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EEV. S. C. MALAK", D.D.,


VOL. II. CH. xi. xx.





178, STKAND.

THE publication of this Second Volume of my Original
Notes on the Book of Proverbs, Ch. xi. xx., has been
delayed longer than was expected, owing chiefly to these
Chapters being annotated more fully than the former ones.

The third and last volume, Ch. xxi. xxxi., already
begun, will (D.V.) be published, together with an Index of
the proper names, terms, &c., not explained in the Index to
Vol. I., and will follow with as little delay as possible. But
the progress of a work of this kind, done single-handed, and
under difficulties and hindrances incident on old age, must of
necessity be more or less uncertain. This may partly account
for occasional oversights in this Work, which might have been
avoided under more favourable circumstances.



March sg, i8gs.






A FALSE balance is abomination to the Lord :
*^* but a just weight is his delight. * '

np~)p \JT^Q, lit. 'the scales of fraud or deceit,' thus rendered in
the Arabic, the-Syriac, the Armenian, and the Coptic ; but the LXX.
render it like the A,V. ; -n^bp p^l, lit. ' but a full, whole stone,'
used as a weight.

"A false balance" &c. '.' In dealing and barter," say the
Chinese, "you must be just and equal, and not tell lies, to
deceive others. Your weights" and measures ought to be one
and the same ; not light to go out [sell], and heavy to come in
[buy]." 1 " Let thy work be done in truth, and thy balance in
justice and faithfulness," 2 say the. Rabbis.

" ^Tadfiov fir) Kpovtiv frepofcvyov, ctAA icrov e'AKetv,
" Not having two weights and two measures, but the same for
all," says Phocylides. 3 " Even measure in everything" 4 [lit. in
' camphor,' which is of light weight, and in ' cotton stuffs,' that
are long and heavy].

" Thy name is ' Stone [ANR, for a weight] of Truth,' that is,
'just weight,'" 5 [said to the heart which is being weighed in
the balance, with the figure of 'Truth' in one scale, at the
entrance of the Hall of Justice, in presence of Osiris, in the

1 Chin, max., Dr. Medh. Dial. 180. 2 Ep. Lod. 1480. 3 Phocyl. 12.
4 Vararuchi Sapta R. 3. 5 Shai-n-sin s. ii. 1. 9.


'Neter Kar,' Amenti, or Nether-world]. 1 "Where the heart
or soul is justified in peace, if not found wanting in the balance,
when the defunct's two eyebrows are said to be the beam or
two arms of the balance, on the day of reckoning or of judg-
ment" 2 With this compare : "On that day the weighing [of
works] shall be just. Those who shall be found heavy [with
good works] shall be blessed ; but those who shall be found
light, are they who have jeopardized their soul by making light
of (or doing violence to) the clear signs we gave them." 3

" The Samano Gautama's duty is to eschew fraud in [balance]
weights, metals or measure." 4 "Yea, the measure and the
balance must agree with equity [public, open evenness]; it
must not come out light and come in heavy." 5 " For it is a
sin," says Tai-shang, " to take from others in order to add to
one's own, and to exchange bad wares for good money." 6 " I,"
says Mahomet, " sent unto Madian their brother Shoghail to
tell them to worship only the true God ; to give the right
measure and balance ; and not to defraud men in what is due
to them." 7 " For in sooth he who shall have given heavy weight
(balance) shall lead a happy life, but he who shall have given
light weight shall dwell in hell." 8 "A raven," say the Geor-
gians, "has a light head ; and so has he who weighs." 9

" Arda Viraf when in hell saw the soul of a man made to
measure continually dust and ashes with a bushel and a gallon
[of dust and ashes], which he was given to eat. And [Arda
Viraf] asked : What sin had the man committed whose soul
undergoes such a punishment? Then Srosh the pious and
Ataro the angel answered : It is the soul of the wicked man
who, while on earth, kept neither true bushel, gallon nor weight,
nor yard measure ; who mixed water with wine, and dust with
grain ; who sold to the people at a high price, and stole and

1 Hit. of D. c. i. 16. a Id. ibid. xvii. 62, xviii. 14, 15. * Al Qoran,
sur. vii. 8. * Silakk'handa, fol. ki. 3. 6 Wen chang yin t. in

