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burg. The Texas brigade and Benning's (Colonel DuBose) were
left on the north side, Gregg falling in command. After reaching
Petersburg it was found that the particular event for which I had
been wanted did not occur, and I remained there for some weeks
doing nothing very special, but going from point to point, wherever
the enemy threatened or my services were required. I think it was
about the last of September that early one morning General Lee sent
for me and directed me to proceed at once to Chafifin's Bluff, show-
ing me at the same time a telegram from Gregg stating that Fort
Harrison had been captured.

On arriving on the north side that evening, and not having been
met by any instructions from Lieutenant General R. H. Anderson
(who had just returned from the Valley and was now in command),
and believing the occasion too important to lose time in seeking
them from him personally, I inquired of a staff-officer, who came
galloping by me, where the enemy was most pressing, and receiving
for reply that he thought near Fort Gilmer, I immediately, with
Perry's brigade (the only one then with me), marched in that
direction. As I got in sight of the breastworks I saw beyond them
two lines of the enemy (the leading Hne of negroes) moving up to
. assault Gilmer and the lines to the right and left of it. Ascertaining
at once that DuBose held Gilmer and neighboring works, that Gregg
with the Texas brigade was on his right, I threw at a double-quick

556 Southern Historical Society Papers.

Perry on the left of DuBose. Hardly had they got in the trenches
when the enemy got within musket range. Fire was opened along-
the line, but the enemy, under cover of some little irregularities, con-
tinued to advance beautifully. But directly our fire got too hot, and
he broke and fled in haste, leaving many dead and wounded before us.

It is worthy of remark that some of the negro troops got up to
our breastworks and were killed there. In this -affair the enemy's
losses were heavy, ours scarcely anything. The enemy being driven
completely out of sight and range at this point, I believed that that
night was the time to attack and retake Fort Harrison. The gorge
of the work was open on one side and there had not been sufficient
time to close it up securely. General Lee just then arrived upon the
ground from Petersburg and meeting him I told him what I proposed
to do, but he thought it better to remain where I was for the present.
Meanwhile the two other brigades (Bratton's and Anderson's) had
come up. It was now sunset.

A little after dark Brigadier-General Gregg came to me, and said
that he had just seen General Lee, who wished me to retake Fort
Harrison that night, but that Lieutenant-General Anderson wished
to see me for a moment before I made the assault. My men were
worn out with a long day's march and excitement; were stretched
upon the ground asleep. Rousing up the only three brigades which
could be withdrawn for that purpose (Bratton's, Anderson's, and
Perry's), I started for Fort Harrison, two miles off, and, after recon-
noitering, threw them up as close as possible, ready to assault. It was
now one o'clock, and, all being ready, I went to report to Lieutenant-
General Anderson, in pursuance of what I had been told was his
desire. To my surprise, I found General Anderson asleep, and upon
waking him and telling him what I came for, he said there was a
mistake, that it was not intended I should attack that night. Direct-
ing the brigades to fall back a little, we went to sleep on our arms.
All night long we could distinctly hear the enemy in Fort Harrison
hard at work strengthening it, and by next day it had become, in
strength, a most formidable place I have always thought it a great
misfortune that it was not attacked that night. I believe that my
division could have retaken it then. Next day, when we did attempt
it, it cost us dearly. The plan of attack for the next day was as fol-
lows: portions of Hoke's division and my own were to be the assaulting
column. Hoke was to attack one face, I the other. We were to get,
unobserved, as near as possible to the work, and, after a severe artil-
lery fire of twenty or thirty minutes' duration, I forget which, we

