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to hold it, in case of an assault, until we could throw in reinforcements,
which were held in readiness close at hand during night and day. At
six o'clock on the evening of the 30th the enemy made a very deter-
mined effort to carry our work by assault. While our men were
eating their supper, with their guns lying beside them, a storming
column swarmed out of the enemy's ditch only a short distance from
our position, and made a dash upon us, gaining our exterior ditch,
from which they drove the few men who were surprised there. A
detachment of the Eighth Wisconsin, Fourth Wisconsin, and Fifth
Michigan undertook to scale the parapet, but the first six men who
got inside paid their lives as the entrance fee, and our men held their
own until our reinforcements, coming in at a full run, attacked the
troops in our ditch with such fury and impetuosity that they were
immediately driven out.

We kept alarge force in the battery that night, but the attack not
being resumed, as we anticipated, the reserve was withdrawn before
daylight.

The engineers having decided that the point would undoubtedly
be blown up by the enemy, the line of our fortifications was con-
tinued across to the river behind Battery 11, so that when that was
destroyed the enemy would find as strong a work still confronting
them.

The exterior lunette, commanding a projecting ridge to the left of
Battery 11, was also made the object of a concentrated fire, which
razed to the ground a rifle-pit in front of it. This position was held
at the time by Major Merchant, with a section of Boone's battery,
and a detachment from Colonel de Gournay's command acting as
infantry, the latter being afterwards relieved by Miles's Legion.

All this while the enemy were making slow but steady approach
toward Colonel Johnson's position and that of the First Mississippi;
at the latter place, expecting the point of the salient angle to be
undermined and blown up, Lieutenant Dabney built a rifle-pit across
the base of the angle, so as to present a new line of defence if the
outer one was lost.

As a counter mine, a gallery was run out at some depth under
ground, the prosecution of which was voluntarily assumed by Cap-
tain Girard.

After working his gallery about half-way to the enemy's ditch,
he could distinctly hear their workmen making slow progress with
a gallery toward us. On account of the close proximity of their



Fortification and Siege of Port Hudson. 339

shaft, Captain Girard was obliged to work with great caution and
silence, and the enemy kept quietly on. Getting immediately under-
neath their ditch our gallery was extended a short distance.

Shortly after midnight of the 3d of July, our train was fired, and
a tremendous explosion lollowed, apparently, however, without loss
of life.

At the same time the approaches to Fort Desperate were checked
by the fire of the Arkansas marksmen there, who, perched up in
their sharpshooting tower, could fire down into every part of the
enemy's ditch.

EATING MULE-MEAT.

The last quarter ration of beef had been given out to the troops
on the 29th of June.

On the ist of July, at the request of many officers, a wounded
mule was killed and cut up for experimental eating.

The flesh of mules is of a darker color than beef, of a finer grain,
quite tender and juicy, and has a flavor something between that of
beef and venison.

Some horses were slaughtered, and their flesh was found to be very
good eating, but not equal to mule. Rats, of which there were
plenty about the deserted camps, were also caught by many officers
and men, and were found to be quite a luxury.

Mule meat was regularly served out in rations to the troops from
and after the 4th of July.

The stock of corn was getting very low, and besides that nothing
was left but peas, sugar, molasses and salt.

That a large quantity of peas was left on hand was probably ac-
counted for by the fact that most of the troops would not have them
on any consideration.

The sugar and molasses were put to good use by the troops in
making a weak description of beer, which was constantly kept at the
lines by the barrel full, and drank by the soldiers in preference to
the miserable water with which they were generally supplied.

On the ist of July, some of the splendid Parrott guns of the Indi-
ana regiment were taken across the river and put in battery there.
They now maintained a constant fire upon our batteries every day,
to which we occasionally replied, and at times with effect. They dis-
mounted altogether three of our guns, splitting a rifled 32-pounder
on the 5th of July; knocking off" the trunnion of an 8-inch howitzer



340 Southern Historical Socieft/ Fapers.

on the morning of the 6th, and permanently disabhng a rifled 24-
pounder on the evening of the same day. This artillery practice was
probably equal, if not superior, to anything which has ever been ac-
complished of the kind, the distance being from one thousand to four-
teen hundred yards.

Our guns on the river side were now reduced to seven, and the
lower batteries were screened with brush, while the upper guns only
engaged the Parrotts. We had been obliged to mask most of our
guns on the land side for some time back, so many of them having
been disabled. Every extra gun-carriage in the place had been used
up, and those in service were all patched and repaired as much as
they could be. There were a number of broken guns or pieces of ord-
nance without carriages, which were fastened upon blocks and put in
masked positions where they could be used m cases of emergency.
Most of them were crammed with bags containing a motley assort-
ment of old bullets, nails, pieces of horseshoes, bits of iron chain,
etc., which were to be fired in the face of a storming party, it being
of little consequence whether the disabled guns were good for
another discharge or not.

