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joint black, those succeeding slightly paler. A black line
extends on each side alon^ the thorax from below the eyes to
the root of the anterior wing, and on each side of the meso-
thorax there is a large round-oval black spot below the black
line. Legs vellowish white; anterior femora with a dusky
line internally, and dusky externally towards the apex ; the
corresponding tibise and tarsi dusky, the latter almost olackish,
intermediate and posterior tarsi having the terminal joint
dusky. Abdomen yellow, each segment above having a
complete crescentic black marking, becoming more elliptical
on the apical segments ; venter with an oblique black streak
on the sides of each segment, becoming straiffhter and more
parallel on the antepenultimate and penultimate. Set»
black, the two outer with yellow basal joint ; clothed with
fuliginous hairs, which beoome longer and more dense on
approaching the apex.

Wings opaque whitish, the costal margin as far as the
radius tinged with yellowish. Neuration black, but yellow
at the extreme base ; the anal reticulation pale.

? imago. Head and thorax shining yellow ; a broad black
band connecting the eyes. Antennae having the second and
third joints black, the bristle whitish. Pronotum with a
broad oblong black spot on either side. Mesonotum shining
fuliginous in front^ a black line in the sulcus that bounds the
raised median portion ; a black spot on the sides contiguous
to the posterior angle of the pronotum ; an elongate spot on
the sides above the root of the anterior wings; a curved
blackish streak on the sides above the intermediate legs,
appearing as if trifid or quadrifid posteriorly, and there are
blackish markings above the posterior legs. Legs yellow ;
anterior femora blackish on the edges, the tibiae and tarsi
wholly black ; intermediate and posterior tarsi dusky. Ab-
domen yellow, with black crescentic markings above as in the
subimago, but broader and more intense, and the sides of each
dilated and connected with the oblique black lines on the
ventral surface, which are also more intense and complete.
(Setae wanting.)



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Neuropterafrom Western China. 429

Wings hyaline, iridescent. In the anterior pair the sub-
costal area is faintly tinged with yellowish ; the only markings
are a blackish nodal dot on the subcosta, a smaller one below
it on the sector, and a third at the point of furcation of the
cubitus. Neuration black, passing into yellowish white at
the extreme base and in the anal region ; in the pterostigmatic
region are two rows of irregular cellules. Posterior wings
without markings, the basal portion of the subcosta conspicu*
ously deep black.

Length of body, ? 14-17 millim., of set® 18 millira.
Expanse 39-46 millim.; length of anterior wing 19-22
millim.

Two female subimagos, one female imago.

Apparently nearly allied to E. japonica, M'Lach. ; the
male is a desideratum.



D N A T A.

Subfara. LiBELLUUNA.

Pantala flavescensj F.
Many examples.

Sympetrum scoiicumy Donor.

One female.

The wings at the base deep yellow as far as the basal area
and on the anal border, which colour is continued in a less
intense degree along the costal margin to beyond the nodus.
The neuration is somewhat aberrant, inasmuch as the last
antenodal nervule is continued into the subcostal area in all
the wings except the left posterior. I find this condition not
uncommon in tne species, and it is usually asymmetrical.

Tkecadiplax ardenSy sp. n.

Closely allied to Th. erotica^ Selys, but larger. Differs
principally as follows : — The two shining black spots on the
top of the front are usually (not always) united into a short
transverse band. On the thorax above is a cuneiform (or
triangular) black band in which is placed the dorsal carina ;
the humeral black band is broader, and the lower branch of
the divided portion of this band above the legs is curved and
connected with a complete oblique black line, in which is
placed the mesothoracic spiracle ; another oblique black line
occupies the metathoracic suture (these two lines usually con-



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430 Mr. R. M'Lachlan oa

nected bj a black thread at the spiracle) . In the male there
is a triangalar lateral blackish spot on the sides of segments
4 to 7 ; in the female these spots are much larger and occar
on segments 3 to 7, and are confused with the blackish under-
side ; in this sex segments 8 to 10 are wholly black, excepting
a reddish spot on each side of 8, and with paler margins above
on 9 and 10. Genitalia apparently not differing from those
of Th. erotica^ and the appendages not appreciably different ;
in both species (and probably also in tne allies) the sup^
rior appendages are bifid at the upturned tips, and there are
one or two minute denticulations below the tips. In the
female the vulvar scale is perhaps more deeply divided and
the two obtuse apical side-lobes broader.

In the wings the pterostigma is longer (3 to 3^ millim.) ;
ten antenodal nervules in the anterior wings of the male, nine
in the female.

