State Entomologist of Indiana.

Annual report of the State Entomologist of Indiana online

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Online LibraryState Entomologist of IndianaAnnual report of the State Entomologist of Indiana → online text (page 11 of 11)
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Indiana State Entomologist. 249

a certainly of prosecution after the detection is made by the health
authorities. The wise beekeeper will stick to the pure product
and will endeavor to build up a reputation for selling only strictly
pure and honest goods, and will, in the long run, increase his mar-
ket and ultimately increase the price which he receives for his
goods.

During the season I had an opportunity to visit a number of
very interesting apiaries in different parts of the State. One of



apiary of mason niblack.

the most intersting of these is the apiary of F. B. Cavanaugh at
Hebron, Ind. Mr. Cavanaugh has about six hundred colonies of
bees and he operates his apiary not only for extracted honey, but
for comb honey as well. He has an almost ideal plant, and has
probably the largest apiary in the State. Mr. Cavanaugh is thor-
oughly modem in his ideas and employs a power machine for ex-
tracting his honey and also uses a large automobile in going from
one apiary to another. He has several outyards which he oper-
ates in this way. He also has a convenient truck which he can at-
tach on the back of his automobile, and in that way can haul large
loads of honey or bees in a very short time.

Another very interesting little apiary which I had the pleasure
of visiting was owned by Mr. Mason J, Niblack of Vincennes, Ind.



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250 Fourth Annual Report

Mr. Niblack's apiary is located in a beautiful and somewhat ro-
mantic spot southwest of the city. As will be seen from the ac-
companying illustratito, Mr. Niblack has only a small number of
colonies, which he operates because of the pleasure he derives from
handling the bees. He prefers the ten-frame hive and operates
his apiary for comb honey exclusively. The spirit of commercial-
ism does not enter into Mr. Niblack 's work. As he says, he keeps



MAKESHIFT HIVES.

The owner used what he had at hand at swarming time. Good hives should be ordered in

advance and then the beekeeper will not have to transfer the bees from

there crude hives.

the bees because he likes to eat the honey, and this is the motive
that prompts a great many beekeepers over the State of Indiana
to run the risk of stings in order to secure their choice sweet.
Mr. Niblack, however, is thoroughly scientific in his work and gets
a great deal of pleiasure out of handling his bees.

I saw another interesting little apiary, of which I will include
a photograph, showing a very unique sort of homemade hive. The
hives, however, can scarcely be called homemade, as they were
bought already made, being simply disused nail kegs, and the
supers consist of an empty candy pail turned over the nail keg.
To my very great surprise, the bees in these makeshift hives were
in a healthy condition and had actually stored some surplus honey.
The owner realized that the hives were not the best thing for his
bees and has already prepared to transfer them to good new hives.



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Indiana State Entomologist. 251






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252 Fourth Annual Report



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Indiana State Entomologist. 255

THE TREATMENT OF FOUL BROOD DISEASES OF BEES.

In my second annual report, Mr. George S. Demuth gave a
very excellent account of the treatment of foul brood. This report
is now out of print, but the demand for the information not only
continues but increases with each succeeding season. Accordingly,
I will include in this report the following brief account of a sim-
plified method of handling foul brood.

At the time of the publication of the second annual report the
recognized treatment of foul brood consisted of what was called
the double-shaking treatment; that is, the bees were shaken from
the diseased combs into clean, new hives and were allowed to build
comb for four days and were then shaken the second time into
hives containing full sheets of foundation. This second shaking
is now done away with. The diseased colony is set aside and a
clean, new hive is set in its place. This new hive must have the
frames fitted with one inch strips of foundation; never with full
sheets. The frames from the diseased colony should be removed
one at a time and should be carefully examined as they are re-
moved, to find the queen. The queen should be handled carefully
and should not be brushed off in the rough fashion in which the
worker bees are handled. I believe that it is better practice to
brush the bees off the combs than it is to shake them. Very often
in shaking the bees off, some drops of honey will be shaken off
with them, and it is desired that they carry into their new hive
just as little of their old honey as possible. A very good brush
for this purpose is made from some stiff grass, simply gathered
into a small bunch and afterwards burned. It is almost impossible
tx) disinfect a bee brush satisfactorily, so that a makeshift brush
consisting of a bunch of grass is far more satisfactory. The combs
should be taken out and the bees brushed from them into the new
hive, and as soon as they are cleared of bees they should be placed
in a tub or other receptacle containing water, so as to prevent
the bees gathering on the combs and taking back any of the old
honey. This placing of the brushed combs in the water will also
prevent bees from neighboring colonies robbing out any of the dis-
ease-infested honey. It is well, also, to do this work late in the
evening, so that the bees from other colonies will be flying just
as little as possible. After the bees have been brushed into the
new hive it will be advisable to place a queen-excluding zinc over
the front of the hive in order to prevent the queen from coming
out with the swarm. In some cases the bees will attempt to swarm