Campaign of 1864 and 1865. 557

were to rush upon the work simultaneously. There was a deep
ravine, which ran within a hundred yards of the face which .Hoke
was to attack. Up this he could form and have his troops com-
pletely masked. On my side the ground was a level plain, and conse-
quently I could not form nearer than five hundred yards of the work.
When the artillery fire was nearly over and the time for making the
assault had nearly arrived, I directed General Anderson, commanding
my leading brigade, to move up as close as possible to the work and
let his men lay down, so as at the proper moment to spring up and
reach the work simultaneously with Hoke, who had much less dis-
tance to charge than I. General Anderson failing to inform his
men of his intention, they mistook the advance for an assault, and
instead of halting and laying down rushed forward to attack. This
brigade being in for it, necessitated my pushing Bratton and Perry
to its assistance. Hoke, though aware that I was attacking prema-
turely, waited for the moment agreed upon, and thus the concentrated
fire of the fort was poured upon my troops. The attack was, of
course, unsuccessful, and my loss very heavy. Though Hoke made
an effort after awhile, it was then too late. Had General Anderson
sufficiently instructed his men to wait for the proper moment, or
had Hoke attacked when I did, even though it did anticipate the
time a few moments (and the chances for success were quite as good
then as they could have been afterwards), the result might have been
very different. General Lee now determined to attack upon the
flank. Accordingly, Hoke's and my division having been relieved
in the trenches by the Richmond militia during the night of the 6th
of October, daylight next morning found us massed on the Darby-
town road. The enemy's right, consisting of Kautz's division of
cavalry, rested on this road. My division having the advance, upon
approaching our old exterior line of works, found Kautz with his
division dismounted and with twelve or sixteen pieces of artillery
behind them. Having previously detached Perry, who, with Gary's
cavalry, was to turn the enemy's right and come in behind him with
the rest of the division (Bratton leading), I assaulted in front. After
a sharp fight of twenty minutes Kautz was routed, ten guns and
caissons complete, and more than one hundred artillery and cavalry
horses, being among the spoils. The enemy, being now perfectly
aware of our force and intentions, massed about two miles to the rear
of the point from which Kautz had been routed a large force of
infantry and artillery behind breastworks, protected in front by a line
of abattis. Hoke now came up and formed in line of battle on my

558 Southern Historical Society Papers.

right, and. I understood, was to assault simultaneously with me. My
gallant fellows, led by the brigade commanders on foot, rushed for-
ward and penetrated to the abattis, facing a most terrific fire, deliv-
ered, as I afterwards learned from a Yankee officer of rank, who was
present, from those new repeating Spencer rifles. Hoke, from some
unexplained cause, did not move forward. The consequence was
that the whole fire was concentrated on my fellows. We were
repulsed with heavy loss.

Among the killed and wounded was Brigadier-General Gregg,
commanding Texas brigade, shot through the neck dead, and Briga-
dier-General Bratton, commanding South Carolina brigade, wounded
in the shoulder. These gentlemen were both brave and able officers,
and the fall of General Gregg was felt as a great calamity by the
whole army, and was a misfortune from which his brigade never re-
covered. Had he lived a few days he would doubtless have been
promoted, as I had recommended him for a Major-Generalcy for pre-
vious distinguished services.

By the 12th of October a new line, intermediate between the old
exterior line and the interior, had been traced out. The right of the
new line started at Fort Gilmer, and the left extended to the Darby-
town road. My division was the extreme left of the army, and as
there was nothing easier than for the enemy to come up the Darby-
town road and get on my flank and rear, I requested Lieutenant-
General Anderson to cause Hoke to extend a little to his left so that
I could throw a brigade across the Darbytown road. This not hav-
ing been done, on the evening of the nth, on my own responsibility,
I withdrew the Texas brigade from my right and placed it on my
extreme left across the Darbytown road. It was well that I did so,
for at daylight of the 12th the enemy in heavy force came up the
Darbytown road, and, thinking from a previous reconnoisance that
I only reached to the road, would, but for the Texas brigade extend-
ing across it, have been upon my flank before I could have checked
him. General Lee, coming upon the field, at once directed me to
reir.force myself, and, whilst the Texas brigade held him in check,
I threw quickly three brigades from my right on my left. My flank
was now safe Irom being turned, and the enemy completely foiled.
He tried all day to break through my lines, making two very deter-
mined assaults upon Perry, but late in the evening he withdrew. Our
loss was very slight compared to his. Among his slain left in our
hands were two Majors. (The body of one of them, Major Camp,
was returned to them next day, upon application through flag of

Campaign of 1864 and 1865. 559

truce.) We had to deplore the loss of Colonel Perryel, Seventh Ala-
bama brigade, a most daring, reckless officer — mortally wounded.