Shin-sin, 1. iv. p. 81. 6 Kang ing p. * Al Qoran, sur. vii. 83, and

xvii. 35. 8 Id- sur c ; - 6


extorted from good men." 1 "A just balance and full weight
do a man no harm," say the Chinese.' 2 According to the Qoran, 3
the Book [Al-Qoran] and the balance were sent down from
heaven. This balance is the common one in use, according to
one commentator, who says that God sent it by Gabriel to
Noah, with these words : " Teach thy people to use it for
weighing." Other commentators understand it of the balance
of justice in the day of judgment. 4

2 When pride cometh, then cometh shame : but
with the lowly is wisdom.

"p'"rc. LXX. u/fyus. Syr. ' obscenity,' also 'pride.' Armen. 'enmi-
ties.' Arab, follows the Hebrew.

" When pride," &c. " Let not thy heart be high," says Ptah-
hotep, "lest it be humbled." 5 "And set not thy heart to feel
high (or great) by reason of thy learning ; but hold intercourse
with the ignorant as with the learned." 6 "For greatness lies
not in clamour and much talking, and superiority lies not in
pretension and self-opinion. Humility raises the 'head of
elevation ;' but pride or self-conceit casts thee down into the
dust." 7 "Be not arrogant (or proud), O my son ; for through
it thou mayest some day be thrown down headlong. Arro-
gance is not pleasing in a wise man ; it is the habit of the
ignorant and foolish ; it ruined Azazil [Satan], and doomed
him [held him in] to the prison of God's curse ; it is the root
of a bad disposition (or evil nature)." 8

" But, O my heart ! if thou makest choice of humility, people
in the world will be thy friends. Humility enhances outward
advantages [lit. pomp], just as the sun sheds lustre on the
moon ; it will [increase] raise thy character ; it is the capital
[sum] of friendship ; it is the ornament of eminence and out-

1 Viraf N. c. xxvii. and Ixxx. 2 Chin. pr. 220. 3 Sur. Ivii. 25.

4 See Maracci ad loc. 6 Pap. Pr. xii. i. 6 Id. v. 8, 9. 7 Bostan,
iv. st. 4. 8 Pend nam. p. 9, u.

B 2


ward pomp ; humility makes a man eminent ; for the truly
intelligent man is humble. The branch laden with fruit bows
to the ground." 1 "Trees [become humble] bend under the
weight of their fruit [although ' the fruit of a tree is no weight
to it' 2 ], and clouds heavy with fresh rain lower down on the
earth. So also true men are not elated by an increase of
riches ; for such is the [character] disposition of those who live
to benefit others." 3

" The man who is humble reaps honour, but the proud man
reaps contempt and ruin." 4 "The water of virtue does not
remain on the top of pride." 5 "Most of humble people are
wise," say the Rabbis ; " they are like most of low places that
are full of water" 6 [for the use and enjoyment of others]. " He
that is of a humble spirit is worthy of honour, and Shekinah
[God's presence] rests upon him." 7 "The horn [glory, prero-
gative] of a man of understanding is humility." 8 "True
greatness bends," says Tiruvalluvar, "but littleness decks itself
and sings its own praises. True greatness is reft of greatness
[conceit], but littleness is known to mount a high car." 9 So
the Greek

" To yap,
evyevts eK^percu 777305 ouOw,"

" for a noble or generous nature [shows itself in] is inclined to
modesty," says the Chorus in Alcestis. 10 And Lao-tsze 11 says
that " a man eminent in virtue likes the earth for his dwelling
[i.e. likes an humble position, 'humilis'], and in this respect
comes near to the Tao." " For in like manner as Tao is so
small [subtil] as to pervade all things, and yet so great as to
embrace them all, so also the holy man unto his life's end does
not affect to be great. For that very reason does he achieve
great things." 12

1 Pend nam. p. 6. 2 Beng. pr. 3 Nitishat. 62. * Ebu Medin,
174- 5 Mong. mor. max. Sepher ham. in B. Fl. p. 11. 7 Id. ibid.
8 Id. p. 1 19. Cural, 978, 979. w Euripid. Ale. v. 600. " Tao-
te-King, c. viii. Ibid. c. xxxi.


