lating the unsleeping nerve-ends of the
sensorium.

Your mind cannot take time to make
all these sense-impressions the subject of
conscious thought. It can trouble itself
only with those that bear in some way
upon your interests in life.

Your mind is like the receiving ap-
paratus of the wireless telegraph which
picks from the air those particular vi-
brations to which it is attuned. Your
mind is selective. It is discriminating.
It seizes upon those few sensory images
that are related to your interests in life
and thrusts them forward to be con-



Making Your Own Jf^orld 2 3
sciously perceived and acted upon. All ln Tune

Life-Interest

others it diverts into a subconscious
reservoir of temporary oblivion.

You will have a clearer understand-
ing of the sense-perceptive processes
and a more vital realization of the prac-
tical significance of these facts when
you consider how they affect your
knowledge of material things and your
conception of the external world.

This subject possesses two distinct as-
pects.

One aspect has to do with the inability:
of the sense-organs to record the facts
of the outer world with perfect pre-
cision. These organs are the result of
untold ages of evolution, and, generally
speaking, have become wonderfully
efficient, but they display surprising



Applied Psychology
inaccuracies. These inaccuracies are

Aspects of

Perception called Sensory Illusions.

The other aspect of the Sense-Per-
ceptive Process has to do with the men-
tal interpretation of environment.

Both these aspects are distinctly prac-
tical.

You should know something of the
weaknesses and deficiencies of the sense-
perceptive organs, because all your
efforts at influencing other men are
'directed at their organs of sense.

You should understand the relation-
ship between your mind and your en-
vironment, since they are the two prin-
cipal factors in your working life.



SENSORY ILLUSIONS

AND SUGGESTIONS FOR

THEIR USE




CHAPTER III

SENSORY ILLUSIONS

AND SUGGESTIONS FOR

THEIR USE

IGURE 1 SHOWS tWO lines of Unreliability

of Sense-

equal length, yet the vertical Organs
line will to most persons seem
longer than the horizontal one.




2 8 Applied Psychology

Unreliability T _.

of Sense- 1 Figure 2 the lines A and B are of
the same length, yet the lower seems
much longer.



B



FIG. 2.

Those things look smallest over
which the eye moves with least resist-
ance.

In Figure 3, the distance from A to B
looks longer than the distance from B
to C because of the time we involun-
tarily take to notice each dot, yet the
distances are equal.

A .B C

FIG. 3.



Making Tour Own World 3,9

For the same reason, the hatchet
line (A B) appears longer than the
unbroken line (C D) in Figure 4, and
the lines E and F appear longer than
the space (G) between them, although
all are of equal length.



FIG. 4.

Filled spaces look larger than empty
ones because the eye unconsciously
stops to look over the different parts of
the rilled area, and we base our estimate
upon the extent of the eye movements
necessary to take in the whole field.



3



Applied Psychology



and Thus the filled square in Figure 5 looks

Seeming

larger than the empty one, though they
are of equal size.




FIG. 5.

White objects appear much larger
than black ones. A white square looks
larger than a black one. It is said that
cattle buyers who are sometimes com-
pelled to guess at the weight of animals
have learned to discount their estimate
on white animals and increase it on




THIS MAN AND THIS BOY ARE OF EQUAL HEIGHT,

BUT ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS MAKES THE MAN

LOOK MUCH THE LARGER



Making Tour Own World 3 I

black ones to make allowances for the use of
optical illusion.

The dressmaker and tailor are care-
ful not to array stout persons in
checks and plaids, but try to convey an
impression of sylph-like slenderness
through the use of vertical lines. On
the other hand, you have doubtless no-
ticed in recent years the checkerboard
and plaid-covered boxes used by certain
manufacturers of food products and
others to make their packages look
larger than they really are.

The advertiser who understands
sensory illusions gives an impression of
bigness to the picture of an article by
the artful use of lines and contrasting
figures. If his advertisement shows a
picture of a building to which he wishes



2 2 Applied Psychology

Making onto give the impression of bigness, he
/l ~adds contrasting figures such as those
of tiny men and women so that the un-
known may be measured by the known.
If he shows a picture of a cigar, he
places the cigar vertically, because he
knows that it will look longer that way
than if placed horizontally.

A subtle method of conveying an
idea of bigness is by placing numbers
on odd-shaped cards or blocks, or on
any blank white space. The object or
space containing the figures always ap-
pears larger than the corresponding
space without the figures.