Length of abdomen, S ^^ millim., $ 26^-27 millim.
Length of posterior wing, S ^^ millim., $ 32-33 millim.

Two mates, four females.

Although these examples (especially the females) vary
somewhat inter ««, it seems to me that they form either a
distinct species or a marked local race.

Ltbellula basilineay sp. n.

Closely allied to L. quadrifnaculata^ L. ; differs especially
as follows : — In the anterior wings are two blackish streaks at
the base, viz. one in the subcostal area extending to slightly
beyond the arculus, the other occupying the whole of the median
area. In the posterior wings there is a streak in the sub-
costal area; tne triangular spot is comparatively small,
deeply excised beneath, deep black, and not reticulated with
yellow.

Abdomen beneath deep black, with seven isolated marginal
subquadrate yellow spots, that on the second segment small,
the others large, but gradually decreasing to the eighth
segment ; these spots are reproduced on the sides of the dorsal
surface, but are there more elongate.

One pair ( <J ? ).

As an additional character it may be stated that the costal
margin as far as the median vein is yellow for the whole
length of the wing, even in the postpterostigmatic area ; in
L. quadrimaculata this sometimes exists as far as the nodus,
but not often beyond it.

Thus the main points in L. basilinea are: — (1) The two
lines at the base of the anterior wings ; (2) the triangular



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Neurapterajrani Western China. 431

spot at the base of the posterior not reticulated with yellow;
and (3) the black ventral surface, ornamented with very
distinct isolated yellow marginal spots. These combined
differences are arrived at after a comparison with about fifty
examples of L, quadrimaculata from various parts of Europe,
Northern Asia, and North America.

In size L. basilinea eauals the largest L. quadrimaculata.

In the basal streaks L. basilinea has affinity with//, angelina^
Selys, from Japan, but in the latter there is a large triangular
blackish spot under the pterostigma in all the wings, the basal
triangular spot of the hind win^ is reticulated with yellow,
and the abdomen has no clearly defined yellow spots ; but
there is sometimes an approach towards them to be seen in
L.quadrimaculata.

Ihave compared the appendages and genitalia of the
second segment and the vulvar scale, without finding appre-
ciable differences between L. quadrimaculata and L. basi^
lineay and I am not sure that any such exist between L. ange^
Una and L. quadrimaculata^ though the genitalia of the second
segment look rather different.

Having regard to the fact that the only two individuals in
the collection are precisely similar in their essential cha-
racters, I can only arrive at the conclusion that they represent
a condition equally worthy of specific rank as is L. angelina
of Japan.

Orthetrum Japonicuniy Uhler, var. n. internum.

Differs from the typical O.japonicum as follows : — In the
labium the middle lobe is wholly blackish and the side-lobes
are broadly margined (sometimes nearly wholly) with the
same colour. On the thorax the black band separating the
two large yellow spaces on the sides is broader, without (at
any rate in adult examples) any trace of containing a yellow
line.

In the wings the pterostigma appears to be slightly
narrower and more or less deep black in adult individuals ;
the triangle of the posterior wings apparently invariably tra-
versed by a nervule (without any nervnle in the type form).

Nine males and one female, all very adult.

These may represent a species distinct from O.japonicum^
and the fact that the triangle of the posterior wings is appa-
rently always traversed by a nervule (in one example the
triangle of the anterior is traversed by two nervules) may be
sufficient to separate it ; but having in view the instability of
this character in individuals of other species from one locality,



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432 Mr. R. M'Lacblan on

I think it prudent to consider the specimens as constituting
only a local form or race.



Lmong European species 0. japonicum closely resembles
I/, brunneum in size and general form, and 0, cancellatum in
the structure of the genitalia of the second segment.

Orthetrum melaniaj Selys.

One male.

The spot at the base of the posterior wings is slightly
smaller than in Japanese examples; otherwise I see no
difference.

Crocothemts servilia^ Drury.
One female.

Agrionoptera (?), sp.

One male^ very doubtfully pertaining to this genus, left for
further consideration.

Subfam. Cosduleqjstbina.

Cordulegaaier pektnensis, Selys.

One pair (<J ?).

The male appears to agree sufficiently with the description,
but is smaller (length of posterior win^ 41 millim., of abdomen
50 millim.). The female agrees with the male in all essen-
tial characters : length of posterior wing 43 millim., of ptero-
stigma 4^ millim., of abdomen 54 millim.; 17 antenodal
nervules in anterior wings.

