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tles o'er again," and, on the other hand, to deeply regret that the
sad affliction of his blindness prevented his thorough study of the
official records on both sides, so that he might have added to his
exceedingly valuable work the full statement of relative numbers
and able criticism of military movements of which General Long is
so capable.

But, then, had he been spared this sore affliction — this " thorn in
the flesh" — in the loss of his vision, he might have been (like
Venable, and Marshall, and W. H. Taylor, of Lee's staff, and others
of our ablest soldiers) so absorbed in active business that we should
have lost these invaluable Recollections of Lee, as a gallant and ac-
complished soldier saw him.

The genealogy of the Lee family, and the account of the early



Longs Blemoir of General R. E. Lee. 565

youth and opening manhood of Lee, are very interesting, and contain
some new matter in the reminiscences of cotemporaries of the boy,
the cadet, the skillful young engineer officer, and the account of his
marriage to Mary Custis, and home life at Arlington.

The sketch of the career of " Captain Lee " in the Mexican war,
is the fullest and most valuable which has yet been published, and is
rendered the more interesting by contributions of General Wilcox,
General Hunt, and General J. E. Johnston, besides free quotations
from the official reports, which show that even then he was the rising
soldier of the army.

The life of Lee from the Mexican war to the breaking out of the
great war between the States — his service as engineer near Baltimore;
his three years as Superintendent of the Military Academy at West
Point, and his service on the frontier as Lieutenant-Colonel of the
famous Second cavalry — is briefly sketched.

His views and. feelings on the breaking out of the war are presented
in interesting letters, which had been before published, but are none
the less valuable as showing the real sentiments of this great man.

General Long brings out clearly the invaluable service rendered
by General Lee as commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces, and
for a time of all of the Confederate forces in Virginia, in organizing,
disciplining, and equipping the raw recruits and preparing them to
win the first battle of Manassas and other victories of the next year.

Shortly after the battle of First Manassas, General Long had his
first interview with General Lee, and was made Major and Chief of
Artillery to the Army of Northwest Virginia. Henceforth Long
served to the sad end at Appomattox, under the immediate eye and
in the most confidential relations with General Lee, and we have a
narrative greatly enhanced in interest and value by this fact. The
writer of this review remembers to have heard General Lee, upon
more than one occasion, speak in high terms of General Long — his
ability as a soldier and his character as a man — and the remainder
of the memoirs of General Lee's military career are therefore the
work of a competent military critic, who speaks of what he saw and
learned of General Lee himself, and of which admiring friends may
justly say (what our author's own modesty would forbid), Magna
pars /tut.

We regret that the late date at which we have received the
book (only several days before closing this volume), and want of
space, must compel us to omit a detailed review of the admirable



566 Southern Historical Society Papers.

account given. We can only indicate the headings of the chapters as
follows: "West Virginia Campaign," where Lee sacrificed his own
reputation rather than to sacrifice his men or injure the reputation of
others who were "striking for the defence of the country as best
they'could " — "The South Coast Defences," where General Lee
left the impress of his engineering skill, which aided materially in the
heroic defence which afterwards followed — "The Peninsula Cam
paign," which brought McClellan to the gates of Richmond, and by
the wounding of General Johnston at Seven Pines put Lee in com-
mand of the Virginia army — "The Seven Days' Fight," which
raised the siege of Richmond, forced McClellan to cower under
the protection of his gunboats at Westover, and gave im-
mortal fame to Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia —
"Pope Outgeneralled," shows how "Headquarters in the Sad-
dle" were dismounted, and Pope's braggadocio turned into the
wail of a disgraceful disaster — "Advance into Maryland," sketches
that campaign — "Fredericksburg," describes that great victory —
" Chancellorsville," tells the story of that great triumph of military
genius and indomitable courage — "Gettysburg," is a valuable addi-
tion to the great'mass of literature on that campaign, and gives cumu-
lative proof of what the publications in our Papers had abundantly
proven, that the battle of Gettysburg was lost, not by any mistake
of General Lee or any failure on the part of his brave boys, but by
the disobedience of orders on the part of General Longstreet — "A
Campaign of Strategy," gives the history of the Bristoe campaign,
the Mine Run affair, and the Kilpatrick-Dahlgren raid — "Wilder-
ness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor," brings out the marvellous
strategy by which Lee outgeneraled Grant at every point, and the
heroic fighting by which the Army of Northern Virginia defeated
the Army of the Potomac wherever they met until after Cold Har-
bor, having had more men put hors du combat than Lee had, it was
compelled to sit down to the siege of Petersburg, a position which it
might have taken at first without firing a shot or losing a man —
" Early's Valley Campaign," gives a brief account of " the forlorn
hope" which was so ably led against Sheridan's overwhelming
masses — "The Siege of Petersburg" and "The Siege Continued,"
give accounts of operations during the summer, autumn and winter
along the long line which Lee and his mere handful of ragged vete-
rans defended against Grant's "overwhelming numbers and re-
sources " — " From Petersburg to Appomattox," tells the sad story of



