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VOL. XXII NO. 1

JOURNAL

OF THE SOCIETY OF

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS




JANUARY, 1934



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE
SOCIETY OF MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS



The Society of Motion Picture Engineers

Its Aims and Accomplishments

The Society was founded in 1916, its purpose as expressed in its
constitution being the "advancement in the theory and practice of mo-
tion picture engineering and the allied arts and sciences, the standardi-
zation of the mechanisms and practices employed therein, and the
maintenance of a high professional standing among its members."

The membership of the Society is composed of the best technical
experts in the various research laboratories and other engineering
branches of the industry in the country, as well as executives in the
manufacturing and producing branches.

The Society holds two conventions a year, spring and fall, at various
places and generally lasting four days. At these meetings papers
dealing with all phases of the industry theoretical, technical, and
practical are presented and discussed and equipment and methods
are often demonstrated. A wide range of subjects is covered, many
of the authors being the highest authorities in their particular lines of
endeavor.

Papers presented at conventions, together with contributed arti-
cles, translations and reprints, abstracts and abridgments, and other
material of interest to the motion picture engineer are published
monthly in the JOURNAL of the Society. The publications of the
Society constitute the most complete existing technical library of
the motion picture industry.



JOURNAL



OF THE SOCIETY OF

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS

Volume XXII JANUARY, 1934 Number 1



CONTENTS

Page

Report of the Committee on Laboratory and Exchange Practice 3

Report of the Projection Practice Committee 11

Report of the Historical and Museum Committee 13

Report of the Committee on Standards and Nomenclature 17

Sprocket Dimensions for 35-Mm. Visual and Sound Projection

Equipment H. GRIFFIN 20

Direct-Current High-Intensity Arcs with Non-Rotating Positive

Carbons D. B. JOY AND A. C. DOWNES 42

A New Development in Carbon Arc Lighting P. MOLE 51

A New White Flame Carbon for Photographic Light

D. B. JOY, F. T. BOWDITCH, AND A. C. DOWNES 58

The Use of the Talking Picture as an Additional Educational

Tool at the University of Chicago H. B. LEMON 62

A New 35-Mm. Portable Sound Projector H. GRIFFIN 70

Society Announcements 78



JOURNAL

OF THE SOCIETY OF

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS



SYLVAN HARRIS, EDITOR

Board of Editors
J. I. CRABTREE, Chairman

O. M. GLUNT A. C. HARDY F. F. RENWICK



Subscription to non-members, $8.00 per annum; to members, $5.00 per annum,
included in their annual membership dues; single copies, $1.00. A discount
on subscriptions or single copies of 15 per cent is allowed to accredited agencies.
Order from the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Inc., 20th and Northampton
Sts., Easton, Pa., or 33 W. 42nd St., New York, N. Y.

Published monthly at Easton, Pa., by the Society of Motion Picture Engineers.

Publication Office, 20th & Northampton Sts., Easton, Pa.
General and Editorial Office, 33 West 42nd St., New York, N. Y.
Entered as second class matter January 15, 1930, at the Post Office at Easton,
Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyrighted, 1934, by the Society of
Motion Picture Engineers, Inc.

Papers appearing in this Journal may be reprinted, abstracted, or abridged
provided credit is given to the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers
and to the author, or authors, of the papers in question. The Society is not re-
sponsible for statements made by authors.



Officers of the Society

President: A. N. GOLDSMITH, 444 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.
Past President: J. I. CRABTREE, Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y.
Vice-President: W. C. KUNZMANN, Box 400, Cleveland, Ohio.
Vice-President: O. M. GLUNT, 463 West St., New York, N. Y.
Secretary: J. H. KURLANDER, 2 Clearfield Ave., Bloomfield, N. J.
Treasurer: T. E. SHEA, 463 West St., New York, N. Y.

Governors

E. COUR, 1029 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111.
H. T. COWLING, 7510 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111.
R. E. FARNHAM, Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio.
H. GRIFFIN, 90 Gold St., New York, N. Y.
E. HUSE, 6706 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif.
W. B. RAYTON, Rochester, N. Y.
H. G. TASKER, 41-39 38th St., Long Island City, N. Y.



