Solomon Stoddard Ethan Allen Andrews.

A grammar of the Latin language: for the use of schools and colleges online

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the other of the thing ; as,

Hoc te vikimenter rdgo. Cic. Hind te ^/•o, irf, etc. Id. Bdgo te nummos,
I ask you for money. Mart. Posce deos veniam, Ask favor of the gods. Virg.
Quuni le^ent quis muslcam ddcudrit Epamlnondam, When they shall read who
taught Kpaminondas music. Nep. Antigdnus Iter omnes celatj Antigonus con-
ceals his route from all. Id. Deprhdri deos mala. Sen. QudUdie Qesar
^duos framentum^a^iidre. Cajs. Multa deos orans. Virg.

Rkmark 1. This rule Includes the verbs of asking and demanding, JlOgUo, ejfffSgitOy
cbsecrOf 6rOy exoroy contendo, percontor^ posco. rgposcOy consUlo, pricor, dipricor^ rdgOj
and inUrrSgOy which, with the accusative of the person, take the accusative of the neuter

f»ronoun8 hoc, id, illudy quod, quid, more frequently than that of a substantive ; of teach-
ng, dSceoy SdSceoy dSdoceo, and irrkdio, which last has two accusatives only in the poets.
Admoneo and consUlo are rarely found vith two accusatives; as, ConsUlam hanc rem
Umlcos, Plaut. Earn rem nos lociis admdnuit. Sail.

Rem. 2. Instead of the accusative of the person, verbs of asking and de-
manding often take the ablative with ab or ex; as, Non debebam abs te hm litS-
ras jx)8cere. Cic. Viniam dremus ab ipso. Virg. Iskid vdlebam ox te pei amtdru
riaut.

20*



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234 SYNTAX, — ^ACCUSATIVE APTEK VERBS. S 232.

Bem. 8. (a.) Instead of the ftccusatire of the thingj, the nblative with dt is
sometimes used ; as, Sicigote eisdtm de rebus iiderrOyan. Cic. I)e Itlntre
hostiam setiatum hldtet. Salf. Bftssus nosier me de hoc libro celdcit. Cic. Cf. § 229,
K. 5, (6.)— (6.) Sometimes also instead of the accusative of the thin^ an infini-
tive, or an infinitive or subjunctive clause is used; as, Decs prhari dibitis^ ut
nrbem defendant. Cic. ui ddeeam RuUum poslhac tacere. Id. Dikui id non
fieri posse. Id. Dikeant eum qui v'lr Sex. Boscius ftif rit. Id. — (c.) With verbs
of teaching, the instrument by means of which the art is practised is put in
the ablative; as, Aliquem fUkbut ddcere. Cic. Docere Uliquem arrnis, Liv.
LUira may be used either in the accusative or in the ablative ; as, Te UUnu
ddceo, Cic. Doctus GrascU litiiis. Id.

Rnr. 4. Some verbs of asking, demanding, and teaching, are not followed by two ao-
cosatiTefl ; as, ex\go^ pito^ postUlo^ quttro^ scltor^ sciscitor^ which, with the accusative of
the thing, take an ablative of the person with the preposition a6, rfr, or ex; imbuoy in-
stUuo, instruo^ etc., which are sometunes used with the ablative of the thing, generally
without a prepositien, and are sometimes otherwise construed ; as, InstUuire dtiquem
ad dicendum. Cic.

Rem. 5. (a.) Many active verbs with the accusative of the person,
take also an accusative denoting in what respect or to what degree
the action of the verb is exerted.

(6.) The accusative of degree, etc., is commonly nihily a neuter pronoun: or
a neuter adjective of quantity; fis, Non quo me ^liquid juviire posses. Cic.
Pauca pro tempO^re mlUtes hortatus. Sail. Id cufjtUa me, Ter. Nique est te fain
Ure quidquam. Virg. Cf. \ 232, (8.)

Rem. 6. By a similar construction, g^^nus and secui^ * sex,' are sometimes used
in the accusative, instead of the genitive of quality ; as, NvUas hoc genus vtyi'
Has viffildrunt. Cell. So, Omnes muliebre s^cus. Suet Cf. 211, B. 6, (4.)