On the evening of the 3d of July, a long line of troops was d
covered bivouacking in line of battle opposite our left centre, and
every one was confident that before daylight we would be attacked
on every side, but the day wore on and everything was going on as
usual, the sharpshooting commencing as soon as the fog lifted.

AN APPROACHING STRUGGLE.

The approach of the enemy to Battery 1 1 was slow enough to
cause us to doubt, at last, our previous suppositions that they in-
tended to blow up the point. They had been engaged since the 3d
on a work of which, at first, we could not understand the nature,
but as it gradually rose in height it became evident to us that it waS;
to be an elevated mound — was to be used as a tower for their sharp-
shooters to fire down into our work.

This point of land, running out beyond our natural line of de-
fence to within one hundred yards of a high ridge held by the enemy,
flanked on its weaker side by the fleet, and almost entirely unsup-
ported by any other fortification, had always been considered a weak i
point with us, and it could not be i)ermanently held without a loss
that would be severely felt by our weakened garrison.



Fortification and Siege of Port Hudson. 341



THE FALL OF VICKSBURG.

During the forenoon, on the 7th of July, the Federals called'out
to our men in many places that Vicksburg had been surrendered to
General Grant on the 4th of July, with its garrison.

To give us greater assurance of the truth of their assertions, there
was sent in to General Gardner, throught some of the pickets, an
official copy of General Grant's dispatch to General Banks, an-
nouncing the capitulation of Vicksburg.

A COUNCIL OF WAR.

That night a council of war was held at General Gardner's head-
quarters, which was protracted until 2 o'clock on the morning of the
8th. The situation of Port Hudson was well worthy of serious con-
sideration by the chief officers of its garrison. It was sixty-one
days since the commencement of the bombardment by the fleet; forty-
eight days since the virtual beginning of the siege, and there had
been forty-five days of actual investment, comprising two grand at-
tacks, and twenty-four charges or attempts to storm our lines.

A fortified position, constructed for a garrison of twenty thousand
men, after its abandonment had been ordered, had been held by less
than one-third that force for a much longer period than could have
been expected by our forces outside.

At 2 o'clock, on the morning of the 8th of July, General Gardner
sent to General Banks, by flag of truce, for confirmation of the fall
of Vicksburg, which was accorded him. (And yet General Banks
in his report, page 149, says that Gardner stated that the surrender
was not on account of the fall of Vicksburg.)

About 9 o'clock, the same morning, he dispatched Colonels J. G.
W. Steedman and W. R. Miles, and Lieutenant-Colonel Marshall J.
Smith as commissioners, to treat for the surrender of the post.

They did not return until afternoon, and then announced that the
following unconditional surrender of the place and garrison had been
agreed upon:

Articles of capitulation proposed between the commissioners on
the part of the garrison of Port Hudson, Louisiana, and the forces
of the United States before said place, July 8th, 1863.

Article L Major-General F. Gardner to surrender to the United
States forces, under Major-General Banks, the place of Port Hudson
ani its dependencies with its garrison, armament, munitions, public



342 Southern Historical Society Papers.

lunds, and material of war, in the condition, as nearly as may be, in
which they were at the hour of cessation of hostilities, viz : 6 o'clock
A. M., July S, 1S63

Article II. The surrender, stipulated in Article I, is qualified by
no condition save that the officers and enlisted men composing the
garrison shall receive the treatment due to prisoners of war accord-
ing to the usage of civilized warfare.

Article III. All private property of ofiicers and enlisted men shall
be respected and left to their respective owners.

Article IV. The position of Port Hudson si all be occupied to-
morrow, at 7 o'clock A. M., by the forces of the United States, and
its garrison received as prisoners of war by such general officer of
the United States service as may be designated by Major General
Banks, with the ordinary formalities of rendition. The Confederate
troops will be drawn up in line, officers in their position, the right of
the line resting on the edge of the prairie south of the railroad depot,
the left extending in the direction of the village of Port Hudson ; the
arms and colors will be conveniently piled, and will be received by
the officers of the United States.

Article V. The sick and wounded of the garrison will be cared for
by the authorities of the United States, assisted, if desired by either
party, by the medical ofificers of the garrison.

Approved : W. R. Miles, Comma?idmg right wing.