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON LABORATORY
AND EXCHANGE PRACTICE*

The first report of this Committee discussed laboratory procedure
in general. The discussion is continued in this report, but now is
restricted to the development of the film, which is divided into three
phases, viz., (1) the preparation of a negative developing solution,
(2) the preparation of a positive developing solution, and (3) means
of development control. The material has been selected from the
accompanying bibliography supplemented by information collected
by the members of the Committee.

NEGATIVE DEVELOPER

The D-76 borax developer for motion picture negative film was
first used for developing duplicate negatives. The excessive graini-
ness of duplicate prints led to the substitution of this fine-grain
developer for the old sodium carbonate developer. As the results
attained with the new developer were very satisfactory, it was soon
tried also for developing regular negatives. Several papers were
published describing the characteristics of the borax developer, and
the film manufacturing companies began to recommend its use by
the motion picture laboratories. Today it is used, variously modified,
in practically every motion picture laboratory.

The original borax formula was prepared for rack-and-tank de-
velopment. In most instances it proved to be too strong a solution
to be used in developing machines, where the high speed of the film
and the forced circulation of the developer caused a decided increase
in the degree of agitation.

Due to the lack of standardization, very little uniformity obtains
in the construction and operation of the developing machines in-
stalled in the various laboratories. Each machine must be operated
in a particular specified manner if it is to be operated efficiently and
the cost of developing a unit length of film be maintained at a mini-
mum. This necessitates the most careful use of the developer to
limit the cost of the chemicals, and the operation of the developing

* Presented at the Fall, 1933, Meeting at Chicago, 111.



4 LABORATORY AND EXCHANGE PRACTICE [J. S. M. P. E.

machine at the maximum safe speed to limit the cost of labor and
equipment. Therefore, it has been necessary to prepare a different
formula in almost every laboratory, in order that the desired contrast
and density might be obtained under each peculiar set of operating
conditions. It may be added that these desired results are not yet
completely standardized, as good photographic quality is still a sub-
ject of personal judgment.

With the assistance of the photographic chemists, the laboratory
technicians have been readily able to modify the standard borax
formula, and prepare solutions suitable for the special operating
conditions. Two methods are available for finding the proper
formula: the standard solution can be diluted, or the relative quan-
tities of the constituents can be varied. Considerable danger is
incurred if dilution is carried too far. Negatives of poor quality
may result from a change in the characteristic curve of the developer ;
or the efficiency of the solution may be decreased, with an accom-
panying increase in the cost of chemicals.

For these reasons a developer of the proper characteristics is usu-
ally found by varying the constituents of the standard developer.
A solution of the standard formula is first put into the machine, and
the contrast and density are checked with the machine operating
under the desired conditions. Additional chemicals in solution are then
added until the desired contrast and density are attained. If it is
necessary to vary the standard formula to such an extent that the
efficiency of the developer has been appreciably decreased, it may
be necessary to vary the operation of the machine or to alter its
design. Such changes, of course, would be necessary only in the
case of machines designed and constructed in the early days of ma-
chine developing, when little was known of their operating speeds
and capacity.

This method of varying the constituents of the borax developer
so as to achieve certain desired characteristics has been discussed
in several papers presented to the Society. In particular, the paper
entitled "Some Properties of Fine Grain Developers for Motion
Picture Film," by Carlton and Crabtree,* has proved extremely
helpful to the laboratory technicians in preparing satisfactory nega-
tive developing solutions. It demonstrates in detail the numerous
changes that occur in the characteristics of the solution when the

* See appended bibliography, under Developing Solutions.



Jan., 1934] LABORATORY AND EXCHANGE PRACTICE 5

quantities of the chemicals are changed, as well as the effect of
adding other chemicals.

In general practice the same formula is used for the negative
replenisher as for the original solution. In some laboratories, how-
ever, the negative replenisher is much more concentrated than
the developing solution. The necessary rate of flow of additional
solution to maintain the bath at constant strength is readily deter-
mined by sensi tome trie tests.