§ S33« (1.) Some neiUer verbs are followed hj an accusa-
tive of kindred signification to their own ; as,

\ltam jucundfim vtvf.re^ To live a pleasant life. Plant. Mirum somnidvi
somnium, I have dreamed a wonderful dream. Id. FUvSre hunc furorera.
Virg. Islam pugnam pugndbo, Plaut. Pugndre dlcenda Musis proBlia. Hor.
Lusum insdlentem ludere. Id. Si fwn seryltutem serviat, Plaut. Queior hand
fdciles questus. Stat. Jurdvi verisstmum jusjurandum. Cic. Imwtas jUbet irt
vias. Val. Flacc. So, also. Ire exsequias. To go to a funeral. T^r. Jre supp6-
tias. To go to one's assistance. Ire infltias. To deny. This expression is
eouivalent to infiHoTy and may like that take an accusative; as. Si hoc untim
aajunxeroy quoa nemo eat infitias, Nep.: or the accusative with the infinitive;
as, Nique infitias Imus Slciliani nostram provinciam esse. Liv. Ut suum Ra-
dium gauderemus, Coel. ad Cic. Frdfictsci magnum Iter. Cic. Pollux ttque
riditque viam. Virg. This accusative is usually qualified by an adjective.

(2.) Verbs commonly neuter are sometimes used transitively,

and are then followed by an accusative.

Accusatives are thus used with dleo and s&pio, and their compounds, riddleo,
rhlpio; as, Olet unguenta, He smells of perfumes. Ter. Ol^re pfregrlnnm,
To have a foreign smell. Cic. Ordiidnes rSddlentes antlqultatem. Id. MeUa
herbam earn sajnunt. The honey tastes of that herb. Plin. Uva picem resi^ens.
Id. So, Sitio honores. Cic. Camera j)luit, Liv. Claudius aleam st&didstssime
lusit. Suet. Erumpire diu coerdtam Tram in hostes. Liv. Libros evigfldre. Ovid.
Prasire verba. Liv. Nee vox homlnera sdnat. Virg. Suddre mella. Id. Morien'
tem nomine cldmat. Id. Quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauptriem cripatf
Hor. Omnes Una mdnel nox. Id. Ingrdti dnimi crimen horreo. Cic. Ego meaa
queror fortunas. Plaut. Vivire Bacchanalia. Juv. Pastdrem saltdrtt uti Cy-
clopa, rdgdbai. Hor. So the passive; Nunc agrestem CycJopa mdvetur. Jd.
■ Xerxes quum mare ambuldvisset^ terram ndvigasset. Cic. Qui stadium currit. Id.
iXmmunia Jura nUgrdre, Id. Te vdlo colldqui, Plaut. £a dissirirt maliu, Cio.



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$233. 8TKTAX. — ^ACCUBATIYE AFTEB YEBBB. 235

Cdr^don ardSbai AlexiiK Virg. Stpgieu j&rSvtmus nndas. Orid. NiMgaiSdqvLor.
Virg. Carrtmus squor. Id. Fasctmtur sylvas. Id.

NoTZ 1. Accnsatives are found in like manner after amMOo, eaOeo, dSleo^ iqu'Uoy jUo^
gaudeoj gimo^ gWrior^ horreo^ ketor^ UUro^ niUo^ paileo, pjiveo, pireo, diptreo^ prMdo^
quiror, tldeo^ sVeoy «I&1/o, tteeo, trgmo, tripido, vddo, vinio^ etc.

(3.) Neuter verbs and sometimes adjectives also may be fol-
lowed by an accusative denoting in what respect, or to what (fo-
§free, the feeling, condition, etc., is manifested ; as,

Nihil l&bdro, Cie. Num id lacrlmat virgof Does the maid weep on that ac-
count? Ter. MuUa alia jpeccat Cic. Qnicquid dellrant reaes^ plectuntur
Achtvi. Hor. Nee tu id indtgndri posses, Liv. Illud mtki IcBtandum video, Cic.
Illujd valde Ubi assentior. Id. idem glSriari. Id. Hd&a glorians, Liv. Hoc
gtudet Unum, Hon — So, Id dp^ram do^ I strive for this. 1*er. Consilium pitis,
quid tibi sim auctor. Cic. Quod guidam aucWres sunt^ Which is attested by
some authors. Liv. Nil nostri misirere f Virg. — Nihil JR&mdna plebis simllis.
Liv. Senatus nihil sane intentus. Sail. These limiting accusatives have com-
monly the force of adverbs, particularly nihil, which is used like an emphatic
fum in the sense of * in no way,' * in no respect' So non nikilf *■ to some extent,'
' in some measure.'