De Selys queries the species as probably only a race of
luniferusy Selys. The latter was from Moupin, in the same
district as Ta-chien-lu; but the pair before me agree far
better with pehinensis. The anal appendages of tne male
differ from those of the European otdentatus in having the
upper (or submedian) tooth almost as pronounced as the lower.
The anal triangle of the posterior wings has four cellules in
pektnensis and three in biaentcUus,

Subfam. jEscmnina.

^schnajunceay L. ?
One female, doubtful in the absence of the male.



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Neuroptera from Western China. ,433

Subfam. Calopterygina.
Cahpteryx Oherthuri^ sp. n.

g. Heady thorax, and abdomen above bright metallic
green; clypeus somewhat metallic blue; labrum shining
black ; second joint of antennae yellowish externally. Under
month-partSy legs, pectus, ventral surface of abdomen, and
anal appendages dull black. A pointed tubercle behind the
eyes, opines of legs closely placed and very long. Superior
appendages much incurved, gradually incrassated to the apex,
so that each forms an incurved obtuse club, dentate extemallv.
Inferior appendages one third shorter, subcylindrical, slightly
curved, the apex truncate.

Wings long and comparatively narrow, the inner margin
dilated m the middle ; nodus placed slightly beyond the basal
third. Colour deep black, with bluish reflexions (becoming
green on the posterior wings), the apical fourth (rather less
in posterior wings) hyaline^ slightly smoky, sharply defined,
but the margin of this hyaline space, especially in the poste-
rior wings, is very narrowly blacKish ; the costal cellules to
about halfway to the nodus with a long triangular subhyaline
space, and there are pale dots for a corresponding length in
the minute cellules of the base of the inner margin. Neura-
tion wholly black; costal nervure not metallic; principal
sector contiguous to the median for a short space. About 48
to 60 antenodal nervules in anterior wing.

$ . Head as in male, but the labrum, a spot on each side
of it, and the under mouth-parts are yellow, the labium
infuscated ; pectus yellow, which colour is continued along
the metathoracic suture, and the base of the abdomen at its
sides beneath is also yellow. The metallic green of the
abdomen above passing into bronzy after the fourth segment ;
ventral surface whitish pruinose ; lateral margins of eighth
and ninth segments narrowly yellow; appendages shorter
than the tenth segment, black.

Wings : the portion that is black in the male is here
smoky brown, and in the posterior win^ there is an appear-
ance of a broad darker band terminatmg the dark portion.
Neuration reddish; a narrow elongate (3 millim.) whitish
faUe pteroatigma commencing at the termination of the dark
portion of the wing (slightly before in the posterior), occu-
pying only the costal area, which is scarcely perceptibly
dilated thereby. About 40 antenodal nervules in the anterior
wing.

Length of abdomen, S 54-55 millim., ? 48-50 millim.



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434 Mr. R. M'Lachlan on

Length of posterior wing, <J 40-41 millim., 9 43-44
millim.

Seven males, four females.

A very remarkable species and the only one in the genus
with the same sharp delimitation of the pale apical portion of
the wings ; at first sight it reminds one of a gigantic Euphoea
rather than a Calopterya, The female had a vague resem-
blance to G. Cornelia^ and in its elongate and comparatively
narrow wings the species may be compared with 0. oornelta
and C. airatGy both Chinese and Japanese forms. All the
examples before me are mature.

C. ffrandcBvay Hag., described in 1853, remains known
only by the probably immature female type. There are many
points in the description opposed to identity with 0. Oberthuri
(notably the absence of a pterostigma).

Archineura tncarnatay Karsch.

JEcho tncamata. Karecb, Berl. ent. Zeit. zxxyi. 1891,=B^rcAtfitfura
hasUacteay W. F. Kirby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., January 1894
(very immature).

One male of this magnificent insect.

I marvel that Dr. Karsch did not draw any comparison with
the American genus Hetcerina in the way of coloration, the
carmine-red at the base of the wings existing only in that
genus (with the allied Lais pudica) and in the species now
under consideration ; but of course it is only analogy. I am
convinced that (as noticed by Karsch, Ent. Nachr. Heft vi.
1894) the type of A. hasilactea is only an extremely imma-
ture example of the same species, and I am of opinion that
the locality (Foo-Chow) given for it is erroneous, although
it may have been brought to that port from the interior.

There is no connexion with Sapho as indicated by Kirby ;
but I doubt if the insect can be retained in Echo (which was
unknown to Karsch, save by description). It is not necessary
to go into minute details here ; but the long, narrow, and
only slightly dilated pterostigma is opposed to Echo^ and the
arrangement of the branches of the ramule, especially in the
posterior wings, is conspicuouslv diflFerent. At present I
retain Kirby's generic and Karscn's specific name.

