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GIFT OF

SEELET W. MIIDD

and

GEORGE I. COCHRAN MEYER ELSASSER
DR. JOHN K. HAYNES WILLIAM L. HONNOLD
JAMES R. MARTIN MRS. JOSEPH F. SARTORI

to the

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
SOUTHERN BRANCH




HISTORY OF ENGLAND

VOL. III.



BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO.
EDINBURGH AND LONDON



HISTORY OF ENGLAND



CONCLUSION OF THE GREAT WAR IN 1815



SPENCER WALPOLE

AUTHOR OF "THE LIFE OF LORD JOHN RUSSELL"



VOL. III.



NEW AND REVISED EDITION



LONDON
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST l6 tb STREET
1890

All rights reserved.



555-

Wi(p

v,3



CONTENTS :

OF

THE THIRD VOLUME.

CHAPTER X.
FOREIGN POLICY FROM PARIS TO NAVARINO.



The Arrangements after Waterloo i

Spain i

Her History .... 2

Contrasted with that of England . 3

The Abdication of Charles IV. . 4

The Restoration of Ferdinand VII. 5

The Sale of the Floridas . . 7
The Expedition for the Recovery

of the Spanish Colonies . . 8
LordCochranejoinsthelnsurgents 9
The Foreign Enlistment Act . n
The Mutiny of the Spanish Army 12
The Spanish Constitution pro-
claimed ..... 13
The Revolution extends to Portugal 13
And to Naples .... 15
The Consternation of the Con-
tinental Powers ... 17
The Congress of Troppau . . 19
The Austrian Occupation of Naples 21
Revolution in Piedmont . . 23
The Circular of the Allies from

Laybach 24

Indignation in Britain at the

Circular ..... 25

Lord Castlereagh's Reply to it . 26
His Reply fails to satisfy the

Country 27

And is attacked in Parliament . 29

Affairs in Portugal ... 30



The Austrian and Russian Minis-
ters withdraw from Lisbon . 31
Reactionary Measures in Spain . 32
The Barcelona Fever and the

Cordon Sanitaire ... 33

The Villele Ministry ... 34

The Ottoman Empire . . . 35

Its First Collision with Russia . 36

The Peace of Belgrade . . 37

The Peace of Kainardji . . 37

The Peace of Jassy ... 38

The Peace of Bucharest . . 38

The Greek Insurrection . . 39

The Russian Ultimatum of 1821 . 40

The Czar decides on Peace . . 41
The Massacre of Scio . . .42

The Congress of Vienna . . 44
The Duke of Wellington is sent to

the Congress .... 44

His Interview with M. de Villele . 45

His Arrival at Verona ... 47
Britain dissents from the Views of

her Allies 48

The Change in her Policy . . 49

The Policy of France ... 50
Canning offers to mediate between

France and Spain ... 51

The Franco-Spanish War . . 52

Indignation in Britain ... S3

Attack upon the Government . 54



245095



CONTENTS OF



The Progress of the Franco-
Spanish War . . . 55
The Victory of France . . 56
Her Embarrassment after her

Victory 57

The Condition of the Spanish

Colonies 58

Canning desires to recognise them 60
He appoints Consuls to the South

American Ports- . ' . ' .62

His Interview with Polignac . 63
Declines a Conference on the

Colonial Question ... 64
The Conference, in consequence,

fails 66

The Recognition of the Spani-h

Colonies 67

Distrust of Canning Abroad . 68

And in England .... 69
Lord Westmorland's Visit to

Paris 71

The Condition of Portugal . . 74

The Return of the Court to Lisbon 75

Autocratic Reaction in Portugal . 76
The Portuguese apply for British

Troops 77

The First Revolution of Dom

Miguel 78

The Portugese renew their De-
mand for Troops ... 79
Negotiations between Portugal

and Brazil .... 80
Portugal recognises Brazilian In-
dependence . . . . 81
Death of John VI. ... 83
Dom Pedro's Abdication . . 83
Reaction in Portugal ... 84
Despatch of British Troops to