POSITIVE DEVELOPER

The D-16 developer for motion picture positive film was recom-
mended to the laboratories many years prior to the era of machine
development. It still serves today as a very satisfactory positive
solution for preliminary testing in selecting a positive solution suit-
able for a particular developing machine. Just as when preparing
the negative developer, preliminary tests are made with the standard
developer, and the quantities of the constituents are varied until
the desired results are attained. Equal percentage variations of the
metol or monomethylparaminophenol sulfate, hydroquinone, and
sodium carbonate may be made over a wide range, with no appre-
ciable decrease in the efficiency of the developer or change in its
characteristic curve. In general, a change in the quantity of metol
will cause a greater change in the density than the corresponding
change in the contrast. Similarly, a change in the quantity of
hydroquinone will cause a greater variation in the contrast than in
the density. As has been mentioned, the density produced by the
positive bath for a standard exposure must remain constant if
prints are to be made from old negatives using the original timing
cards.

The laboratories on the West Coast favor a special formula for the
positive replenishing solution. In the eastern section of the country
the formula of the replenisher is the same as that of the original
solution, except that the potassium bromide is omitted. Both seem
to produce satisfactory results. The problem of properly selecting
a positive replenishing solution has been ably discussed by Crabtree
and Ives in a paper entitled "A Replenishing Solution for a Motion
Picture Positive Film Developer."*

* See appended bibliography, under Developing Solutions.



6 LABORATORY AND EXCHANGE PRACTICE [j. S. M. p. E.

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL

More progress has been made in development control during the
past several years than in any other phase of laboratory work. To
a great extent this is due to improvements that have been made in
sensitometric equipment, and the consulting service on sensitometry
now available to the laboratories. The Eastman type lib sensito-
meter and the Eastman densitometer, which have been described in
the JOURNAL,* have proved very satisfactory for laboratory control
work.

The methods used by the Hollywood laboratories in applying these
instruments were described to the Society by Mr. E. Huse in his
paper "Sensitometric Control in the Processing of Motion Picture
Film in Hollywood."* The Committee has found that the same
methods, with very little variation, are used in all other sections
of the country also.

R. F. NICHOLSON, Chairman

J. CRABTREE A. HIATT J. S. MACLEOD

J.I. CRABTREE E. HUSE R. F. MITCHELL

A. S. DICKINSON D. E. HYNDMAN H. RUBIN

G. C. EDWARDS E. D. LEISHMAN W. SCHMIDT

R. M. EVANS C. L. LOOTENS V. B. SEASE

T. FAULKNER K. MAC!LVAIN J. H. SPRAY

D. MACKENZIE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Developing Machines and Associated Equipment

"Erbograph Machine," R. C. Hubbard, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., VII
(1923), No. 17, p. 163.

"Straight Line Developing Machine," R. C. Hubbard, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict.
Eng., VIII (1924), No. 18, p. 73.

"Machine Developing of Negative and Positive Motion Picture Film," A. B.
Hitchins, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., IX (1925), No. 22, p. 46.

"A Negative Developing Machine," C. R. Hunter, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict.
Eng., XII (1928), No. 33, p. 195.

"A Horizontal Tray Type of Continuous Processing Machine," H. T. Jamieson,
Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XII (1928), No. 36, p. 1093.

"A Method of Quantity Developing of Motion Picture Film," C. R. Hunter
and R. M. Pierce, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XVII (Dec., 1931), No. 6, p. 954.

"Rust Proof Steel Tanks for Developers," Lichtbild (June, 1932), No. 11, p,
237.

"Syphons and Measuring Devices for Photographic Solutions," K. C. D.
Hickman, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., X (1926), No. 26, p. 37.

* See appended bibliography, under Development Control.



Jan., 1934] LABORATORY AND EXCHANGE PRACTICE 7

"Rack Marks and Airbell Markings on Motion Picture Film," J. I. Crabtree
and C. E. Ives, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., IX (1925), No. 24, p. 95.

"The Handling of Motion Picture Film under Various Climatic Conditions,"
R. J. Flaherty, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., X (1926), No. 26, p. 85.