Long's Memoir of General R. E. Lee. 567

the breaking of our lines, the retreat, and the surrender — "General
Lee as a soldier," gives the estimate of an able soldier of his great
chief, and concludes General Long's part of the book.

The two hundred and seventy one pages which follow are, as we
understand it, compiled b}^ General Marcus J. Wright, and embrace
chapters headed "President of Washington College," " Home and
Society Life," "Death and Memorial Ceremonies." and "The
World's Estimate," and "An Appendix " containing a number of offi-
cial reports, letters, etc., some of which have never before been pub-
lished, and are of great interest and historic value.

General Wright, who was a gallant soldier in the Army of Ten-
nessee, and is an accomplished gentleman for whom we cherish a
high personal regard, seems to have attempted nothing but a compi-
lation, and to have done his work with the earnest industry which
characterizes him.

The publishers have brought out the book in good style — the
engravings are good, though we do not think they have selected the
best likenesses of General Lee, and the whole get-up of the book is
satisfactory.

And now, having said so much in praise of a book which we de-
sire to see widely circulated, and which we hope may have an im-
mense sale (especially as a part of the proceeds are to go for the
benefit of the " Confederate Soldiers' Home" at Richmond), candor
compels us to add several other things :

1. There is a marked and inexcusable failure to give proper credit
to other authors, whose work has been freely used — e. g. : No one
who has read " Personal Reminiscences, Anecdotes, and Letters idi
General R. E. Lee," by J. Wm. Jones, can fail to see that nearly
every chapter of this book draws largely on that. Letters, anec-
dotes, and sometimes whole pages of the substance, if not the lan-
guage of that book, are freely transferred to this. Now we submit
that while the free use of this material was entirely legitimate, there
ought to have been distinct acknowledgment of the same. And yet,
with the exception of a general acknowledgment in the Preface of
" the use of the publications of Rev. J. M. Jones " [whoever he is]
and others, and an acknowledgment (on page 400), of a single anec-
dote as taken from ''''Jones's Personal Reminiscences of General
Lee" there is not the slightest intimation of the wholesale use of a
book which cost the author years of hard work.

2. The letters in the Appendix, taken from General Lee's letter-
books, which are in the War Records office at Washington, are, of



568 Southern Historical Society Papers.

course, very valuable, but would be, in our judgment, much more
interesting and valuable if they had been published in proper order
in the body of the book, and used to illustrate the campaigns to
which they refer.

3. The " field returns" are, of course, valuable, but it would have
been much more useful if (instead of scattering them through the
appendix) their aggregates had been used in the text, and compared
with the " returns" of the Federal army in order to show the relative
numbers engaged in the great battles.

4. We exceeding doubt the propriety of ' ' padding ' ' the book with
General Lee's official reports, which have been frequently published;
which are easily accessible to those wishing to consult them, and for
which the general reader will not specially care.

5. We are glad to be able to say that the statement made on page
645 to the effect that General Lee '' prepared no formal report of his
■operations" in the campaign of 1864 is incorrect. His subordinates
prepared and forwarded their reports, and he had prepared his.
These reports were unfortunately burned in General Lee's head-
quarter wagons on the retreat, but duplicates of many of them were
preserved, [we have published a number in Southern Historical
Society Papers] and Colonel Charles Marshall, who was General
Lee's military secretary after General Long went to command the
artillery of the second corps, has fortunately preserved the original
■draught of General Lee's report. Colonel Marshall having been
selected by the Lee family to write the full and authorized memoir
of General Lee, has in his possession a number of documents of
priceless value, besides all of the material which General Lee himself
collected for his proposed history of his campaigns, and we record
here the earnest hope that the day may not be distant when his
book shall be given to the world.