NoTS 2. In the above and similar examples, the prepositions o&, propter, per, ttd, ete.,
may often be supplied. This construction of neuter verbs is most common with the
neuter accusatiyes id, quid, guidquam, Sttquid, quiequid, quod, nViil, nonnVUij \dem^
ilhtd, tantum, quantmn, Unurn, mtdta, pauca, tUia, cetera^ omnia, etc. Cf. ( 266, R. 16, N.



Many verbs are followed by an accusative depend-
ing upon a preposition with which they are compounded.

(1.) Active verbs compounded with trans, ad, and circum, have
sometimes two accusatives, one depending upon the verb, the other
upon the preposition ; as,

Omnem iqvitdtum pontem transducit. He leads all the cavalry over the bridge.
CaBs. Agesllaus Hellespontum comas trajecit. Nep. Petreius jusjiirandum ad-
igit Afranium. Cses. Roscillum Pompeius omnia sua prsesldia circumduxit. Id.
So, Pontus scopiilos sUperjdcit undam. Virg. So, also, adverto and induco with
dnimum; as. Id dnimum advei'tit. Cses. Id micd animum induxirat pauU^er
non tenuit. Cic. So, also, injicio in Plautus — £go te mdnum injtciam,

J 2.) Some other active verbs take an accusative in the passive
voice depending upon their prepositions ; as, •

Mdgicas accingier artcis. To prepare oneself for ma^c arts. Virg. In prose
writers the ad is in such cases repeated; as, acctngi ad consuldtum. Liv.
Classis circumvihitur arcem. Id. Quod anguis dd^mi vectem circumjectus fuisset,
Cic. Locum proeteroecius sum. Id.

(3.) Many neuter verbs, especially verbs of motion, or of rest in a
place, when compounded with prepositions which govern an accusa
tive, become transitive, and accordingly take an accusative ; as,

Gentes qux milre iUud adjacent. The nations which border upon that sea. Nep
Obiquitdre agmeii. Curt. Incedunt. nuBstos locos. Tac. Transilui flammas. Ovid.
Succed^re fecta. Cic. Ludorum diebus, qui cognltlonem intervene rant. Tac
^c/»rc provinciam. Suet. Caveat ne proelium ineai, Cic. IngrSdi Iter pickbiu
Cic. £piiuiH horii quos inOdo prceterwdmus. Id.

' Note. To this rule belong many of the compounds of amblUo, cldo.eurro, eo, fqutto
Jluo, grddior, ISbor, no and ndto, ripo, sSdio, scando, vSdo, vShor, venio, v5lo ; — cUbo^
jHceo^ siUeOf sisto, sto, etc.. with the prepositions included in § 224, and with me.



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286 SYNTAX. — XCCXJBATmL AFTER YERBf. §234

Remark 1. Some neuter verbs compounded with prepositions
which govern an ablative, in like manner become transitive, and are
followed by an accusative ; as,

Nemlnem conveniy I met with no one. Cic. Qui socif tatera coihis. Id.
Aversdii honores. Ovid. Ursi arborem aver si derqmnt. PI in. Edormi crap&lam.
Cic. Egreum exsXlium. Tac. EvadUque ciler ilpam. Virg. Excedere numS-
rum. Tac Endre Bmen. Ter. Tibur dquot ferme praJtuutU, Hon

Rem. 2. After verbs both active and neuter, compounded with
prepositions which take an accusative, the preposition is often repeat-
ed, or one of similar signification is used ; as,

Ccesar se ad nSmlnem adiunxit. Cic. MuUitudinem trans Rhgnnm in GaUiam
transducire. CaeR. — In Galliam invasit Antdnius. Cic. Ad me drrfire quoadam
mSmim. Id. Orator piragrat per &nImo8 hdndnum. Id. Nt in sfnatum accede'
rem. Id. Regina ad templum incemt. Virg. Jnxta g^nltorem adstat Ldvinia. Id.
Fines extra quos egrHdt nan posaim, Cic. A dative instead of the accusative
often follows snch compounds, according to § 224. Grcum is not repeated.