Caliphcea conHmtltSy sp. n.

Head above metallic green, passing into blue, with a
yellow spot on each side of the labrum and the second joint
of antennae yellow outwardly ; back of head and under mouth-
parts black. Thorax above metallic cupreous or green;



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Neuropiera from Western China. 435

beneath (including coxes and underside of trochanters) citron-
yellow ; an isolated metallic blue or green streak on the meta-
thoracic pleura. Legs (excepting at base) black. Abdomen
above bronzy green or purplish^ segments 8 to 10 snow-
white, pruinose; beneath black or with bluish pulverules-
cence, underside of first segment yellow. Superior appendages
about the length of the tenth segment, black, forcipate,
thickened at the base, the apical half suddenly turned inward
almost at a right angle, dilated and upturned at the tip ; on
the outer edge of the intumed portion are four to six denticu-
lations. Inferior appendages black, only slightly shorter than
the superior, subparallel, distant, flattened, their apices inter-
nally much dilated in a triangular manner, the upper edge
oblique and finely denticulated, the lower angle perhaps
forming a tooth (but from the manner in which the opposing
apices are applied one to the other it is diflSicult to decide).

Wings hyaline, faintly tinged with olivaceous. Neuration
black ; pterostigma oblong, 2 millim. long, covering two and
a half to three cellules, black ; 14 to 17 antenodal nervules
in the anterior wing (many of the postnodal nervules are not
coincident in the costal and subcostal areas) ; two nervules in
the quadrilateral.

Length of abdomen 39 millim. ; length of posterior wing
31 millim.

Two adult males.

N.B. — NotholesteSf M'Lach. (Ent. Month. Mag. vol. xxiv.
p. 31), 1887,= Ca/ipAflpa, Hag. (Selys, Add. Synop. Galop.
p. 5), 1869, and N. Elwesi, M'Lach. (I c. p. 32),= 0. con-
fusQj Hag. {I. c). I have compared the typical examples of
each ; that of (7. ccnxfasa is less mature. The pterostigma
appears slightly broader and shorter in the type of G. confaaa^
but in all probability only in the way of individual variation
(its paler colour is a result of immaturity).

C consimilis is very similar, and the same description
would apply almost equally well to either (the types of con-
Btmilis are still more mature), except that the inferior append*
ages appear to be formed in a different manner, and that there
are two nervules in the quadrilateral instead of one.

In describing Notholestes as new I overlooked Caliphcea^ on
account of the latter having been placed in the ^* Legion
Calopteryx^'* with which I venture to think it has no relation-
ship ; and I adhere to my original opinion that its affinities
are with Dicterias. In the description of Galiphcea the words
" Ailes petiol^es jusqu'au niveau de I'arculus are incorrect
[cf my description of Notholestes).



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436 Mr. O. Thomas on Two

Subfara. Aqmionina.
Erythromma tinctipennisy sp. n.

S . Head black above, with a bronzy greenish tinge
on the sides, clothed with long blackish hairs in front;
front reddish yellow, the clypeus above and the labrum
(excepting its margin) black (but wholly yellow in one
example). Labium yellow. Back of head black. Antennas
black ; second joint yellow at apex. Eyes brown. Pro-
notum black, its hind margin raised in a bluntly triangular
manner, its side-lobes carunculated and deep yellow. Thorax
black above, with complete yellow humeral (or humeral and
juxtahumeral combinea) band; the sides and breast wholly
yellow, leaving a uniform isolated black band below the
humeral ; interalar region spotted with yellow. Legs black ;
the inner tooth of the claws scarcely shorter than the outer.
Abdomen stout, black above, with bronzy greenish tinge,
except towards the apex ; on each side of the anterior margin
of segments 3 to 6 is a small somewhat semilunate yellow
spot ; on segment 3 this is continuous with the yellow sides.
Sides of abdomen yellow, interrupted with black at the
sutures ; a black ventral line extending the whole length.
Appendages small, conical, black; valvules and their ap-
pendages black.

Wings hyaline, tinged with yellow^ which is more intense
on the anterior half. Neuration black; pterostigma dusky
yellow, covering about one and a half cellules, its outer edge
oblique; 3 to 5 antenodal cellules; 15 to 17 postnodal
nervules in anterior wings, 11 to 15 in posterior; poststig-
matical nervules simple or occasionally furcate.

Length of abdomen 25-26 millim., of posterior wing
22-24 millim.

Three females.



XLVII. — On Two new Neotropical Mammals.
By Oldfield Thomas.

When describing last year in the * Annals ' a new Geomys
from Guatemala, O. grandis^j I referred with considerable
doubt a specimen from Tehuantepec to the same form.