6. We are surprised to see introduced at page 464-465, the famous
letter which was published at the North during the war, and pur-
ported to be a letter from General Lee at Arlington to his son, G. W.
Custis Lee, at West Point, but which General Lee said, at the time, he
never wrote, General Custis Lee said he never received, Mrs. Lee
pronounced spurious, and we have had occasion several times to
prove to be a forgery, from internal evidence as well as from the
testimony of the family.

7. We are sorry to see also that, on page 338, ihe author copies an
error, into which Jones, in his Reminiscences of Lee, was led, in
attributing the incident of Gordon's men refusing to go forward



Field Telegrams from Around Petersburg. 569

unless General Lee would go to the rear to the tenth of May, 2864,
instead of to the twelfth, the real day, as General Early, Colonel ^Vena-
ble, General Gordon, and others showed, and we have several times
published in our Papers.

But let us say again that despite these blemishes the book is a
valuable contribution to our Confederate war literature, and we
cordially commend it as worthy of a place in every library. May
our gallant friend, General Long, Hve to write other books, and our
good friend, General Wright, be spared long to continue his valuable
services t6 the War Records office.



Field Telegrams from Around Petersburg.

[In Volumes III and VII we published a number of these tele-
grams. We now give others which have not been published before,
and which v^ill be found of interest and value.]

Clay's House, 5 P. M., 17th June, 1864.

His Excellency, Jefferson Davis, Richnoyid, Virginia:

At 4 P. M. assaulted that portion of our front line held by
enemy and drove him from it ; we again have the entire line from
Howlett's to Dunn's Mill.

R. E. Lee, General.
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G.



Clay's House, 5 P. M., 17th June, 1864.

General G. T. Beauregard, Petersburg, Virgi?iia :

At 4 P. M. was compelled to assault centre of our former line
held by enemy. We now hold entire line from Howlett's to Dunn's
Mill. All prisoners from Tenth corps.

R. E. Lee, General.
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G.



Headquarters Drewry's Bluff,
10 P. M., 17th June, 1864.

General G. T. Beauregard, Petersburg, Virginia :

General Kershaw's division, which will camp to-night on



570 Southern Historical Society Papers.

Redvvater Creek, is ordered to continue its march to-morrow to Pe-
tersburg".

R. E. Lee, Ge^ieral.
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G.



Superintendent Richmond and Petersburg Railroad,

Richmond^ Virginia :
Please notify me when railroad is again in running order.

R. E. Lee, Ge^ieral.



Headquarters Drewry's Bluff,
ID P. M., 17th June, 1864.

Lieutenant- General Hill, Riddle's Shop

via Meadow Station, Y. R. R. R.:
Move your command promptly at 3 A. M. to-morrow for Chaffin's
Bluff. Cross the river and move to the Petersburg turnpike; there
await further orders. Send to examine about bridges.

R. E. Lee, Ge7ieral.
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G.



Headquarters Army Northern Virginia,

June i8th, 1864.
General Wade Hampton,

Vernon Chzirch via Hanover Junction :
If Sheridan escapes you and gets to his transports at the White
House you must lose no time in moving your command to our right
near Petersburg. Keep yourself thoroughly advised of his move-
ments and intentions as far as practicable,

R. E. Lee, General.



Drewry's Bluff, 3:30 A. M., i8th June, 1864.

Superintendent Richmond arid Petersburg R. R., Richmond :

Can trains run through to Petersburg? If so, send all cars
available to Rice's Turnout. If they cannot run through, can any
be sent from Petersburg to the point where the road is broken? It
is important to get troops to Petersburg without delay.

R. E. Lee, General.
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G.



Field Telegrams from Around Petersburg. 571

Headquarters Army Northern Virginia,

June i8, 1864. >
General]. h.'^K^YN, Lynchburg, Virginia:

Grant is in front of Petersburg. Will be opposed there.
Strike as quick as you can, and, if circumstances authorize, carry
out the original plan or move upon Petersburg without delay.

R. E. Lee.



Petersburg, 10:34 A. M., June 21, 1864.