Note. Some verbal nouns and verbal adjectives in hundus are
followed by an accusative, like the transitive verbs from which they
are derived ; as,



meam? Quid Ubi ]ia.nc digOo tactio ^st? Id. Hatmo vUdbundku castra hotiium
consulesque. Liv. Mlthrl^ates Romanura mSdltabundus bellura. Just. Mlra^
bundi v^nam speciem. Liv. Pdpiildbundus agroe. Sisenn. Camlflcem (mdgind-
hundus. App.

§ SS'^* A verb in the passive voice has the same govern-
ment as in the active, except that the accusative of the active
voice becomes the nominative of the passive.

Note 1. The accusative of the person with the infinitive, after verbs ot saying
and cammanding^ may become the subject of the passive voice; as. Active,
Dlco ref^em ease Justum ; — Passive, Rex didtur Justus esse. Act. Jmeo te re-
dire; — Pass. Jmeris ridire : the construction in the passive being the same as
though re gem and te had depended immediately upon dlco &nd jiweo. — So, also,
when the accusative of the person is the object or the verb and the infinitive
stands as the accusative of the thing. Cf. \ 270, N.

I. When a verb, which in the active voice takes an accusative
both of the person and of the thing, is changed to the passive form,
the accusative of the person becomes the nomifiative, and the accusa-
tive of the thing is retained ; as,

Rdgaius est sententiam, He was asked his opinion. Liv. Interrdgatus causam.
Tac. ScgOtes allmenta<7«e debita dives posciodtur humus. Ovid. Motns ddceri
gaudet Jonicos mdtura virgo. Hor. Omnes belli artes edoctus, Liv. Nusne hoc
celdtos tarn diu t Ter. Multa in extis mdnemur, Cic.

Note 2. The accusative of the thing after doctus and edoctus is rare; and
after celdii it is generally a neuter pronoun; as hoc or id celabar;of this I was
kept in ignoraiice; but ft is found also with the person in the dative; as, Id
Alcibiadi diuLius cHdri non potuit. Nep. Alcib. 6. Ceto, luid especially "its pas-
sive, generally takes de with the ablative.

Remark 1. (a.) Induo and exwo, though they do not take two accusatives
In the active voice, are sometimes followed by an accusative of the thing Ji



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§ 235. SYNTAX. — ACCUSATIVE AFTEB PR1LPOSITION8. 237

the passive; as, TnduUur Stras vestes, She puts on sable garments. Ovid.
Thoraca induitis. Virg.. £xiUa est Rdma sCnectam. Mart So inducor and cf»-
gor\ as, Ferrum cingfiur, Virg. So rScingitur anguera. Ovid.

(6.) When two accusatives follow an active verb compounded with iranSf
the passive retains that which depends upon the preposition j as, Belgee Rhgnum
ant^qiUtus traruducti, Gses.

Rem. 2. The future passive participle in the neuter gender with est, is some-
times, though rarely, followed py an accusative ; as, Multa fUhns rebus quum tU
dgenaum, Lucr. Quam (viam) ndbis ingridiendum est. Cic.

n. Adjectives, verbs, and perfect participles, are sometimes fol-
lowed by an accusative denoting the part to which their signification
relates; as,

Nadus membra. Bare as to his limbs. Virg. Os hiimSrosywc deo similis. Id.
Clari genus. Tac. TribUni suam vlcem anxti, Liv. Trimit artus. Virg. Cetera
pane puer bello. Id. Sibila colla iumentem. Id.* Explcri mentem niquit. Id.
Gryneus eruitur octilos. Ovid. Picii scilta Ldbicu Virg. CW/i» frontem letUter
fastlyaius. Gses. Animum incensus, Liv. ObUtus f aciem suo crudre, Tac.

Remark 1. In this construction an ablative is often joined with the perfect
participle; as, MUes fractus membra labore. Hor. Dext^rum g6nu liliplde
ictus, buet. Adversum f ^mur tragi)l§ grdvtter ictus, Liv.