This fact has been made the basis of a
psychological experiment to determine
the extent to which a subject's judg-
ment is influenced by suggestion. To



o -



Making Your Own Jf^orld

perform this experiment cut bits ci
pasteboard into pairs of squares, circles, Man
stars and octagons and write numbers of
two figures each, say 25, SO, 34, 87, etc.,
upon the different pieces. Tell the sub-
ject to be tested to pick out the forms
that are largest. The susceptible per-
son who is not trained to discriminate
closely will pick out of each pair the
card that has the largest number upon
it.

This test can be made one of a series
used in examining applicants for com-
mercial positions. It can also be used
to discover the weakness of certain
employees, such as buyers, secretaries
and others who are entrusted with
secrets and commissions requiring dis-
cretion, and who must be proof against



o A Applied Psychology



Tests for fa t deceptions practiced by salesmen,

Credulity

promoters and others with seductive
propositions.

This examination can be carried still
further to test the subject's credulity
or power of discrimination. What is
known as the " force card " test was orig-
inally devised by a magician, but has
been adopted in experimental psychol-
ogy. Take a pack of cards and shuffle
them loosely in the two hands, making
some one card, say the ace of spades, es-
pecially prominent. The subject is told
to " take a card." The suggestive influ-
ence of the proffered card will cause
nine persons out of ten to pick out that
particular card.

Turning from illusions of suggestion,
shape and size, another field of peculiar



Making Tour Own World 3 5

sensory illusions is found in color aber- what Colors
ration. Some colors look closer than
others. For instance, paint an object red . -
and it seems nearer than it would if
painted green.

Aside from the obvious uses to which
these sense-illusions can be put, they
form the basis for a number of psycho-
logical experiments to test the abilities
of persons in many ways. Here is a test
which deals with the range of attention-.
If you desire to discover the capacity
of any person to pay attention to unfa-
miliar questions or subjects which
might at some future time have great
importance, try this test. Have a piece
of pasteboard cut into squares, circles,
triangles, halfmoons, stars and other
forms. Then write upon each piece



2 6 Applied Psychology

Testing the 50 SUch WOrd aS hat > COat > bal l



. The objects are then placed under

Attention

a cloth cover and the subject to be ex-
amined is told to concentrate his atten-
tion on the shapes alone, paying no at-
tention to the words. The cloth is lifted
for five seconds and then replaced. The
subject is then told to draw with a pen-
cil the different shapes and such 'words
as he may chance to remember. The ex-
periment should then be repeated, with
the injunction to pay no attention to the
shapes but to remember as many words
as possible, and write them down on
such forms as he may happen to recall.
Of course, the real object is to deter-
mine whether the subject will see more
than he is told, or whether he is a mere
automaton. The result will tell whether



Making Tour Own World 3 7
his attention is of the narrow or broad^j Gwdeto

Occupational

type. If it be narrow, he will see only Selection
the forms in the first case and no words,
and in the second case he will remember
the words but be unable to recall the
shape of the pieces of cardboard.

His breadth of attention will be
shown by the number of correct forms
and words combined which he is able
to remember in both cases. In other
words, this will measure his ability to
pay attention to more than one thing at
a time.

Other things being equal, the narrow
type of attention belongs to a man fitted
for work as a bookkeeper or mechanic,
while the broad type of attention fits
one for work as a foreman or superin-
tendent or, lacking executive ability,



-2 8 Applied Psychology

Test for for work requiring the supervision of

Attention to i ,

Details mechanical operations widely separ-
ated in space.

The ordinary man sees but one thing
at a time, while the exceptional man
sees many things at every glance and is
prepared to remember and act upon
them in emergency.

Having determined a person's scope
of attention, you may want to test his
accuracy in details as compared with
other men. To conduct such an experi-
ment dictate a statement which will
form one typewritten letterhead sheet
This statement should comprise facts
and figures about your business of
which the subjects to be tested are sup-
posed to have accurate knowledge.
After this original page is written, have



Making Your Own World o g
your typist write out another set of other Business

, . , . i Applications

sheets in which there are a large num-
ber of errors both in spelling and
figures. Then have each of the persons
to be examined go through one of these
sheets and cross out all the wrong let-
ters or figures. Time this operations
The man who does it in the quickest
time and overlooks the fewest errors^
naturally ranks highest in speed and ac-
curacy of work.

Look into your own business and you


1

Online LibrarySociety of Applied PsychologyApplied psychology ... : a series of twelve volumes on the application of psychology to the problems of personal and business efficiency (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 2)