Portugal 85

Canning vindicates his Policy . 86

Its Success 87

The Condition of Turkey . . 88

The Navigation of the Black Sea 88
Lord Strangford's Negotiation

with the Porte .... 89

His Difficulties .... 91

His Success ... . . 92



Enthusiasm in Europe for the

Greeks 93

Russian Proposal for an Arrange-
ment 94

The Publication of the Russian

Proposal 96

The Success of the Greeks . . 96
The Struggle assumes a New

Phase in 1825 .... 97

The Siege of Missolonghi . . 98

Sympathy with the Greeks . . 99
The Greeks apply to Britain for

Aid 100

Stratford Canning sent to the Porte 102

M. de Minciacky at the Porte . 102

The Death of Alexander . . 104

He is succeeded by Nicholas . 105
Some of the Troops declare for

Constantine .... 106
The Duke of Wellington is sent

to St. Petersburg . . . 107
The Russians present a New

Ultimatum .... 108
The Conduct of the Turks in the

Morea 109

The British Government interferes

to prevent its Depopulation . no
Nicholas is indifferent to the Greek

Cause in

M. de Lieven reaches St. Peters-
burg 112

The Protocol of St. Petersburg . na

The Russian Ultimatum presented 113
The Treaty of Ackermann . .114

The Suppression of the Janissaries 1 15
Defenceless State of the Ottoman

Empire 116

Russia proposes to carry out the

Protocol 118

France adheres to the Protocol . 119

The Treaty of July . . . 120

Sir E. Codrington . . . 121

At Navarino .... 123

His Interview with Ibrahim Pacha 125

The French leave Navarino . 125

The Affair off Cape Patras . . 126

The Battle of Navarino . . 127



THE THIRD VOLUME.



vn



CHAPTER XI.
THE PASSAGE OF THE REFORM ACT.