"The Examination of Film by Projection for a Continuous Processing
Machine," W. V. D. Kelley, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XI (1927), No. 30,
p. 224.

"Handling of Motion Picture Film at High Temperatures," J. I. Crabtree,
Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., VIII (1924), No. 19, p. 39.

"Directional Effects in Continuous Film Processing," J. Crabtree^ /. Soc.
Mot. Pict. Eng., XVIII (Feb., 1932), No. 2, p. 207; /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXI
(Nov., 1933), No. 5, p. 351.

"A Modern Laboratory for the Study of Sound Picture Problems," T. E.
Shea, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XV (March, 1931), No. 3, p. 277.

"Materials for the Construction of Motion Picture Processing Apparatus,"
J. I. Crabtree, G. E. Matthews, and J. F. Ross, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XVI
(March, 1931), No. 3, p. 330.

"Movement in Film Tanks," Brit. J. Phot., LXXIX (July 8, 1932), No. 3766,
p. 405.

"Individual or Multiple Film Development," C. Emmerman, Photofreund,
XII (March, 1932), No. 5, p. 86.

Developing Solutions

"A Preliminary Note on the Development of Motion Picture Film," F. F.
Renwick, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., VII (1923), No. 16, p. 159.

"The Development of Motion Picture Films by the Reel and Tank System,"
J. I. Crabtree, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., VII (1923), No. 16, p. 163.

"Investigation on Photographic Developers," J. I. Crabtree and M. L. Dundon,
Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., VIII (1924), No. 19, p. 28.

"Behavior of Gelatin in the Processing of Motion Picture Film," S. E. Shep-
pard, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XI (1927), No. 32, p. 707.

"Motion Picture Photomicrographs of the Progress of Development of a
Photographic Image," C. Tuttle and A. P. H. Trivelli, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict.
Eng., XII (1928), No. 33, p. 157.

"The Fogging Properties of Developers," M. L. Dundon and J. I. Crabtree,
Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XII (1928), No. 36, p. 1096.

"Some Properties of Fine Grain Developers for Motion Picture Film," H. C.
Carlton and J. L Crabtree, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XIII (1929), No. 38,
p. 406.

"Borax Developer Characteristics," H. W. Moyse and D. R. White, Trans.
Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XIII (1929), No. 38, p. 445.

"A Quick Test for Determining the Degree of Exhaustion of Developers,"
M. L. Dundon, G. H. Brown, and J. G. Capstaff, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XIV
(April, 1930), No. 4, p. 389.

"A Replenishing Solution for a Motion Picture Positive Film Developer,"
J. I. Crabtree and C. E. Ives, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XV (Nov., 1930), No. 5,
p. 627.



8 LABORATORY AND EXCHANGE PRACTICE [j. s. M. p. E.

"Variation of Photographic Sensitivity with Development Time," R. Davis
and G. K. Neeland, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XVIII (June, 1932), No. 6, p. 742.

"A Method for the Correct and Most Economical Concentration of Elon and
Hydroquinone in a Borax Developer," A. M. Gundelfinger, J. Soc. Mot. Pict.
Eng., XX (April, 1933), No. 4, p. 343.

"Some Properties of Two Bath Developers for Motion Picture Film," J. I.
Crabtree, H. Parker, Jr., and H. D. Russell, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XI (July,
1933), No. 1, p. 21.

"The Deterioration of Sulfite Hydroquinone Solutions and the Mode of Activity
of Old Solutions," J. Pinnow, Z. Wiss. Phot., 27 (Nov., 1930), No. 11/12, p. 344.

"The Role of Sulfite in Photographic Developers," J. Rzymkowski, Camera
(Luzern), 9 (1930), No. 5, p. 128; No. 6, p. 164.

"Metol Developer," A. Kachelmann, Reproduktion, 3 (May, 1932), No. 5,
p. 66.

"Metol-Quinol Developers for Negatives and Prints," G. W. Pritchard, Brit.
J. Phot., LXXIX (April 22, 1932), No. 3755, p. 240.