J. G. W. Steedman, Comvianding left wing.
Marshall J. Smith, Lieutenajit- Colonel Heavy

Artillery.
Charles P. Stone, Brigadier- General.
W. Dwight, Brigadier- General.
Henry W. Birg, Colonel Commanding Third

Brigade^ Grover'' s Division.

Approved : Frank Gardner, Major- General.
Approved : N. P. Banks, Major- General.

combatants fraternizing.

Soldiers swarmed from their places of concealment on either side
and met each other in the most cordial and fraternal spirit. Here
you would see a group of Federal soldiers escorted round our works
and shown the effects of their shots, and entertained with accounts of
such part of the siege operations as they could not have learned be-
fore.



Fortification and Siege of Port Hudson. 343

In the same way our men went into the Federal lines and gazed
with curiosity upon the work which had been giving them so much
trouble, escorted by Federal soldiers who vied with each other in
courtesy and a display of magnanimous spirit.

Not a single case occurred in which the enemy, either officers or
privates, exhibited a disposition to exult over their victory, but, on
the contrary, whenever the subject came up in conversation, it elicited
from them only compliments upon the skill and bravery of the defence.

One of their surgeons came in during a heavy rain storm and
brought medicines for our sick, repeating his visit the next morning,
and bringing a large quantity of quinine, which he dosed out to the
fever patients.

During the afternoon and evening of the 8th a large number of
Federals were within our lines visiting at our camps, whither most of
our men had repaired to pack up their little stock of clothing pre-
paratory to an expected departure on the morrow.

The following order was published :

Headquarters Port Hudson, Louisiana,

filly 8, i86j.
General Orders, No. 6i :

I. Nobly have the troops performed their duty in the defence of
this position, continued from the 2ist of May to the present date.
The cheerfulness, bravery, and zeal displayed by the troops during
the hardships and suffering of this long siege have never been sur-
passed, and every man can feel the proud satisfaction that he has
done his part in this heroic defence of Port Hudson. The place is
surrendered at the last moment it is proper to hold it, and after a
most gallant defence in several severe attacks, in all of which the
enemy have been signally repulsed. Let all continue, during the
duties that still remain to be performed, to show that cheerful obedi-
ence which has distinguished them as soldiers up to this time.

n. The' troops will be paraded at 6 o'clock A. M. to morrow for
surrender, in line of battle in the same order as they are now at the
breastworks, with the heavy artillery on the right in the edge of the
prairie, in the rear of the railroad depot, the left extending towards
the town of Port Hudson. All officers and men will be in their
places under arms.

By command of Major General Frank Gardner,

[Signed] C. M. Jackson,

Acting Assistant Adjutant General,



344 Southern Historical Society Papers.

Shortly after dark a train of wagons brought in a liberal supply of
provisions for the garrison from the enemy's commissariat. They
were isued to the troops during the night-time, and early the next
morning our men enjoyed the first good meal they had partaken of
for a long time.

At seven o'clock on the morning of the gth, our line was formed
in the field back of the railroad depot, near the landing, every man
not too sick to be confined in the hospital being in the ranks. As
General Gardner rude along the line, with his staff, he was enthusias-
tically cheered by the men who had served so faithfully under him,
and whose affection and confidence he had permanently gained during
days and weeks of trial.

The enemy's column, marching down the road to the landing, ap-
proached the right of our line, preceded by General Andrews and
staff.

When Brigadier-General Andrews approached. General Gardner
advanced with his sword drawn and presented the hilt to General
Andrews with the following words ;

" Having thoroughly defended this position as long as I deemed it
necessary, I now surrender to you my sword, and with it this post
and its garrison."

To which General Andrews replied :

" I return your sword as a proper compliment to the gallant com-
mander of such gallant troops — conduct that would be heroic in
another cause."

To which General Gardner replied as he returned his sword, with
emphasis, into the scabbard :

" This is neither the time nor place to discuss the cause."

The order was given along our line to ground arms, which was
obeyed, and our men stood in line while the enemy had marched
from right to left until they had formed in line betore us, when they
hoisted their flag upon the bluff, fired a salute, and the ceremony
was over.

It was now announced to our men that they would be paroled —
news that was received by them with great satisfaction, particularly
as they had made up their minds already to a term of imprison-
ment.



Fortification and Siege of Port Hudson. 345



ROSTER OF CONFEDERATE FORCES ENGAGED IN THE DEFENCE OF
PORT HUDSON, MAY 2IST TO JULY 8, 1863.

Major-General Frank Gardner commanding.