At the request of Dr. Merriam, who is engaged on a
revision of the group, I have now re-examined this specimen,

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xii. p. 270 (1803).



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new Neotropical Mammah. 437

which in the meantime has had its skull better prepared^ as
have the whole series of O. grandis skulls, and I find that it
presents such differences as to demand specific distinction.
It may be called

Oeomys scalops, sp. n.

Fur very short, sparse and hispid. Colour smoky brown,
tending rather towards rufous (very near " Front's brown " of
Ridgway). Whiskers and hairs of chin, cheeks, belly, and
feet shining whitish ; but these are all so sparse that the
general brown colour of the skin is not affected by them. No
special muzzle, forehead, or ear-markings. Basal inch of tail
with a few scattered hairs ; the remainder naked.

Skull of medium form, without any exceptional flattening,
expansion behind, or contraction or inflation in the interorbital
region. Nasals rather short. Muzzle in region of hinder end
of nasals remarkably flat, so flat indeed that nothing of the
middle line can be seen in the lateral view of the skull. Ends
of premaxillary processes broader than the frontal space
between them. Interorbital space flat, parallel-sided, without
inflations ; postorbital processes slight but distinct Occipital
plane of skull slightly slanting forward, low, but not very
widely expanded, raroccipital processes running trans-
versely outwards, not surpassing the condyles posteriorly, as
they do in grandis. Inferior flattened surface of the tip of
the maxillary zygomatic processes much shorter and smaller
than in that species. Muzzle comparatively very low.
Lateral processes of mandibular angles much less produced
antero-posteriorly than in G. grandis.

Incisors deep orange in front, their groove deep, less widely
open than in G. grandis, slightly inward of the middle line,
the inner part of the tooth 44 per cent, of the whole. Molars
small.

Measurements (taken from the dry skin, and therefore
merely approximate) : —

Head and body 270 millim. ; tail 95 ; hind foot, without
claws 40, with claws 45'2.

Skull: basal length 63, basilar length to henselion 56*7;
greatest zygomatic breadth 40*8 ; nasals, length 26, greatest
breadth 8 ; least breadth of muzzle above maxulo-pre-
maxillary suture 15 ; greatest breadth of premaxillary
processes at hinder end of nasals 5*7 ; interorbital breadth
14'2 ; tip to tip of postorbital processes 16*2 ; least breadth
just above auditory meatus 26*7 ; greatest posterior breadth
39 ; posterior height from basion to top of occipital crest 18*4 ;
tip to tip of paroccipital processes 27*5 ; palate, length from



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438 Mr. O. Thomas on Two

gnathion 47 ; diastema 24*5 ; length of upper molar series
(crowns only) 12' 6; breadth of 5^ 4 ; least height of mozzle
on diastema 12.

Hab. Tehuantepec ColL Boucard.

Tt/pe : B. M. 79. 1. 6. 2.

The type specimen is evidently in summer pelade, as is
shown by the extreme sparseness of the fur^ the belly being
in fact almost naked.

G. scalopa differs from the species to which I doubtfully
referred it by its smaller size, rather redder general colour,
and, in the skull, by its more flattened forehead, the absence of
the supraorbital inflations, less vertical height both in the
muzzle and cranial regions, smaller and differently directed
paroccipital processes, and smaller teeth.

Of other species, O. Cherri'eiy recently described from Costa
Bica by Mr. Allen *, is so far smaller as to need no detailed
comparison ; while I owe to the kindness of Dr. Merriam an
opportunity of examining a skull of his O, gi/mnurttSy about
which I had previously been rather doubtful, and which I
now see has nothing whatever to do either with O. grandU or
G. scalops.

In 1891 the Museum received from Mr. J. H. Hart, of the
Trinidad Botanical Gardens, an Opossum which I doubtfully
referred to D. philander^ L. This specimen I have had
occasion to re-examine in connexion with a skin sent for
comparison by Mr. H. Caracciolo; and for reasons given
below I now think it ought to be specifically separated from
the Philander of the mainland.

In the list of Trinidad mammals the name of Z>. philander
should therefore be altogether struck out and that of the new
form substituted. This name I propose should be

Dtdelphya {Philander) trinitatisy sp. n.

Allied to but decidedly smaller than D. philander, L., the
difference in size being especially marked in the skull and
limbs, while the ears and tail are more nearly equal to, and
therefore proportionately longer than, those of that species.



Online LibrarySociété française de dermatologie et de syphiligraThe Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology → online text (page 41 of 51)