PAGE

The News of Navarino . . 129

Sir John Gore reports on the Battle 130
The Notice of the Battle in the

Speech from the Throne . . 131

Effects of the News on the Porte . 133

The Porte issues a Haiti Scheriff. 133

Russia declares War . . . 134

The Views of the Allies . . 135
An Egyptian Fleet enters and

leaves Navarino . . . 137

Codrington is recalled . . . 138

The Evacuation of the Morea , 138
The French Expedition to the

Morea ..... 139

The Conference at Poros . . 140

Stratford Canning superseded . 142
The Progress of the Russo-Turkish

War 143

The Treaty of Adrianople . . 144
The Failure of Wellington's

Foreign Policy .... 145

Portugal in 1827 .... 147

Doin Miguel accepts the Regency 148

Absolutist Revolution in Portugal 149
The British Troops recalled from

Lisbon 150

The Constitutionalists on the

Mondego 150

The Constitutionalists at Plymouth 151

The Expedition to Terceira . . 153

Indignation in Britain . . . 154

The Affairs of France . . . 155

The Accession of Charles X. . 155

Press Prosecutions . . . 156
The Dissolution of the National

Guard 158

The Creation of Peers . . . 159
TheFallofVillele . . .159

The Fall of Martignac . . 160

The Appointment of Polignac . 161
The Prorogation and the Coup

d' F.tat 162

The Revolution of July . . 163

The Abdication of Charles X. . 165

Belgium 160

Its Union with Holland . . 166

The Revolution in Brussels . . 168

The States-General assembled . 169

The Independence of Belgium . 170
The Effect of the Revolution in

Britain 171



The Foreign Policy of Canning

and Wellington . . . 172
The Unpopularity of Wellington's

Policy 173

His Policy compared with Polig-

nac's 174

The Death of George IV. and the

Election of 1830 . . . 176

The Discontent of the Tories . 176

The Birmingham Political Union 177

The Distress of the Lower Orders 178

Its Consequences .... 179

Agricultural Riots . . . 179
Attempts to strengthen the

Ministry 180

Parliament meets. . . . 182
The Duke's Declaration against

Reform ..... 182

Its Effects 183

The Lord Mayor's Dinner . . 185
The Royal Visit to the City post-
poned 187

Hostility against the Ministry . 189

The Civil List .... 190
The Ministry is defeated and

resigns 191

Lord Grey forms a Ministry . . 192
Brougham accepts the Chancellor-
ship 194

Agricultural Distress and Disturb-
ance 195

Special Commissions to try the

Rioters 196

Trials of Carlile and Cobbett . 197

Arrangements for the Regency . 198

The Civil List . . . 199

The Pensions on the Civil List . 200

The Budget 202

The Tax on Transfers . . . 203
The Timber Duties . . .204

The Reform Committee . . 206
The Reform Bill introduced by

Lord J. Russell. . . . 208

The Bill read a Second Time . 210

Defeated on Gascoyne's Motion . 211

A Dissolution determined on . 211

Scene at the Dissolution . . 213

The Enthusiasm of the Country . 214

The Attitude of the Tories . . 215

The Second Reform Bill . . 216

The Impatience of the Country . 218



CONTENTS OF



The Coronation ....
The Reform Bill defeated in the

Lords ....
The Excitement of the Country
Lord Ebrington's Resolution
Parliament is prorogued
The Unions.
The Bristol Riots .
The Cholera
Irving ....
A General Fast appointed
The Third Reform Bill
It passes the House of Commons



PAGE
219

221
222
222
224
225
227
230
232
233
234
235



The Bishops and the Waverers .

The King assents to the Creation
of Peers .....

The Bill read a Second Time in
the Lords ....

The King's growing Dislike of
Reform

The Disfranchising Clause post-
poned ....

Lord Grey resigns

Lord Ebrington's Resolution

Lord Grey's Return to Power

The Reform Bill becomes Law



PAGE

236

237

238

239

240
240

241

242

244



CHAPTER XII.



THE CONDITION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM IN 1832.



Summary of the preceding

Chapters 246

The Growth of the People . . 247

The Growth of Wealth . . 248
The Growth of Trade . . .250
Which was due to the Dis-
coveries of the previous

Period .... 252
The Introduction of Tramways .

and Railways .... 253

The First Locomotive Engine . 254

George Stephenson . . . 255

His First Locomotive . . 257

His Second Railway . . 259

The Stockton and Darlington

Railway 260

The Manchester and Liverpool

Railway 261

The ftocket Engine . . . 263
The Railway opened and Hus-

kisson killed .... 265

The Extension of Railways . . 265

The Invention of Matches . . 267
Reduced Expenditure consequent

on the Peace .... 269

Decreasing Abuse of Patronage . 269

The Abuses in the Law Courts . 270

The Common Law Courts . . 271

The Counties Palatine and Wales 271
Procedure in the Common Law

Courts 272

Expense of Actions . . . 273

Equity 275

The History of an unopposed

Cause in Chancery . . . 276



The History of an opposed Cause

in Chancery .... 277

The Masters in Chancery . . 277

The Registrar in Chancery . . 278

The Cost of a Chancery Suit . 279
The Delays increased by Lord

Eldon's Doubts . . .281
And by the increased Number

of Bankruptcy Cases . . 281
Michael Angelo Taylor attempts

the Reform of Chancery . . 281

A Vice-Chancellor appointed . 283

Williams urges Chancery Reform 284

The Commission of 1824 . . 284
Brougham's Motion for Law

Reform 285

Peel as a Law Reformer . . 286

Brougham as a Law Reformer . 288

The Criminal Code . . . 292

Cruelty to Animals . . . 294

Richard Martin .... 295

The Game Laws .... 298
Real Property made Liable to

Simple Contract Debts . . 303
The Decreasing Power of the

Landed Classes . . . 303
The Concurrent Termination of

other Monopolies . . . 303

The Drama 304

Monopoly in the Drama . . 306

Edward Lytton Bulwer . . 309

Monopolies in Religion the Jews 311

The Church in Canada . . 311

Privileges in Parliament . . 312

Freedom of Members from Arrest 313



THE THIRD VOLUME.