Staff— yi2i]or T Friend Wilson, Adjutant-General ; Captains Jack-
son and Lanier, Assistant Adjutant-Generals; Major Spratley, Chief
Quartermaster; Captain Geo. Simpson, Inspector-General; Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Marshall J. Smith, Chief of Heavy Artillery; Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Jas. P. Parker, Chief of Light Artillery ; Captain L.
J. Girard, Chief of Ordnance ; Lieutenant F. Y. Dabney, Chief En-
gineer ; Colonel J. A. Jacquess, Captain A. Dupree, Aides-de-Camp.

Eyigineers — Fred. Y. Dabney, First Lieutenant and Chief Engi-
neer ; Stork and Jas. Freret, Second Lieutenants, Engineers ; But-
ler, Assistant Engineer.

River Batteries — Lieute?ia7tt-Cotonel Mxv.snAi.i. J. Smith Com-
manding Right Wifig i?i front of the village of Port Hzidson.

I. — One 30-pound Parrott, one 12-pound brass-rifled (removed),
First Alabama regiment, Captain J. F. Whitfield.

IL — One 42-smooth. two 24-rifled siege, First Alabama regiment.
Captain J. D. Meadows.

in. — One 42-smooth, one 32-rifled, First Alabama regiment. Cap-
tain R H. Riley.

IV. — One 8-inch Columbiad, one lo-inch Columbiad, Twelfth Lou-
isiana battalion artillery, Captain Seawell.

V. — One lo-inch Columbiad, one 42-smooth, one 32-smooth, First
Alabama, Captain D. W. Ramsey.

VI. — Two 24-pound rifled, 12th Louisiana battalion, Captain Kean.

VII — Two 24-pound smooth and hot shot, First Tennessee bat-
talion. Captain Waller ; moved to land lines at Clinton road, Captain
Lahey.

Left Wing — Lieutenant- Colonel De Gournay Com.manding.

VIII — Two rifled 24-pound siege, Twelfth Louisiana battalion — one
moved to land lines at Slaughter's field — Captain Coffin.

IX — One 8-inch howitzer (Paixon), Lieutenant Rodriguez.

X — One 32 pound smooth, Lieutenant McDowell.

XI — One 20-pound Parrott, Lieutenant Watts Kearney and twenty-
two men (Miles's Legion).



346 Southern Historical Society Papers.

La?id Lhie, Right Wing, Right Resting on Mississippi River —
W. R. Miles, Colonel Commanding.

Miles's Legion, F. B. Brand, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding; J.
T. Coleman, Major.

Infantry — Ninth battalion Louisiana infantry, Bowling R. Chinn
commanding; battalion miscellaneous commands of Maxey's brigade,
organized under Captain S. A. Whitesides (Fourth and Thirtieth
Louisiana, Forty second, Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth, Fifty-third and
Fifty-fifth Tennessee, and Seventh Texas) ; detachment of De Gour-
nay's battery, acting as infantry, Anderson Merchant, Major com-
manding.

Artillery — Boone's battery; two sections of Roberts's battery.

Centre, Right Resting on Advanced Work — W, N. R. Beale,
Brigadier- Geyieral Commandiiig .

Infantry — Twelfth Arkansas regiment, T. J. Reed, Colonel com-
manding ; First Arkansas battalion, Jones, Lieutenant-Colonel com-
manding; Sixteenth Arkansas regiment, Provence, Colonel com-
manding; First Mississippi regiment, Hamilton, Lieutenant Colonel
commanding — Johnson, Major ; Twenty-third Arkansas regiment,
O. P. Lyle, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding — Black, Major ; one
company of Forty-ninth Alabama regiment. Street, Major command-
ing.

Artillery — Abbay's battery. First Mississippi regiment, light artil-
lery ; two sections of Watson's batterj' ; two 24-pounders, Captains
Waller and Lahey, at Clinton road ; one 24-pounder, Captain Cof-
fin, at Slaughter's field.

Left Wi?ig, Right Resiing on Railroad — J. G. W. Steedman,
Colonel Comm-anding.

Order of June 12th — Fifteenth Arkansas, Ben. Johnson, Colonel
commanding, 384 men, with full complement of officers On 27th
May surrendered 92 muskets. Lost, May 27th, 71 killed and
wounded, and 14 prisoners ; afterwards, about 70 killed and wounded;
First Alabama, Lieutenant-Colonel Locke, commanding; Eigh-
teenth Arkansas, Parish, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding ; Tenth
Arkansas, Vaughn, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding ; Ninth Louis-
iana (Wingfield'sj battalion of cavalry, dismounted, Amacker, Cap-



Fortification and Siege of Port Hudson. 347

tain commanding (only one company during siege, First Lieutenant
Oct. Daliet commanding) ; Thirty-ninth Mississippi, W. B. Shelby
Colonel commanding.