Rem. 2. This is a Greek construction, and is usually called the limiting or
Greek accusative. It is used instead of an ablative of limitation, (§ 260,) and
occurs most frequently in poe#y.

Rem. 8. A limiting accusative instead of the ablative is found also in a few
ordinary expressions, as in pariim (for partem), vtcem, magnam and maxtmam
partem, instead of magna or maxtmd ex parte, or the adverb fire ; as, Maxi'
mam partem lacte vhmnt. Gass. Magnam partem ex iambis nostra constat Oratio.
Cic. Livy has magna j)ars, viz. Niimldse, magna pars agrestes. — So ceUra and
rSliqua are joined to adjectives in the sense of ceteris, * for the rest,' * in other
respect? ' ; as, Proximum regnum, cetera egrSgium, ab und parte haud sAtis
proiperum fuit. Liv. So cetera similis, cetera bdnus. A te bis terve summum
tUiras accepi. Gic. — So, also, in the expressions id tempdris ; id, hoc or idem
tetdiis, iUud hdrce, for eo tempdre, ed estate, etc. ; id ginus, omne gSnus, quod gSnus,

m. Some neuter verbs which are followed by an accusative, are
used in the passive voice, the accusative becoming the subject, ac-
cording to the general rule of active verbs; as,

Tertia vivttur aOas. Ovid. BeUum mlUtdbttur. Hor. Dormltur hiems. Mart.
MuUa peccantur. Gic. AdUur Gnossitis Minos. Sen. Ne ab omnibus circumsis-
Uretur. Ctes. Hostes invddi posse. Sail. Campus dbUur dqud, Ovid. FlOres in-
euntur grdtioe. Gic. £a res siletur. Id.

ACCUSATIVE AFTER PREPOSITIONS.*

§ S3«S« (1.) Twenty-six prepositions are followed by the
accusative.

These are &d, adversus or adversum^ antg, Hpnd, eireH or drcum, eirc'Uer, cfs or citrO^
contra, ergd, extrd, in/ri, intSr, intra, juxta, db, pints, pBr, post, pOni, prcBlSr, prSpS^
proptgr, sieundum, supra, trans, ultra ; as,

Ad templum non ceguoe Pallddis IbarU, — ^to the temple. Virg. Adversus hostes^
Against tlie enemy. Liv. Germdni qui cis Rhenum incOlunt, — this side the Rhine.
Gses. Quum tantum resident intra imros mdli. Cic. Piindpio t ei'un inpirium
pines reges erat. Just. Templum ponam propter dquam. Virg. Inter agendum,
id. Arite ddmandum. Id. Respecting the signification of some of the proved-
ing prepositions see § 195, R. 5, etc.



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238 SYNTAX. — ^ACCUSATIVB AFTER PREPOSITIONS. §235.

Bemark 1. Gs is jrenerally used with names of places; citra with other
words also; a«, Gt Taurwn.' Cxc. Gs Pddwn, Liv. Paucos cis menses. Plant.
Gtra Veliatn. Cic. Citra satUtatem, Kot to satiety. CoL Citra fdtlyatidnem,
Cels. Citra TrOjdna tenipdra. Ovid.

Rem. 2. Inter, signifying between, applies to two accusatives jointly, and
sometime&to a single plural accusative; as, Inter me et Siipionem. Cic' Inter
naU)s et txirentes. Id. Inter nos. Among ourselves. Id. Inter fakdrios, Among
the scythe-makers. Cic. When it denotes time it signifies auring, and more
rarely at ; as, Inter ipsum pugna tempus* Liv. Inter ccenam, Cic.

Rem. 3. Ante and post are commonly joined with concrete official titles,
when used to indicate time, rather than with the corresponding abstract nouns;
as, ante or post Cicirdnem consulem, rather than ante or post consulatum CuA-
r&nis.

(2.) In and sub, denoting motion or tendency, are followed by the
accusative ; denoting situation, they are followed by the ablative ; as,

Via ducit in urbera. The way conducts into the city. Virg. Nosier in te amor,
Cic. OxlUm^chi hH^amma in Cleombrotum est— on or conceming Cleombrotus.
Id. Exerdtus sub jugum misms est, The army was sent under the yoke. Caes.
Magna met sub terras ibit imago, Virg. Midid in urbe. In the midst of the
city. Ovid. In his fuit Ariomstits, Cajs. Bella sub /^cts tmoenlbus girire.
To wage war uncier the Trojan walls. Ovid. Sub nocte ^lenU, Virg.