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256 Fourth Annual Report



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258 Fourth Annual Repoet

out if this is not done, although many cases have been treated with-
out the use of any queen guard placed at the entrance. The object
in shaking the bees from the old combs is to remove from the
colony all possible sources of infection.

The American foul brood is known to be a bacterial disease,
and it is supposed that European foul brood is of a similar nature,
although this is not generally known as yet. These, in each case,
attack only the brood ; that is, the Irava of the bee, and never the
adult bee. The following extract regarding the nature of the bee
diseases is taken from Dr. Phillips' Farmers' Bulletin No. 442:

''There are two recognized infectious diseases of the brood of
bees, now known as American foul brood and European foul brood.
Both diseases weaken colonies by reducing the number of emerg-
ing bees needed to replace the old adult bees which die from nat-
ural or other causes. In neither case are adult bees affected, so far
as known. The means used by the beekeeper in deciding which dis-
ease is present is the difference in the appearance of the larvae
dead of the two diseases. That the diseases are entirely distinct
cannot now be doubted, since they show certain differences in the
age of the larvae affected, in their response to treatment, and in
the appearance of the dead larvae. This is made still more cer-
tain by a study of the bacteria, present in the dead larvae. Re^
ports are sometimes received that a colony is infected with both
diseases at the same time. While this is possible, it is not by any
means the rule, and such cases are usually not authentically re-
ported. There is no vidence that chilled or starved brood develops
into an infectious disease or that dead brood favors the develop-
ment of a disease.

Names of the Diseases.

**The names, American foul brood and European foul brood,
were applied to these diseases by the Bureau of Entomology of
this department to clear up the confusion in names which for-
merly existed. By retaining the words 'foul brood' in each name
the disease-inspection laws then in force could be interpreted as
applying to both diseases. These names were in no way intended
to designate geographical distribution, since both diseases did exist
and do now exist in both Europe and America, but were chosen
primarily because they were convenient and easily remembered
names. Their only significance is in indicating where the diseases
were first seriously investigated. It was particularly desirable to



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Indiana State Entomologist.



261



change the name of the disease now known as European foul brood,
since * black brood* entirely fails to be descriptive and is mislead-
ing/'

A condition known as pickled brood sometimes exists in the
apiary and very frequently leads the beekeeper to suppose that his
bees are affected with some form of foul brood. This disease is
not supposed to be contagious and the exact cause of it is not
known at this time. One of the most characteristic features of the
brood that dies under the condition known as pickled brood is that
.the head end of the larva always turns up, producing what is
termed the ** Chinaman's shoe" condition.

The following table of comparative symptoms will enable the
beekeeper to determine something of the difference in bee diseases
which may be present in his particular apiary :



AMERICAN FOUL BROOD.



EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD.



PICKLED BROOD.



Color at first. lUht cho elate.



Color at first, yellow.



Color at first. Ii5:ht yellow.



Darkens with a.?e until
dark brown.



Darkens with aee until
almost black.



Darkens to brownish rolor.



Dead larvse become shap«* ess
mass on lower side of ceil.



Dead larvae may become shapeless
mass but very youn? larvae may
remain coiled in the bottom of
the ce 1.



Dead larvae usually retain
shape, though swollen.



Attacks larvae about time of
capping or soon after.



Attacks larvae before time of cap-
ping (usually.)



Attacks larvfiB about time of
capping



Combs show sunken and perfo-
rated cappings; discolored.



Very seldom show sunken and per-
forated cappings.



Cappings may be perforated
but not discolored.



Dead material is ropy. Larvae

dies down to tightly adhering

scale.



Ropiness almost or entirely want-
ing. Dried larvae form scales
not tightly adhering to cell.



Never ropy but is watery.
Usually removed.



Odor is foul, noticeable even
when a few cells are diseased.



Odor not noticeable except in most
advanced stages when it re-
sembles odor of American Foul
Brood.



Very si ght odor.



Seldom attacks drone or queen
larvae.