Brigadier- G enteral Q. W. C. Lee, Chaffin^ s Bluff :

What is supposed strength of enemy's force reported on
Kingsland road, and of what composed ? Cooke's brigade is at
Clay's House available to be sent if you need assistance, and directed
to be prepared to move if ordered either by rail or march by land.
In absence of General Lee,

W. H. Taylor, A. A. G.

Dunn's Mill, 22 F., 1864.
General Heth:

Inform me of the state of affairs in your front and whether
Cooke's and Davis's brigades are needed on that side of the river.

R. E. Lee, Ge?ieral.



F. 23, H. D., II K. 30 A. M.
Colo7iel'W. H. Taylor:

All quiet in my front up to this hour. I am inclined to think
that the report of Colonel Gary, stating that the enemy were cross-
ing last night over the pontoon, much exaggerated. I will let you
know the earliest moment I consider it safe to withdraw Colonel
Gary and Davis from this side.

H. Heth, Major- General.
D. H.



27 Hd. Via.
Colonel V\f. H. Taylor:

All quiet in my front. I think if Cooke's and Davis's bri-
gades are not, that they might be now ordered back. The enemy



572 Southern Historical Society Papers.

evinces no disposition to advance or increase his force on this side.
General G. W. C. Lee thinks he can hold Chaffin's Bluff with his
force and Gary's cavalry until reinforcements could be sent him.
General Ewell will be down to-day and I will consult with him.

H. Heth, Major- General.



Petersburg, Va., 4 P. M., 8th August, 1864.
Major- GejieralWADY. Hampton, Stony Creek:

Have you received further information of departure of enemy's
cavalry ? Are you able to take the field ?

R. E. Lee, General.
Official : H. B. McClellan, A. A. G.



Petersburg, Va., 9th August, 1864.

His Excellency Jefferson Davis,

President C. S. A., Richmond :
Dispatch of to-day received. General Early reports on the 8th
that McCausland had arrived in Hardy, having sustained very little
loss. Statements in Northern papers of his defeat untrue. Some
commander should relieve Ransom. I think it best to send Fitz.
Lee's senior brigadier. Will do so if you approve.

R. E. Lee, General.



Petersburg, Va., loth August, 1864.
General^ hv>^ Hampton, Stony Creek:

If Sheridan's command has gone, move at once with all your
division (exclusive of Dearing) north of James river. General Lee
will relieve your pickets. Call at headquarters for orders.

R. E, Lee, General.



loth August, 1864.
Colonel 'i. W. Melton, A. A. G.,

War Office, Richmond :
Don't let the proposition for the relief of the poor people here be
lost sight of. The Chief Commissary states that he has heard of no
action in the matter.

W. H. Taylor.



Field Telegrams from Around Petersburg. 573

Petersburg, Va., loth August, 1864.

General R. S. Ewell, Commanding Chaffin^ s Bluff :

I think the camp at Dutch Gap is probably the marines.
Could not Captain Mitchell shell it while Pickett opened on land
batteries and you attacked it. They will soon be fortified.

R. E. Lee, General.



Headquarters, nth August, 1864.

Ge7ieral]. A. Early, via Staiinton and Woodstock :

Major- General Lomax has been directed to report to you to
relieve General Ransom in command of cavalry. General Ransom
on being relieved will report to the Adjutant and Inspector-General,
Richmond.

R. E. Lee, General.



Headquarters, nth August, 1864-

General]. A. Early, via Statinton arid New Market, Va.:

Washington Chronicle of the 8th states Sheridan has super-
seded Hunter. Another division of cavalry has been sent to General
Anderson. Communicate with him.

R. E. Lee, General.



General G. W. C. Lee, A. D. C. to Presideyit :

The President's telegram cannot be deciphered. Has the key
word been changed lately.

W. H. Taylor, A. A. G.



Headquarters, 12th August, 1864.

General'^. H. Anderson, Culpeper C H., Va.:

General Early at Newtown states the enemy to be moving up
the Shenandoah with a view of reaching his rear apparently towards
Front Royal. It may be his purpose to move up Luray Valley.
You had better move to Sperryville and be governed by circum-
stances. Hampton should reach you the 15th. Keep him apprised
and keep in communication with Early.

R. E. Lee, General.

■SI



J^DITOFJIAL pARAQFjAPHg.



Volume XIV, Southern Historical Society Papers, will be found, we
think, in no respect inferior to our previous volumes in interest or historic
value. We had hoped to issue it earlier in the year, but have been delayed
by a press of other work on our printers.