Rabbi Akiba Mahalaleel said : " Whosoever will lay to heart
these four things will not return to sin : (i) whence he comes ;
(2) whither he is going ; (3) what is to become of him ; and
(4) who is to be his Judge. Whence? From a dark place.
Whither ? To a place of thick darkness. What is he to be-
come? Dust and worms. And his Judge? The King of kings." 1
[R. Simeon 2 enlarges upon this ; and in Pirqe Avoth, 3 R. Akiba
is said to omit the third question. In the Masseket Derek
erez Rabba, 4 however, these words are quoted as they are by
R. Nathan.] " By pride, learning is deteriorated [lowered] ;
and by lust [or covetousness], modesty [lit. appearance, or
' name of the face'] is also altered for the worse," 5 say the
Mongols. "As the health, so is the enjoyment; and as the
learning, so is the humility," say the Telugus. 6

" Be very humble of spirit before men," says Rabbi Levitas ;
"for the expectation of men is worms." 7 So also R. Meir. 8
" Humility receives advantage ; but pride brings about ruin." 9
" He who bends himself, is able to manage all [men] ; but he
who loves to overcome, must meet with many an enemy." 10
" Being entitled to respect and withal in humble contentment,
with the knowledge of the result of good actions, is a blessing
indeed." 11 " Humility is the ornament of people endued with
qualities." 12 And "wisdom is the strength of lowliness." 13 "It
is but seldom that men raise a trophy to the proud," said the
crow to the king. 14 " The really proper [courteous, educated]
man," say the Chinese, " humbles himself and yields to others ;
whatever be their position, whether rich or poor, he deals
courteously with them." 15 And the Hindoo : " Let go pride
(or self-conceit) ; but to embrace (or cherish) qualities is most
delightful [desirable]." 16 "Men full of 'self [conceited]," say

1 Avoth R. Nathan, 10. 2 Id. ibid. 3 c. iii. * c. iii. 6 Sain
ugh. fol. 29. 6 Telug. pr. r Pirqe Avoth, c. iv. 8 Id. ibid.

9 Chin. pr. 1308 and 1312. 10 Morriss. Dy. p. 230. " Mangala thut. icr.
12 Nava R. 3. 13 Id. 7. " 2rt^. *. ! X vti\. p. 306. 16 Li-ki (kiu-li),
c. i. 16 V. Satas. 79.


the Chinese, "come to grief; and boastful men are but fools
[stupid]." 1 But " Heaven and earth, men and spirits, all love
the humble ; they do not love the proud ; to the humble, hap-
piness comes; to the proud, trouble." 2 "Proud men are dis-
gusting" [lit. stinking]. 3 "Foolishly to make oneself noble
and great [self-conceit] is the sure way to death," say the
Chinese; "and he who is full of self deceives himself;" 4 "but
the mild and yielding benefits himself in the end." 5
Chilon being asked what Jupiter had to do, answered :

" Tot pev in/^Ad raTreivoi, TO. Se Tcwreiva v\f/oi,

" He humbles the proud, and exalts the humble." 6 And Pindar
to Hieron :

" 6eos, God," said he, " tyi<$>povu>v TLV fKap-^e /3poTwv,"
" has bowed down many a haughty man, but has given lasting
honour to others [to the lowly]." 7 A great book of olden time,
quoted by Wang-yew-po, says : " The humble and yielding
profit ; but those who are full of themselves call for trouble to
themselves. These two expressions are very good. But how
do humble folk profit, and self-conceited ones court misfor-
tune? To be humble is to yield and conciliate [harmonize].
Nowadays every one seeks his own and wrangles for it. But
in every great and small thing yield one step, and you will
assuredly gain thereby. How then do people full of 'self
[self -conceited] court trouble? Self-sufficiency consists in
considering oneself great This feeling leads to despise autho-
rity, break the laws, and suffer for it afterwards." 8

3 The integrity of the upright shall guide them : but
the perverseness of transgressors shall destroy them.

Chl, m. ; nnj-1, f. The masc. seems to answer to the Greek in /to,
and the fern, to it in o-is. Dfi is integrity, perfection set forth in daily
conduct ; nan is more the habit of mind or principle of integrity.