Disease attacks drone and queen
larvae among the first.



Spreads slowly.



Spreads rap.dly.



Supposed not to be contagious



INSPECTION WORK.

Bee inspection work was started in March of the present sea-
son and continued until October. A total of twenty counties was
examined, wdth a total of 2,076 colonies inspected. Out of these
colonies, 183 were found to be diseased with American foul brood,
199 with European foul brood and twenty-three with pickled brood.



IX 2840:?



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INDEX.



PAGE

Ailanthus 81

Apiary, Starting 240

Ash .84

Bagworm Moth 114

Bee Inspection 261

Bee Keeping 235

Black Scale 183

Blight, Peach 57

Borer, Elm 108

Borer, Flat Head Ill

Borer, Hickory 112

Borer, Lesser Peach 45

Borer, Locust Ill

Borer, Peach 41

Burgess Cling, see Hoosier Cling 6

Catalpa 85

Catalpa Sphinx 124

Cavanaugh F B 249

Champion 37

Cherry Scale 201

Chestnut 86

Cicada, Periodical 227

Circular Scale 213

Cockerell's Lecanium 171

Coffee Tree 88

Cotton Worm Moth 232

Cottony Grape Scale 16^

Cottony Leaf Scale of Maple 160

Cottony Maple Scale 161

Crawford's Early 38

Crawford's Late 38

Crown Gall ' 59

Demonstration Orchards 7

Elberta 38

Elm 8S

Elm Borer 108

Elm Leaf Beetle 131

Elm Scale 185

Engle's Mammoth 39

English Walnut Scale 204

Engraver Beetle 127

(263)



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2(>4 Fourth Annual Report

PAGE

Fall Web Worm 120

Foul Brood 255

Fruit Tree Bark Beetle 45

Ginko 89

Grape Scale 213

Grapta 140

Hackberry 90

Heath Cling 39

Hemispherical Scale 182

Hessian Fly 229

Hickory 89

Hickory Borer 112

Hickory Lecanium 170

Honey Dew 248

Hoosier Cling 39

Hopkins Favorite 40

Horse Chestnut 89

Insects Injurious to the Peach 41

Insects Injurious to Shade Trees 67

Introduction 5

June Beetle 140

Kalamazoo 39

Kermes 161

Leaf Curl 63

Leaf Roller 227

Linden 90

J^ocust, Black 91

Locust Borer Ill

Locust, Honey 91

Maple, Norway 92

Maple, Red 93

Maple, Soft 93

Maple, Sugar 92

Mason, B. F 26

Mealy Bug 157

Mildew 59

Mountain Rose 37

Morgan Scale 219

Nazara Hilaris 53

Niblack, M. J 249

Nurserymen, List of 9



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Indiana State Entomologist. 265

PAGE

Oak, Pin 93

Oak, Red 93

Oak Twig Pruner 113

Old Mixoii 38

Oleander Scale 203

Orthesia 151

Osage Lecanium 169

Oystershell Scale 222

Peach Bliglit 57

Peach, Diseases of 53

Peach Growing in Indiana 13

Peach Mildew 59

Peach Leaf Curl 63

Peach Scab 62

Peach Yellows .' 53

Pigeon Tremex 105

Pine 94

Pine Scale 190

Planting Peach Trees 21

Plum Curculio 47

Pruning 32

Purple Scale 221

Putnam Scale 193

Red Head Fungus 5

Reeder, Dr. D. H 7

Rose Scale 193

Salway 39

San Jose Scale 204

Scale Insects of Indiana 145

Scale Insect — New Species 226

Scab 62

Scurfy Scale 188

Seventeen Year Cicada 142

Shade Trees — Insects Injurious to 67

Shade Trees — Effect of Tar on : 70

Smock 38

Soft Scale 166

Spiny Elm Caterpillar 136

Spraying 35

Spruce 94

Stump 37

Sycamore 95

Tent Caterpillar 114

Terrapin Scale 175

Transferring Bees 238



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266 Fourth Annual Eeport

PAGE

Tulip Tree 100

Tussock Moth 127

Twig Pruner 113

Vonnegut, Walter 7

Varieties of Peaclies 37

Walnut 100

Walnut Worm N 140

Wheat Stem Maggot 228

Willow 100

Willow Scale 193

Woolly Maple Leaf Scale 154

Yellows 53



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Online LibraryState Entomologist of IndianaAnnual report of the State Entomologist of Indiana → online text (page 11 of 11)