"Advantages of Compensating Developing," A. Lux, Photofreund, XII (Sept.
20, 1932), No. 18, p. 340; (Oct. 5, 1932), No. 19, p. 357; (Oct. 20, 1932), No. 20,
p. 377.

"Practice of Fine Grain Development," K. Brandt, Filmtechnik, VII (Nor.
14, 1931), p. 7.

"Deterioration of Amidol Developers," P. J. Cammidge, Amat. Phot., LXXIV
(Aug. 17, 1932), No. 2284, p. 154.

"Keeping Properties of Developing Solutions," H. W. Bennett, Brit. J. Phot.,
LXXIX (Sept. 23, 1932), No. 3777, p. 375.

"Obtaining Sediment Free Developers," E. Van Beugen, Focus, XIX (June 25,
1932), No. 13, p. 399.

"Pyrocatechol Developers with Little or No Sulfite," P. Hanneke, Phot.
Chronik., XXXIX (Oct. 25, 1932), No. 28, p. 209.

"Motion Picture Developer Formulas," Amer. Cinemat., XIII (Aug., 1932),
No. 4, p. 42.

"Reducing Grain in Negative," S. Moir, Amer. Phot., XXVI (Oct., 1932), No.
10, p. 584.

"The Grain of the Negative," C. Emmerman, Atelier, XXXIX (Oct., 1932),
No. 10, p. 82.

"Perpetual Life Film Tank Developer," W. G. Barker, Brit. J. Phot., LXXX
(Jan. 13, 1933), No. 3793, p. 16.

"Fog Formation by Chemical Reactions," E. Fuchs, Z. Wiss. Phot., XXXII
(1933), No. 1, p. 2.

"Grain vs. Exposure: Paraphenylenediamine Developer," Brit. J. Phot.,
LXXX (Feb. 10, 1933), No. 3797, p. 69.

"Keeping Quality of Developers," H. W. Bennett, Brit. J. Phot., LXXIX
(Dec. 9, 1932), No. 3788, p. 751.

"Too Little Known Developer," W. Mernsinger-Beat, Camera (Luzern), 10
(Feb., 1932), No. 8, p. 266.



Jan., 1934] LABORATORY AND EXCHANGE PRACTICE 9

"Knapp System of Development," A. Knapp, Brit. J. Phot., LXXX (April,
7, 1933), No. 3805, p. 191.

Development Control

"Actinic Measurements on the Exposing and Printing of Motion Picture
Film," W. E. Story, Jr., Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XVII (1921), No. 13, p. 106.

"A New Sensitometer for the Determination of Exposure in Positive Printing,"
L. A. Jones and J. I. Crabtree, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., VI (1922), No. 15,
p. 89.

"A Motion Picture Densitometer," J. G. Capstan" and N. B. Green, Trans.
Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., VII (1923), No. 17, p. 154.

"An Improved Sector Wheel for Hurter and Driffield Sensitometry," M.
Breifer, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., IX (1925), No. 21, p. 85.

"A Compact Motion Picture Densitometer," J. G. Capstaff and R. A. Purdy,
Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng. t XI (1927), No. 31, p. 607.

"A Trial and Error Method of Preparing a Motion Picture Sensitometer
Tablet," J. I. Crabtree and C. E. Ives, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XI (1927),
No. 32, p. 740.

"Artificial Sunlight for Photographic Sensitometry," R. Davis and K. S.
Gibson, Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XII (1928), No. 33, p. 225.

"The Measurement of Density in Variable Density Sound Film," C. Tuttle
and J. W. McFarlane, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XV (Sept., 1930), No. 3, p. 345.

"Two Special Sensitometers," D. R. White, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XVII
(March, 1932), No. 3, p. 279.

"Gamma by Least Squares," D. R. White, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XVIII
(May, 1932), No. 5, p. 584.

"The Relation between Diffuse and Specular Density," C. Tuttle, /. Soc.
Mot. Pict. Eng., XX (March, 1933), No. 3, p. 228.