Sig7ial Corps— Lieuteyiant Stevens, Commanding.

Artillery — Seven pieces Herrod's battery, First Mississippi regi-
ment light artillery; two 12-pound Blakely guns, Lieutenant Cook;
two guns Watson's battery. Lieutenant Toledano ; two small breech
loaders, Whitworth, of Wingfield's battalion. Captain Sparkman.

CONFEDERATE LOSS.

May 20 — Killed, wounded, missing and prisoners. Total, 89 —
Report of Miles.

May 27 — Killed, wounded, missing and prisoners. Total, 225.

Surrendered.

" Banks's" report — 6,408 men.

(Page 137), twenty pieces heavy artillery, 31 pieces light artillery,
30 pieces dismounted; 5,000 good muskets, and 5,000 not good;
32,000 pounds powder in magazine ; 12,000 made up; 150,000 car-
tridges for small arms. Colonel Ben. Johnson, say about 3,000
active, and 1,250 sick and wounded — total, 4.250.

FEDERAL FORCES.

Nathaniel P. Banks, Major- General commanding (from General
Banks's Campaign of Port Hudson).

Right — General Weitzel and General Grover. (Banks's Report,
page 146).

Centre — General Augur, 3,500 men (Banks's Report),

Artillery — Seventeen 3 inch rifle, Rambridge, Hebrard, &c.
four 6-inch rifle, heavy ; nine naval batteries, Dahlgren-Ferry ; four
siege mortars, Terry ; twelve 8-inch siege howitzer- mortars, &c.
six 6-pounders, Sawyer; two 9 pounders, Dahlgren ; eighteen 12
pounder howitzers. Napoleons, &c. ; fifteen 20-pounder Parrotts
five 24-pounder Parrotts, and seven 30-pounder Parrotts.

Left — General T. W. Sherman.

Effective Force — "Banks's Report," pages 128 and 146 — 13,000
on May 27 ; March 14th, 12,000 ; J. Franklin Fitts (in "June Day,"



348 Southern Historical Society Papers.

&c.). about 20,000 ; Orville Victor, about 18,000 — about three times
the besieged.

FEDERAL LOSS.

"Banks," page 146, May 27— Killed, 293; wounded, 1,549; miss-
ing, about 300 — total, 2,142.

June 14 — No correct report — Orville Victor says about 2,000.



An Address of the Chaplains of the Second Corps (''Stonewall " Jackson's),
Anny Northern Virginia, to the Churches of the Confederate States..

[The following paper, from the pen of Rev. B. T. Lacy, was adopted
by the Chaplains' Association of Jackson's corps, and is'worthy of a
place in our records.]

Dear Brethren : .The relations which we sustain to the various
branches of the church of Christ in our country, and the position
which we hold in the army of the Confederate States, induces us to
address you upon the important subject of the religious instruction
of the soldiers engaged in the sacred cause of defending our rights,
our liberties and our homes. The one universal subject of thought
and of feeling is the war. The hearts of the people, with singular
unanimity, are enlisted in the common cause. The object of special
interest to all is the army. The political and social interests involved
excite the patriotism and move the affection of all. There is little
necessity for exhortation to love of country, or love to our sons and
brothers, who are fighting and falling in our defence. These emo-
tions, strong in the beginning, have become more intense from the
heroic fortitude of our noble army, and from the wicked designs and
infamous conduct of our enemies. The history of the past two years
of the war has amazingly developed, and magnified the issues and
strengthened ?nd deepened the convictions under which the conflict
began. Base, beyond all conception, must that heart be which does
not swell with patriotic devotion to our dear and suffering country,
which is not stirred with deep and righteous indignation against our
cruel and guilty foes, and which is not melted with profound and
tender sympathy for the privations of our soldiers and the afflictions
of our oppressed fellow citizens in the invaded districts. While these
emotions may exist in some adequate measure, is the religious in-
terest commensurate with the demand of the times? Is the church



Address of the Chaplains of the Second Corps. 349

as much alive to its duty as the State ? Is the Christian as active
and as earnest as the citizen ? Duties never conflict. Our patriotism
will be all the stronger and purer when sanctified by religion. The
natural sympathies require the controlling influence and the plastic
power of the love of Christ for their proper regulation. To the political
and social must be added the religious element. To patriotism must



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