1 Chin. pr. 1304. 2 Id. 1309. 3 Id> I3IO 4 Mun Moy> fab . 2I>
Id. fab. 70. e Sept Sap p 2Q r pyth jj 94> 8 \vang-yew-po
on the 9th maxim of Kang-he, 1. 71, 72.


It often occurs in Job in this sense. Syr. the hope or expectation
of the upright shall be realized' (lit. ' built up'). Arm. follows the
Hebrew, as does Arab. But the LXX. are in great confusion in this

" The integrity? &c. " There is nothing better [no greater
good]," says Confucius, "than to practise sincerity [upright-
ness]; and nothing worse than to be insincere." 1 "Neither
partial nor inclined either way, neither forward nor rebellious,
is the high [king's] road to walk in." 2 In Chih-yen-keue it is
said : " As a mirror is to lighten the face, so is wisdom to
lighten the heart. A bright mirror is not tarnished (or soiled)
by dust, neither does bright wisdom originate evil." 3 "There-
fore ought the superior man to look to his own sincerity [up-
rightness] when practising respectful behaviour towards others ;
when he carries his uprightness to perfection, he then attains
to happiness and emoluments." 4 " Let a man therefore always
constitute himself his own governor (or guide)." 5

" Although affairs may be carried on by means of sundry
evil actions, yet how could a wise man desire such means ? A
thing when done may become evil, but the wise man turns
away in alarm from such a thing." 6 "The Bodhisatwa who
walks in his integrity and frees himself from [filth] guilt, will
soon attain to perfection if he readily submits to the prescribed
rule of life." 7 " For those who are bent on fulfilling their duties,
will part with life and their body rather than give up doing
their duty." 8 " How is that, and why ? In the performance
of one's duties lies the principal, spotless means of attaining
to perfection ; it is the way to walk happily to freedom from
sorrow [nirvanam]. And the profit that accrues from the ful-
filment of one's duties is immense. For instance, the ocean
cannot be measured and is without limits ; so also is the profit

1 Chung yg, c. xvi. 2 Shoo-King, quoted by Yung-shing in 7th maxim
of Kang-he, p. i 47. 3 Ming-sin p. k. c. xi. 4 Chung- King, c. x.
5 Vajikra R. B. Fl. 6 Sain ugh. 122. J Byan-chub-sgron-ma, fol. iii.
8 Dsang-Lun, c. xvi. fol. 18.


of fulfilling one's dutfes without measure and without limits." 1
" For an action which is not flavoured with sincerity had better
be let alone." 2 "And the good order [measure] of an action
(or work) is the measure of its excellence." 3 " For many are
the paths of those who go astray ; but those who walk up-
rightly, go straight in one way," 4 says Asaph. " But let a man
have what qualities he may, one grain worth of evil [impurity]
in him makes him disagreeable ; just as a little of the [bitter]
nimba seed [margosa tree, Melia azadaracha], mixed up with
sugar in milk or water, spoils the taste of it." 5 " For one
must keep oneself upright [right, straight] amid the worldly
estimate of what is right" [act on principle, apart from people's
opinion]. 6 " For a man is not a keeper of the law [dhamma-
charb] for his much talking about it," says the Buddhist, " but
he who sets it forth in his own person, and does not neglect
it. He is not a ' thero' [a senior priest of Buddha] for having a
hoary head in his old age, for he is only then said to be old to
no purpose ; but he in whom is truth and piety, who does no
ha/m^and who without failing abides firm and self-restrained,
he is a thero indeed. A man is not handsome for his fine
talking an'd his fair countenance, if he is envious, niggard and
dishonest (or deceitful) ; but if he gives up all those [evil
habits] and is wise, he is then said to be handsome. So also
a man is not a samano [young priest, ascetic] for having his
head shorn ; but he is such by overcoming his sins. Then he
is a samano. Neither is one a bhikkhu [mendicant] for his
begging of others ; but for leading conscientiously the life of a
' brahmachari' in this world. Neither is a fool a ' muni' [sage]
for keeping silence ; but he is a muni who, holding the balance,
chooses the best part and forsakes his sins. He, and he alone,
is indeed a muni." T

" Art thou not afraid to wander alone ?" said the king and

1 Dsang-Lun, c. xvi. fol. 18. 2 Akhlaq i m. ii. 3 Tarn. pr.

^ Mishle As. xxxii. 21. 6 Subhasita, ed. col. Shi tei gun, p. n.