"Photographic Sensitometry," L. A. Jones, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., Parti:
XVII (Oct., 1931), No. 4, p. 491; Part II: XVII (Nov., 1931), No. 5, p. 695;
Part III: XVIII (Jan., 1932), No. 1, p. 54; Part IV: XVIII (March, 1932),
No. 3, p. 324.

"Time and Temperature vs. Test System for Development of Motion Picture
Negative," W. Leahy, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XVIII (May, 1931), No. 5, p. 649.

"Sensitometric Control in the Processing of Motion Picture Film in Holly-
wood," E. Huse, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXI (July, 1933), No. 1, p. 54.

"The Eastman Type 2B Sensitometer as a Control Instrument in the Processing
of Motion Picture Film," G. A. Chambers and L D. Wratten, /. Soc. Mot. Pict.
Eng., XXI (Sept., 1933), No. 3, p. 218.

"The Processing of Variable Density Sound Records," R. F. Nicholson,
/. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XV (Dec., 1930), No. 6, p. 374.

"A Motion Picture Laboratory Sensitometer," L. A. Jones, /. Soc. Mot. Pict.
Eng., XVII (Oct., 1931), No. 4, p. 536.

"Sound Film Developing and Processing," Kinemat. Weekly, 152 (Nov. 7, 1929),
No. 1177, p. 52.

"Making Sound Films (III) Sensitometric Tests," T. T. Baker, Kinemat.
Weekly. 155 (Jan. 16, 1930), No. 1187, p. 67.



10 LABORATORY AND EXCHANGE PRACTICE

"Review of American Film Technique," W. Geyer, Kinotechnik, II (Dec. 5,
1929), No. 23, p. 623.

"Sensitometric Control in the Development of Sound Films," A. Kuster and
R. Schmidt Kinotechnik, XIII (April 5, 1931), No. 7, p. 123.

"Temperature Control During Film Development," T. T. Baker, Kinemat.
Weekly Supp., 721 (June 18, 1931), No. 1261, p. 41.

"Saving Underexposures," K. Reitz, Brit J. Phot., LXXIX (Nov. 4, 1932),
No. 3783, p. 670.

"After-Treatment of Negatives (IV)," O. Mente, Reproduktion 3 (Nov., 1932),
No. 11, p. 164.

DISCUSSION

PRESIDENT GOLDSMITH : I desire again to stress the need that this Committee
should give consideration to the new problems that are arising in connection with
the suitable development and proper maintenance of film for use in extended fre-
quency systems.

MR. CRABTREE: The smaller laboratories are often in a quandary as to what
kind of developing machine to purchase on the market. I wonder whether the
Committee could make a survey of the available machines and describe them
in the report.

MR. HYNDMAN: The Committee did what Mr. Crabtree suggested; but un-
fortunately, the patent litigation on developing machines has prevented our
making such suggestions. Furthermore, it is the custom for practically all labo-
ratories that use continuous machines to build their own; and though the gen-
eral principles are always the same, many of the adjuncts are designed by the
members of the particular laboratories. In view of these facts, we did not feel
that it was advisable for the Committee to recommend what machines should
be purchased until the litigation will have been completely settled.

MR. CRABTREE: I don't see that the Committee would have to assume any
responsibility. It is simply a matter of abstracting the manufacturer's litera-
ture.

PRESIDENT GOLDSMITH: There is no just reason why the publication by the
Society of descriptions of the various machines that are freely offered for sale by
their manufacturers would be construed as a violation of legal or ethical rights.
The buyer may require patent advice if there is litigation in process; but that
is no reason why the Society should not describe the machines.

MR. NICHOLSON: I should like to add to Mr. Hyndman's remarks. With
another member of the Committee I listed the names of all companies that had
manufactured developing machines, and the types of machines that were being
used in the various major laboratories, for inclusion in the report. At one of the
meetings of the Committee, several members objected to including such data,
so they were omitted.

MR. CRABTREE: I understand that small machines are manufactured by
Debrie in France, Geyer in Germany, and Vinten in England.



REPORT OF THE PROJECTION PRACTICE COMMITTEE*

The Projection Practice Committee presented its latest detailed
report at the Spring, 1933, Convention at New York, N. Y. 1 The



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