Costs in the Ecclesiastical Courts 314
The Contrast between the Eng-
land of 1815 and 1832 . . 315
Exceptions from the Universal

Progress 316

The Labouring Poor . . . 316

The Manufacturing Poor . . 317

Parish Aid 321

The Consequences of a Vicious

System of Relief . . . 322

Allotments 323

Emigration 324

Ireland 329

O'Connell's New Agitation in 1830 331
Anglesey and Edward Stanley,

Viceroy and Chief Secretary . 333
O'Connell dissatisfied with the

Whigs 334



J'AGB

O'Connell's Conduct in 1831 . 336
Arrest and Trial of O'Connell . 338
Proceedings against him aban-
doned ..... 340
Irish Tithes ..... 340
The New Reformation . .341
Graigue and Mountrath . . 342
The Payment of Tithes resisted . 343
The Increase of Disorder . . 344
The Distress of the Irish Clergy . 347
Tithe Legislation in 1831 . . 348
Education in Ireland . . . 351
The Charter Schools . . . 351
The Commissions of 1806 and

1824 352

Kildare Place Schools. . . 353

Stanley's Education Bill . . 354

The Dissolution of 1832 . . 356



CHAPTER XIII.
THE FALL OF LORD GREY.



The Election of 1832 . . . 357

The New House of Commons . 358

Parties in 1833 .... 360

Peel in 1833 360

The Reformers .... 361
Tories and Whigs become Con-
servatives and Liberals . . 362
The Tories and the Radicals . 362
The Conservatives and the Whigs 363
The Contest for the Speakership . 365
The State of Ireland . . . 365

Irish Tithes 367

Differences in the Ministry upon

Irish Questions . . . 367

Stanley and his Colleagues . . 368

Stanley's Unpopularity . . 370
Parliament meets . . .371

The Debate on the Address. . 372

The Attack upon Stanley . . 372

He is defended by Peel . . 373
Althorp introduces an Irish Church

Bill 374

The Coercion Bill . . . 376

The Opposition to it . . . 377

It is introduced into the Commons 378

Stanley's Vindication of the Bill . 379

The Bill is passed . . . 380
The Church Bill . . . .381

The Appropriation Clause dropped 383

The Attitude of the Lords . . 384



The Bill in the Lords . . .385

The Ministry defeated . . 386

The Bill passed .... 386

Reconstruction of the Ministry . 387

Stanley takes the Colonial Office . 388

Slavery ..... 388
The Decrease in the West Indian

Trade after the Peace . . 389

Thomas Fowell Buxton . . 390
Undertakes the Management

of the Slavery Question . 391
Zachary Macaulay collects the

Materials for Buxton 's use . 392
Buxton's First Motion for the Abo-
lition of Slavery . . . 393
Canning's Amendment . . 395
Indignation of the Planters . . 396
The Case of Missionary Smith . 397
He is arrested . . . 400
And tried by Court-Martial . 401
His Conviction . . . 402
The Sentence reversed by the

British Ministry. . . 402
Slavery regulated in the Crown

Colonies ..... 403

The Jamaica Act of 1826 . . 403

Murray's Despatch of 1828 . . 404

Brougham's Motion in 1830. . 405

Buxton in 1831 .... 406

The Jamaica Rebellion . . 408



CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.



PACE

Increased Sufferings of the Slaves 409
The Position of the Slave Question

in 1833 410

Stanley succeeds to the Colonial

Office 411

Stanley's Abolition Bill . .411
The Apprentice System . . 412
The Bill passed .... 413
The Termination of Slavery . 414
Factory Children . . . . 414
The Apprentices .... 415
TheChildren of the Factory Towns 416
Their Sufferings . . . 417
First Factory Legislation . . 418
Reasons which interfered with the
Proposal of Remedial Legisla-
tion 419

Michael Thomas Sadler . . 419

The First Factory Bill . . . 420

The Factory Committee . . 421

Sadler defeated at Leeds . . 421
Lord Ashley takes up Factory

Reform ..... 421

A Royal Commission appointed . 422

The Factory Act passed . . 423
Decreasing Popularity of the

Ministry ..... 423
Increasing Popularity of the Con-
servative Leaders . . . 424
Althorp's Failure as a Financier . 425
The Budget of 1832 . . . 426
The Budget of 1833 . . . 428
The Malt Tax . . . .429
The House Tax .... 430
Motion for its Repeal defeated 431
Hobhouse defeated at Westminster 432
Attack upon the Police . . 433
The Assessed Taxes Reduced . 434
Increasing Prosperity of the

Country 434

Improvement in the Revenue . 435
Agricultural Distress . . . 436
The Discontent of the Agri-
culturists 437