1 Dhammap. Dhammathut, 258 sq.


queen to their son Mitra Dzoghi [yogi ; a celebrated Mongolian
monk]. " Shalt thou meet thy equals [and treatment suited
to thy rank] in foreign India ? Shalt thou not be laughed at
and ill treated ?" " Even if I meet with unequal treatment,"
answered Mitra, "yet with an even [lowly] disposition I shall
[lay myself down] subdue myself and go quietly through this
passing world, though I be alone and without a companion." 1
" Vir temperatus," says Cicero, " constans, sine metu, sine aegri-
tudine, sine alacritate ulla, sine libidine, is est sapiens." 2

"Walk so as to be a great and good man," 3 says Avveyar.
" A great and good man," says Meng-tsze, " does not lose the
simple heart he had when a child." 4 " How could such a man
swerve from that which is good in itself, even at the risk of
his life? Fine gold, whether cut or burnt, will not change' its
colour." 5 "For although fools may gain some advantage
through evil means, yet not so, wise men. These are not
ashamed to fail, when trying to act by fair means." 6 '"But
misery and ruin are invariably the result of sin." 7 "For the
angels who had left heaven had wrought a great corruption
in the earth. There will then be no peace for them in the
earth, neither forgiveness of sins ; and there will be neither
pity nor peace for them." 8 " In like manner as a spot of rust
arisen on iron eats into it forthwith, so also do the deeds of
him who transgresses the rule, mean or measure, lead him to
an evil end," 9 says the Buddhist.

4 Riches profit not in the day of wrath : but right-
eousness delivereth from death.

Tin, < wealth will not avail, Vy1\ in the day of the pouring forth of
wrath' (day of judgment). The LXX. render this verse thus:
" The righteous when he dies leaves regret after him, but the destruc-
tion of the wicked is at hand, and people rejoice over it." Both the

1 Mitra Dzoghi, fol. 4. 2 Tusc. Q. v. 3 Aw. Adi S. 54. 4 Hea-
Meng, viii. 12. 5 Legs par b. p. 45. 6 Id. ibid. 721. r Gun

den s. mon, 225. 8 Bk. Enoch, c. iii. 12. 9 Dhammap. Malav. 240.


Armenian and the Coptic add this to their correct rendering of the
Hebrew. The Arabic and Syriac versions render the Hebrew rn?3?
by 'indignation' and 'wrath' respectively. Chald. 'a lie will not

" Riches profit not" &c. " The happiness of men," says
Democrates, "lies neither in the body nor in wealth, but
opOwrvvj) Kal SiKaiotrvvy, in uprightness and righteousness." 1
" A wise man was asked : What is the value of righteousness ?
To reign for ever." 2 For "thinkest thou that thy wealth will
rescue thee from the prison into which thy actions have cast
thee?" 3 "I," quoth Nushirwan, "for whom brass has been
overlaid (or incrusted) with gold [on monuments], yet do
things which are not allowed. Why do I make my name
evil through violence ? My body is consumed without profit
to myself, and through this madness my heart is burnt to the
quick." 4 "Therefore [use] build with bricks of silver and
bricks of gold [do good with thy money] before thy death." 5
" For treasure hoarded up in treasuries is a perishable thing ;
but the treasures of the mind [or heart, lit. inside the body,
inward] are imperishable." 6

"Wealth," says Pythagoras of Samos, "is an anchor that
gives way ; glory is still less to be trusted. What are then
safe anchors ? Prudence and magnanimity and valour ; these
are anchors which no tempest can wrench." 7 "With money
one may purchase everything pleasing to the eye ; but with
exertion [there is here a play on words in the original] one
purchases everything pleasing to the intellect." 8 "Gold opens
everything," say the Greeks, " K' AtSov TrvAas, even the gates of
Hades." 9 " Riches without virtue," said Sappho, " are a ruinous
consort." 10 "A wise man, therefore, thinks light of them." 11
"For the right use of wealth is most difficult ; therefore does

1 Democr. Aur. Sent. 6. 2 Eth-Theal. 45. 3 Hariri i. p. 16, ed.
Schult. * Nizami Makhzan al-asr, 923926. 6 Sadi Gul. iii. 23.