Renewals for 1887 are now in order, and we beg our friends to forward
to us without delay their ^3.00 — a small matter to each one of them, but a
very important matter to us.

Remember that membership fees for 1887 are due on the ist day of Janu-
ary, and that prompt payment is very important to us. If we could collect
the back dues of our members and subscribers, we would have money
enough in the treasury to run the Society, on its present economical basis, for
.several years to come. But the fact that delinquents are so slow in paying
their dues makes it all the more imperative that our old friends, who have
steadily stood by us, should be prompt now. Then be sure to send us
your subscription at once, before you lay this aside.



Complete your sets while you can, lest you lose your opportunity, and
regret, when too late, that you have only " broken " sets of Southern His-
torical Society Papers.



Material for our archives, or papers for publication, are always ac-
ceptable, and we beg those of our friends who have material — books, docu-
ments, MSS., etc.— which they intend sending to do so now. Delays are
dangerous. More than once we have lost valuable material, which had been
promised us, by fire or other causes.



Book Notices.



PERSONAL MEMOIRS OF U. S. GRANT. New York: Charles L. Web-
ster & Co.

This book has been before the public for some time, and has had an un-
precedented sale.



Booh Notices. 575

Anything that came from so prominent an actor in such great events
would have possessed interest, and there is no doubt that the tragic circum-
stances under which the book was written — the financial ruin, protracted
illness, and slow death of General Grant — have added greatly to the desire
of the public to read it.

It must be said also that the book itself possesses many elements of inte-
rest. Written in a pleasing, narrative style, and, in the main, in a very
kindly tone, it contains many anecdotes, reminiscences, and expressions
of personal opinion about men and things which give a decided interest to
the narrative, and give the book a certain historic value.

But it is (as was to have been expected from the circumstances under
which it was written) a book full of blunders and flat contradictions of the
official reports (both Federal and Confederate), and the future historian who
attempts to follow it will be led very far astray from the real truth.

E. g.: In the account given of the campaign from the Wilderness to Peters-
burg, the impression sought to be made by the narrative is that Grant en-
countered Lee with about equal forces, and steadily drove him back until
he took refuge behind impregnable entrenchments in front of Richmond —
that Grant was always eager to push the offensive and that Lee persistently
refused to fight except behind heavy entrenchments — that Lee's losses were
nearly, if not fully as heavy as Grant's, and that Grant's campaign was a
splendid success which raised to the highest pitch the morale of the Army
of the Potomac, while it depressed and demoralized the Army of Northern
Virginia to such an extent that it steadily melted away until the end came.

Now any one who will read Grant's narrative of this campaign in connec-
tion with the official reports — or will compare it with the accounts of
Early, Venable, Walter H. Taylor, Swinton, or Humphreys, will see
at once that it is all stuff — the veriest romance that was ever attempted
to be palmed off as history. The real truth about that campaign is
given by Colonel Venable in his address before the Army Northern Vir-
ginia Association, which we publish in this volume, and is in brief simply
this: As soon as Grant with his immense host, crossed the Rapidan, Lee
moved out and attacked him — Lee made no move in the campaign which
was not to meet the enemy— there was never a day when he did not long
for and earnestly seek after "an open field and a fair fight" — Grant did
more entrenching on that campaign than Lee, and his entrenchments were
(because of greatly superior facilities) much stronger — and yet, despite of the
immense odds in numbers and resources against which he fought, Lee out-
generalled Grant at every point, whipped him in every battle, and finally
forced him, after losing more men than Lee had, to sit down to the siege of
Petersburg, which position he might have taken at the beginning without
firing a shot or losing a man.

We have not space at present for a further review of this remarkable
book, but we propose at some suitable time to review it fully — under some
such title as " Grant's Memoirs vs. the Official Reports " — and to demonstrate
how utterly unreliable and untrustworthy it is alike in its statement of events,
and its expression of opinions whether about military or civil matters. .



576 Southern Historical Society Fapers.

The publishers "have done their part of the work admirably, and the book
will, no doubt, continue for some time to come to have a wide sale.

THE SOUTHERN BIVOUAC, published at Louisville, seems to be flour-
ishing, and is publishing many articles of great interest and decided historic
value.

Tlie December number begins a series of papers by Judge Hines, which
give a full history of the secret movement in the Northwest to liberate Con-
federate prisoners, and encourage and help "the peace party."



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