The saddest event of the war befell me in this affair in the death of
my Adjutant- General, Major Willis F.Jones. Major Jones had left
an interesting family and magnificent home in Woodford county,
Kentucky, to give his services and his life, if need be, to the cause of
his country. He was my nephew, and, knowing his rare worth, I at
once made him Adjutant-General of my division. He had passed
through the hottest battles of the campaign unscathed. On this
occasion I gave him an order to deliver to General Bratton, of South
Carolina. Scorning to dismount, though others were already on foot,
he galloped up to General Bratton, in the face of a severe fire, was
shot through the brain and fell from his horse without uttering a
word, a corpse.

Thus fell, in the vigor of manhood and far from all he held dear,
one of the noblest spirits of the war. In his death the country lost
an ardent patriot and I an invaluable officer and loved friend.

A few days after this, General Longstreet having sufficiently re-
covered from his wound, resumed command of his corps to the great
joy of us all.

It was on the 27th of October, that early in the morning, long lines
of the enemy advancing against us were again visible. At once
doubling my skirmish line it alone kept the enemy at bay throughout
the day. His appearance against my line was only a demonstration,
the feint, though, to be converted into a real attack if an opportunity
presented. But my skirmish line did their duty too well for that.
The plan of the enemy was to make a show in our front, whilst Weit-
zel with his division of infantry and Kautz's of cavalry should, under
cover of the forest, move some distance to our left, then up the Wil-
liamsburg and Nine-Mile roads, get inside our works at those points
(we having no troops there to oppose them), and then sweep down
on our left flank. Generals Lee and Longstreet discovering his
game, directed me to move with my division to the left to resist
Weitzel and Kautz. I was still the extreme left of the army, and
leaving my strong skirmish line out, which, with such assistance as
Hoke could give, it was believed could hold the works I was about
to vacate, I moved rapidly to my left to the Williamsburg road, and
relieved a regiment of Gary's cavalry which I found there skirmish-
ing with the enemy. One of my scouts just in from the front gave
me such information as led me to suggest to General Longstreet that
my division should remain at the Williamsburg road, whilst Gary's

560 Southern Historical Society Papers.

cavalry should move to and hold the Nine-Mile road. I had hardly
formed line when Weitzel emerged from the wood in front and
charged us. He got in about three hundred yards of my line, when
his troops, unable to stand the fire, threw themselves on their faces
in a little depression of ground. A portion of Bratton's South Caro-
lina brigade, led by his Adjutant General (the gallant Captain Lyle),
went out in front of my division and captured four hundred or five
hundred of them, the rest slipped back to the rear in squads leaving
their dead upon the field. I may add that Gary was quite as suc-
cessful in repulsing the enemy's cavalry on the Nine-Mile road.

It was now dark. During the night the enemy fell back behind
his fortifications and I returned to my own lines. Thus ended the
battle on the Williamsburg road with scarcely any loss to us, but
with very heavy loss to the enemy. We buried next day one hun-
dred of his dead near our lines. Among our captures was Weitzel' s
medical director. This closed on the north side the fighting of the
campaign of 1864. From this time forth my left rested on the Wil-
liamsburg road. I now set to work strengthening my works and
putting up huts for the winter. Churches were also erected, besides
a theatre and a house for negro minstrelsy. There was in the Texas
brigade a very good company of actors and actresses, of which Mrs.
Mollie Bailey, the wife of one of the band, was the star. There was
in the same brigade (also in others) a great troupe of minstrels.
As our hardest duty during the winter was picketing, we had a
pleasant, comfortable time after the fatigues and dangers of the past

I come now to that sad time when we were to leave the north side
of the river, never to return as soldiers, and to enter upon the last
short campaign of the war. At night of March 3rst or April ist I
was ordered to proceed to Petersburg by rail. As the cars could
take but one brigade at a time I arrived there with the leading one
(Benning's) about 2 o'clock next day ; the last did not come up till
sunset. The enemj- had already broken through our lines and were
moving in upon the city. Brigadier-General Benning, who had re-
covered from his wound received at the Wilderness, and during the
winter resumed the command of his brigade, quickly formed line of
battle, repulsed the enemy most handsomely, and held a large force
in check till other brigades of my division came to his assistance.
The enemy, finding us not inclined to give way for him, contented
himself with forming line in front of us, but out of range. We stood
thus in plain view of each other till night, when our army began its