The Rural Poor .... 439



PAGR

The Dorsetshire Labourers . . 439

The Demonstration in their favour 440

The Poor Law Commission. . 441

Abuses of the Old Poor Law . 442

Its Consequences to the Poor 443

Its Consequences to the Rich 444

Its Remedy .... 445

The New Poor Law . . . 447

Its Effects . . . .448

Ireland 449

Lord Wellesley succeeds Lord

Anglesey 449

Discontent of the Irish . . 450

Hill's Speech at Hull . . . 450

Baron Smith .... 452

O'Conneli's Motion for Inquiry

into the Union .... 453

Which is rejected . . . 454

Irish Tithes 455

O'Conneli's Speech . . . 457
Russell " Upsets the Coach" . 458
Dissensions in the Cabinet . . 459
Ward's "Appropriation" Resolu-
tion 460

Stanley, Graham, Richmond, and

Ripon resign .... 460

Reconstruction of the Ministry . 461

The Irish Church Commission , 462
Littleton undertakes to manage

O'Connell .... 463

His Interview with O'Connell 464

He resigns .... 465

The Retirement of Lord Grey . 466

Melbourne is sent for . . . 468

The Melbourne Administration . 469

The New Coercion Bill . . 469
The Tithe Bill . . . .471

The Bill in the Lords . . . 472

O'Conneli's Attack on the Whigs 473

Brougham's Annoyance . . 474

His Tour in Scotlan'd . . . 475

He is attacked from all sides . 477

The Position of the Cabinet . . 478

Althorp becomes Lord Spencer . 479

Dismissal of the Ministry . . 480



HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

CHAPTER X.

FOREIGN POLICY FROM PARIS TO NAVARINO.

THE victory of Waterloo, and the arrangements which followed
the battle, gave the great military nations of Europe nearly
forty years of peace. The first-rate powers of the

_ . . , . . Thearrange-

Contment were not again arrayed in arms against ments after
one another till an entire generation had passed
away. The lesser powers, however, did not derive the same
advantages from the negotiations which followed the victory.
Whole nations were handed over to czar or king without any
reference to their own feelings. Countries whose geographical
position made their annexation impracticable were consigned
to the rule or misrule of their hereditary sovereigns. The
restoration of the Bourbons to France was followed by the
restoration of the Bourbons to Spain and Naples. The illus-
trious diplomatists of the Continent were too deeply interested
in maintaining the divine right of kings to ignore the claims of
the minor potentates of Continental Europe.

There are few subjects which deserve more consideration
from the world at large, and from Englishmen in particular,
than the history of the decline and fall of Spain.
Up to a certain point there is a striking similarity
between the history of Spain and that of this country. Spain,
like the United Kingdom, originally consisted of different
states. The people of Castille and Aragon, on their union at
the end of the fifteenth century, enjoyed greater liberties than

VOL. III. A



2 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 1816

the English or the Scotch had obtained at that time. The
many admirable qualities which Isabella the Catholic possessed
The reign of proved of the highest advantage to the kingdom
Isabella. which she was called upon to govern. Her policy
in many respects resembled the course which, in a succeeding
generation, was pursued by Elizabeth of England. Fortunately,
however, for her subjects, Elizabeth inherited from her mother
the Protestant principles of the Reformed Church. Unfor-
tunately for Spain, Isabella was above all things a Catholic.
Elizabeth's first object was the increase of the glory, of the
wealth, of the worldly happiness of her people. Isabella's
first object was the promotion of the Catholic religion. A
country which was not Catholic could not in her judgment
be happy. In consequence of this unfortunate belief, her
naturally kind heart was impelled to the commission of the
most merciless cruelties. Jew and Moor were relentlessly
driven from the Peninsula, and free thought and free will effec-
tually burned out by the fires of the Inquisition. Isabella's
subjects imitated to a great extent the merciless bigotry of their
monarch. In Elizabeth's reign the English sailor ventured into
unknown seas for the sake of the wealth and glory which were
certain to secure him welcome from his queen on his return.
The Spaniard in Isabella's reign conquered vast territories for
the sake of increasing the sway of the Pope of Rome.