6 Kukai in Jits go Kiyo. * Pythag. Sam. 12, ed. G. - 8 Mishle Asaph,
xxxiv. 16. 9 yvw/i. ftov. '<> Sappho, 33, ed. G. Hien w. shoo, 63.


the really great man forsake it." 1 The commentary on Ta-hio
quotes the words of Kieou-fan : 2 "When a man is dead,
nothing is of any value to him [his riches profit him not] ;
benevolence [virtue] and filial duties alone are his only riches."
Rabbi Nathan ben Yoseph said : " He who neglects the
law for the sake of his riches, will have to neglect them by
reason of affliction. But he who continues in the words of
the law in his affliction, will in the end be supported by
riches." 3 "By eschewing sin through virtue, a man attains
nirvana, being delivered from innate defilement." 4 Sophos
and Syntipa have a fable of the ass and the horse. " The ass
envied the horse that died in battle ; the moral of which is,
that we may live happy in poverty, yet not so in riches and
show." 5 And Pindar says rightly that "prosperity, wv Oe$
<j>vTfvOfis, implanted by God is of all riches most enduring." 6
"I have sons, I have wealth, says the fool. Yet he is not
his own master, neither of his family, nor yet of his wealth." 7
" Rich or poor, sinners go to hell, but ' sugatino,' those who
walk or go well [the good], go to 'saggam'" 8 [swarga, heaven].
This and other like expressions tend to modify one's notions
of nirvanam, nibban, nibbanam. For if it is total extinction,
how can it be good or bad and lead to heaven as an existence
and abode of eternal bliss? The idea of total extinction,
though borrowed from Buddhism, yet seems to differ materially
in the old and the modern sect of that name].

5 The righteousness of the perfect shall direct his
way : but the wicked shall fall by his own wickedness.

" The righteousness" &c. Prahlada said to the Brahmans :
" Who is killed and by whom is he killed ? and by whom is
he left unprotected ? A man either kills or protects himself,

1 Kawi Niti Sh. 2 Ch. x. 3 R. Nathan, xxx. * Dulva,

vol. v. If. 29. 6 Sophos, fab. 32, Syntipa, 29. 6 Nem. viii. 28.

7 Dhammap. Balav. 62. 8 Id. Papav. 126.



according to whether he practises good or evil." 1 "For the
perfect man," says Confucius, " there is only one way ; he who
has not a clear idea of good, cannot himself tend to perfec-
tion." 2 "But the good virtues of the perfect man are good
itself. Nothing else is good." 3 Chung-tsze said : " I examine
myself three times a day in order to see if in my relations
with men I may not have been insincere ; whether towards
my friends I may not have been faithless ; and whether I
have practised the instructions [I have received]." 4 " For the
good order [measure] of actions is a test (or measure) of
excellence," say the Tamulians. 5

" He," says Confucius, " who, when he sees a chance of gain,
thinks of justice ; who, when he sees danger, is able to give
suitable advice ; who, however important his business be, yet
never forgets the language that may tend to peace, he indeed
is a perfect man." 6 " Perfection," says Meng-tsze, "is the way
of Heaven ; and to wish for perfection is the way of man [to
walk in]." 7 "And perfection," says Ts'heng-tsze, "comes from
within ; but the appearance of it shows itself without." 8
" Therefore does the good man keep watch over himself, in
awe of that which can neither be seen nor heard" [God's
presence everywhere]. 9 "He watches over his eyes by not

Online LibrarySolomon Caesar MalanOriginal notes on the book of proverbs, mostly from eastern writings (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 60)