Campaign of 1864 and 1865. 561

retreat, crossiiijj;- to the north side of the Appomattox river. My di-
vision, which was rear-guard that night, and almost continuously
during our arduous and trying retreat, crossed on a pontoon bridge
about ri o'clock, after which it was destroyed. We marched all
night and next day and most of the following night, reaching Amelia
Courthouse the next morning before noon. The suffering of my
division throughout this whole retreat for the want of rations was
peculiarly great. We had left the north side hurriedly with nothing
to eat, expecting to be supplied next day from our wagons or from
the stores at Petersburg. But our wagons took a different road, and
we first saw them again, or what was left of them, at Appomattox
Courthouse. In the emergency and confusion at Petersburg there
was no chance to obtain supplies, consequently we left with nothing.
At Farmville rations were issued to the army, but, being rear- guard,
the supply was issued out almost before we arrived. We had a pre-
carious existence by now and then gathering in a few hogs or cows.
Yet the spirits of my brave fellows never flagged for a moment.
Their organization and discipline was perfect ; there was not a strag-
gler; they were as full of fight and pluck as they were the morning
of the Wilderness, and I surrendered near five thousand muskets,
rather more than I left Petersburg with, for the sick and convalescent
had quitted the hospitals and shouldered their muskets.

At Amelia Courthouse, Jetersville, Rice's station, and near Farm-
ville, I skirmished with the enemy, sometimes very heavily. At the
last named place the enemy attempted to turn Mahone's flank, he
being on my left. Going quickly to his assistance with two bri-
gades — Bratton's and Anderson's — we drove the enemy back, and
captured about seven hundred prisoners. This was the last shot
fired by my division during the war; and it is a little remarkable that
at the close of this, our last skirmish, my Inspector General, Major
L. Masters, who had been with me from the very beginning of the
war till that present time, two days of its close, and had passed
through the battles of four years without a scratch, should have
fallen into my arms dead, shot through the heart.

Major Masters was a Virginian, a lawyer of reputation, a valuable
officer, and a most estimable gentleman. That he might give all
possible aid to his loved South, he refused all pay for his services in
her cause. His death was a sad blow to me. It is unnecessary to
speak of what occurred two days afterwards at Appomattox Court-
house, except to say that my division, like myself, was unprepared
for such a result. We were still bringing up the rear, the head of

562 Southern Historical Society Papers.

Meade's column being two or three miles behind us; and when that
morning some one came back to us and brought a summons of sur-
render, the division was about to mob him. An hour or two later,
when there was no longer any doubt, I saw the tears streaming down
the face of the chivalrous Colonel Coward, of South Carolina. Some
proposed that if I thought it Jwnorable, and would lead them, that
they would try to cut their way out. Some few did leave, but I had
their names surrendered as though they were present. I did not see
Pickett's division at all, nor Kershaw's but once.

On the morning of the surrender a body of about two hundred
troops passed, and in answer to my question, of " what troops they
were ? " the reply came from the leader, a Captain Butts, " Kershaw's
division." The artillery, at all times and under all circumstances,
rendered the most gallant and efficient service. I have not spoken
of it, because you are better able to treat of it. Whilst lying at Ap-
pomattox Courthouse, arranging the details of our surrender. Gen-
eral Meade, whose army laid just in rear of my division, sent a request
that I would pass him through my lines on his way to pay his per-
sonal respects to General Lee. He soon appeared at the head of a
brilliant staff, and as these were the first Yankees who had ever ridden
by us, except in a hostile attitude, the cavalcade drew large numbers
of my men to the road-side to get a near view. Riding by the Gen-
eral's side, and chatting with him, he directly said, pointing to a
group of my men standing on the road side, in hearing distance,
" those fellows are complimentary to me."- I asked him " what was
that? I did not hear what they said." He replied, "they just now
said I looked like a Rebel." I answered, "that I did not suppose
gentlemen on his side of the question thought that a compliment; "
to which he replied, " Oh ! yes we do ; any people who have made
such a defence as you have, we can but respect and admire." He
then went on to speak in warm terms of our fortitude, endurance and
courage, and expressed his astonishment that we had stood out so
long. He also expressed his regret that, at General Lee's request,
all intercourse between the opposing armies was forbidden, saying,
" that the Yankee army had only the kindest feeling for us, and
would gladly meet us as friends." I told him that our men had, or
thought they had, cause for a different feeling, and that whilst they
had arms in their hands, and our defeat was yet fresh, it might be
better to keep aloof from any general intercourse. We directly met
General Lee in the road, and at his invitation General Meade rode
with him to his tent.