The causes which produced the fall of Spain and the rise of
England are to be traced in the reigns of Elizabeth and Isa-
bella. Both queens left their countries in enjoyment of a
material prosperity which they had never previously known ;
but the two queens were succeeded by very different person-
The reigns ages. Twelve years after the death of Isabella, her
v and rles grandson, Charles, the greatest general of his age,
Philip ii., mounted her throne. Spain, Germany, and the
Netherlands, united in his person, engaged in a series of
military expeditions, in which the Spanish infantry acquired
reputation, but from which Spain derived neither wealth nor
advantage. Half a century after her death, her great-grandson,
Philip, imitating only too faithfully her own example, forced



1816 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 3

the Netherlands into revolt, and occupied a whole reign in a
vain endeavour to recover a dominion which his folly and his
bigotry had lost. The Spaniards forgot their privileges amidst
the glories which Charles V. won for them ; they forgot their
own liberties in their determination to extirpate liberty from
the Netherlands. England, on the contrary, was reserved
for a different fate. " King " Elizabeth, as the elder Disraeli
observes, was succeeded by " Queen " James. The worthless
pedant was succeeded by his well-intentioned but misjudging
son. The extravagance of the Stuarts made them contrasted
dependent on the people. Selden, Hampden, Pym, gtuans^f
and Eliot stood at bay against the court. The England.
crown fell, and with the fall of the crown the liberties of the
people were assured. Forty years, indeed, elapsed before the
fruits of the Civil War were finally secured. The military
government of Cromwell was, in some respects, more injurious
to freedom than the illegal exactions of the two first Stuart
kings. The restoration of Charles II. reproduced the illega-
lities of his father. But the time had gone when a bad sove-
reign could be allowed to curse the country permanently with
arbitrary government. The Stuarts were driven out of the
kingdom amidst the general execration of the nation ; and
Parliament, learning wisdom from experience, refused to repose
unlimited trust in another sovereign. In changing a king, it
remodelled a system, appropriating the sums which it granted
to specific uses, and ensuring obedience to its decisions by
auditing the expenditure.

Ever since the Revolution of 1688, England, secure in the
enjoyment of the blessings of freedom, has prospered. Her
wealth has been continually increasing; her domi- The fail of
nion has been constantly extended ; and, with a few Spam -
exceptional occasions, her population has been acquiring fresh
influence in her Government. Ever since the reign of Philip
II., on the contrary, Spain has been deprived of social and
religious freedom. Her empire has been gradually contracted;
her trade has been constantly reduced ; her population has
been impoverished, her treasury emptied, and her influence



4 HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 1816

annihilated. Spain, which, three centuries ago, was the most
powerful among the nations of Europe, is one of the most
impotent of them all.

A weak and languid Government controlled the fortunes of
Spain in 1807. Godoi, the Prince of the Peace, exercised an
almost boundless influence over the mind of his sovereign,
Charles IV. Ferdinand, heir to the throne, dissatisfied at the
favourite's power, entered into a secret intrigue with Napoleon,
who readily took advantage of the divisions at the Spanish
court. Under the pretext of partitioning the neighbouring
kingdom of Portugal, he marched a strong force into the
Peninsula, and seized some of the most important positions in
the country. Charles IV. was urged to imitate the example
of the neighbouring house of Braganza, and to withdraw to
his colonial dominions in America. But the nation

The abdi-
cation of prevented the realisation of a scheme to which the

weak king would probably have subscribed. The
Prince of the Peace was arrested ; Charles IV. was persuaded
to abdicate, and Ferdinand mounted the throne.

Ferdinand was no better match for Napoleon than his weak
and incompetent father. He was tricked to meet the emperor
at Bayonne ; and found himself, for all practical purposes, a
prisoner. Charles was persuaded by the French to resume
the power which he had formally laid down ; with equal
ease he was induced to renounce it in favour of Napoleon,
lose h Napoleon made his brother Joseph king of Spain ;

Buonaparte and, with characteristic energy, devised a new con-
made king. ...... n r *

stitution for the unhappy country. Spain, for the
moment stunned by the suddenness of the blow which had
thus been inflicted on her, submitted to French dictation.
But the calm which prevailed was only momentary. The



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