Rem. 4. The most common significations of in, with the accusative, are,
into, to, towards, until, for, against, ahout, conceming, — with the ablative, in, on,
upon, among. In some instances, in and sub, drnioting tendency, are followed
by the ablative, and, denoting situation^ by the accusative; as, In conspectu
meo avdet venire. Phsed. Ndiidnes qua tn Jtmlcltiam pdpQli Rdmdni, dltionem-
que esscnt. Id. Sub jGgo dictdtor hostes nOsit, Liv. Hostes sub montem conse^
aisse, Cses.

Rem. 6. In and sub, in different significations, denoting neither tendency nor
situation, are followed sometimes by the accusative, and sometimes by the
ablative; tis, Amor crescit in horns, Ovid. Ilustilem in m6dura. Cic. Quod in
b6no servo did posset. Id. Sub ed condltione. Ter. Sub poeniv mortis. Suet.

Rem. 6. In expressions relating to time, sub, denoting at or in, usually takes
the ablative ; as, Sub adventu RomdnOrum, Liv. Sub luce. Ovid. Sid) iempdre,
Lucan. Denoting near, about. Just before or just after, it takes the accusative;
as. Sub iQcem. Virg. Sub lumlna prima. Hor. Sub hoc hints inquit. Id.

Rem. 7. In is used with neuter adjectives in the accusative in forming ad-
verbial phrases; as. In universum, In general. In tMum, Wholly. So, in plenum;
inincertum; intantum; in quantum; inmajus; in melius; in omnia, in all re-
spects, etc.

(3.) SUper, when denoting place or time, is followed by the accusa-
tive, and sometimes poetically by the ablative ; but when it signifies
on, ahout, or concerning, it takes the ablative. With tlje accusative
sUper signifies over, above, besides or tn addition to ; with numerals,
more than; as,

SOper labentem culmlna tecti. Gliding over the top of the house. Virg. SSper
ires mddios. Liv. Super morbum etiam fames affecit exercitum. Id. Sitper
Un^ro prosternit gramlne cotpus, He stretches his body on the tender grass.
Virg. MuUa super Priamo rdgitans SUper Hectore muUa, .... coucerniug Priam,
etc. Id.

Rem. 8. The compound destper is found with the accusative, and ins&per
with the accusative and tlie ablative.

(4.) Suhter generally takes the accusative, but sometimes, m
poetry, the ablative ; as,
Subter terras, Under the earth. Liv. Subter densd testfXdIne. Virg.



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§ 236. STNTArX. — ^ACCUSATIVE OF TIME AND SPACE. 239

(5.) Clam is foUbwed by either the accusadve or the ablative ; as,

Cffwwvos, Without your knowledge. Cic. C/am patrem. Tor. C/am matrera
suam. Flaut. Clam vobis. Cass. Neque potest clnm me esse. Plaut. Clam
uxore mea. Id. Its diminutive danCulum is once followed by the accusative,
claniilum pBXres, Ter.

Rem. 9. The adverbs versus or versum and usque are sometiiheii annexed
to an accusative, prmcipally of place, which depends onac^orm,and sometimes
the preposition is omitted; as, Ad Oceanum vtrstis prdfhisd* Caes. F&yam
ad se versum. Sail. In Galliam versus castra mdvere. Id. — Usque ad Numan-
tiam. Cic. Usnue in Pamphyliam. Id. Ad noctem usque. Plaut. — Bruudusium
versus. Cic. Termlnos ttiywe Libya:. Just. Usque Knnam prqfecti. Cic. Versus
is always placed after the accusative. — Usque occurs more rarely with sub and
trans with the accusative; as, Trans Alpes usque transfertur. Cic. Usque
sub exti'emum bi'umce imbrem. — Versus also rai'ely follows oA, and usque
either ab or ex with the ablative ; as, Ab septemtrione versus. Varr. A funda-
mento usque movisti mare. Plaut. Usque ex ultlmiL ^ria. Cic. Usque a pu^rltift.
Ter. Us</ue a Romfilo. Cic. Usque a mane ad vespenim. Plaut.