Long's 3Iemoir of General R. E. Lee. 563

In bringing this rough sketch of the operations of my division,
whilst a part of Longstreet's corps, to a close, I desire to say that it
is not meant for publication in its present form. 1 have written fully of
persons and things because it was necessary to a proper understand-
ing of the subject ; but I have the very kindest feeling for all herein
mentioned, and do not wish to imply censure upon any one. For
our corps commander, Lieutenant-General Longstreet, I have the
very highest admiration and regard, both as a soldier and a gentle-.
man. He is, in my opinion, one of the very few who in this war
deserved all the honors (and more) that were heaped upon him. He
is, or rather was, a thorough soldier and General.

As these pages were written from memory alone, there may be
some slight inaccuracies in dates, but the incidents and the part as-
signed to each are set forth just as they appeared to me and those
about me, and are, I believe, in every particular correct.

C. W. Field,
Late Major -General, Longstreet' s Corps,

Army Northern Virgiiiia.

Long's Memoir of General R. E. Lee.


Memoirs of Robert E. Lee: His Military and Personal History. Em-
bracing a large amount of Information Hitherto Unpublished. By A. L.
Long, formerly Military Secretary to General Lee, afterwards Brigadier-
General and Chief of Artillery Second Corps Army of Northern Virginia.
Together with incidents relating to his private life subsequent to the War,
collected and edited with the assistance of Marcus J. Wright, formerly
Brigadier-General Army of Tennessee, and Agent of the United States
for the Collection of Confederate Records. New York, Philadelphia and
Washington: J. M. Stoddart & Co. 1886.

We never fail to seek and to read with interest any and everything
which can shed light on the life and character of General R. E. Lee,
and hail with peculiar delight any new contribution to our knowledge
of this superb soldier and peerless Christian gendeman. Knowing
well the ability of the gallant and accomplished soldier, General A-
L. Long, and his peculiar qualifications for his task, from the fact that
he served for a time as military secretary and confidential staff-officer
of General Lee, and afterwards as Chief of Artillery of the old Second

564 Southern Historical Society Papers.

corps, we expected a book of deep interest and great historic value.
JVe have not been disappointed. General Long has done his work
admirably, and deserves the thanks of all admirers of our grand old
chieftain — all lovers of true greatness and true nobility.

The real object of General Long's book is best given in the follow-
ing extract from his preface: "To overcome the inactivity to which
loss of sight has for some years subjected me, I have sought occupa-
tion in recording the recollection of familiar events. Having ob-
tained a slate prepared for the use of the blind, I soon learned to
write with a moderate degree of legibility. In order to excite a
pleasing interest in my work, I undertook something that might
prove of future benefit. Having served on General Lee's personal
staff during the most important period of hi? military career, I began
an eye-witness narrative of his campaigns in the war between the
States. ******* My work is now completed, and I
offer it to the public, hoping it may prove of value as a record of
events which passed under my own observation, and many of which
have been described directly from my notes made at the time of
their occurrence. It is not intended to be a history of the war in
detail, but a statement of my personal knowledge of General Lee's
life, actions, and character, and of the part played by him in the
great events of which he was the ruling spirit." * *

This design to make a narrative of personal recollections of Lee,
and of the great events of the war in which he figured under the
eyes of our author, has been so admirably done and is so valuable a
contribution to the material for a biography of the great chieftain, as
to make us on the one hand admire the patient perseverance of the
blind soldier whose memory was quickened as he "fought his bat-

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