Rem. 10. Prepositions are often used without a noun dependin/j upon them,
but such noun may usually be supplied by the mind ; as, Multis post anniSf
i. e. post id tempus. Cic. CiVcum umcordiaSf scil. csdem. Sail.

Rem. 11. The accusative, in many constructions, is supposed to depend on a
preposition understood; as. Quid 6pus est plural i. e. pi'optestquidf why? i. q.
cur t or gudre f Cic. So, Quid me ostentem t Id. But it is not easy, in every
case, to say what preposition should be supplied. For the accusative without
a preposition after neuter verbs, see ^ 232. For the accusative of luultation,
see § 234, U.

ACCUSATIVE OF TIME AND SPACE.

§ 330* Nouns denoting duration of time, or extent of space,
are put, after adjectives and verbs, in the accusative, and some-
times after verbs in the ablative ; as,

Ace. Appim ccecus multos annosyW/, Appius waa blind manyifears. Cic.
Biduum /^MVt'cB /mi. Id. Dies totos </e nXiite dissSrunt. Id. Te jam annum
audientem Cratlj^um. Id. — DecreverurU intercaldrUim quinque et quadraginta
dies longum. Id. — Quurn dbessem ab Amdno Iter uniits diei. Id. Tres pdteal cceU
qnitium non ampUus ulnas. Virg. (Cf. ^ 256, R. 6.) A portu stadia centum et
viginti jirotessimus. Cic. — Duos Jbssas quindecim p^'des latas perduxit, — two
ditches fitleen feet broad. Cses. Fosscb ^uinos p6des alta. Id. Fdraniina hnga
pedes tres semis. Cato. Orbem dleaHum trassum digltos sex fdcito. Id.-—
Abl, Vixit annis undetrtginta. Suet. Quatuord^cim annis exsihum tdlerdvit,
Tac. Trlginta annis vixit Pancetius. Cic. — Exercitus Romdnus trldui Itlnere ab-
fuXt ab amne Tdnai. Tac. jEsciildjdi templum quinque milllbus passuum dis'
tans. Liv.

Note 1. The ablative denoting extent of time and space is rarely used by
Cicero, and less frequently than the accusative by other writers.

Note 2. The accusative denotinj^ extent of space sometimes follows the ab-
Yerhs kmgej altCj etc.; as^ Qimpestits Idcus alte duos pfdes et semissem tn/*(J-
diendus est. Colum. Verctngi0rix Idcum castris deUyU, ab Avartco lonye mUlia
passuum sedecira. Caes.

Note 3. (a.) OW, in reference to the time which a person has lived^ is
expressed in Latin by ndtus, with an accusative of the time; as, Decessit
Alexander mensem unnm^ annos ires et trlyinta ndtus. Just. (6.) A person's
age may also be expressed without ndtus by a genitive of the time closely
connected with his name, according to § 2il, R. 6; as, Alexander anndrum
trium et trlyinta decessit. (c.) Okltr or younger than a certain age is ex-
pressed by prefixing to the accusative or genitive of the definite age the ad-



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



240 SYNTAX. — ^ACCUSATITB OF PLACE. § 2S7.

verbs pbt9 or mXiw$y or the adjectives mOfor or ndnor^ either with or without
qitam. See § 266, R. 6 and 7. — Sometimes, also, the ablative depends on the
comparative ; as, Minor vUginti quinque annis natui. Nep. Minor trlginta annis
ftdtu. Cic. Biennio quam nos major. Id. Cf. § 256, R. 16. (1.)

Remark 1. Nouns denoting time or space, used to limit ether noimt, are pot
in the genitive or ablative. See ^ 211, K. 6.

Rem 2. A term of time not yet completed may be expressed by an ordinal
number; as, Nos vTcgrimum /am diem pdtfmur Mbe$cire dciem hdrum auctOrU
idtU. Cic. P&nlco bello duoa^clmum annum ItdUa urebdtur. Liv. Hence in
the passive. Nunc tertia vivitur »tas. Ovid.

Rem. 8. The accusative or ablative of space is sometimes omitted, while a
genitive depending on it remains; as, Cattra qua dbii'ont bIdUi, soil. 9pdtiwn or



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