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states to take Andre La Chaine with him, to search for the
l'-"Perty which Mr. John Dousman left at Green Bay car-
^••.1 away from the house of Mr. Keaume by Jean B'te
|-' 5orde,and transferred to different houses by the said
'•^IJorde, his 'father-in-law. Thereupon, the two persons
•^"" shall make the recovery [of the property], shall cause
' '^*J I'O brought and carried to the house of the undersigned
y tfKit an mvcjitory may be made of it, and that it may be
;-"V|'red to Mr. John Drew, who shall have it put aboard
■•;■ -nmk. The present [writ] is granted t<) be executed at
'J-yn liay, on the 10th of August of the present year,

^'-"^'d - CiiLEs Reaume,

Justice of the Peace.

Eighteen miles from La Baye,^
y,, November Toih, 18JG.

•'ar Lawe:~xnc, a series of storms and difliculties I
'-''«^ got so far. AVe left Mackinac * * * %

5^-«^."«,rs. But MnLa liordo ^^^s in fa^t Mr. ^^o^.n^^,"hr::thn^-

'^1^''isl..ttor is endorsed by Ju<li,^c Lawe, as written at -lied Kivor,"
• ' '" a southern tributary of Green Bay, in Kewanneo county.

L. C. D.

134 Wisconsin Statk Historical Society.

and found the ice a short distance from this place. ^Ma
Taylor' with Capt. Gray, and Lieut. Hopkins came with m.
Maj. Taylor will command at La Baye when Col. Chamber
goes avy-ay, which will be eai-ly in the Sprinjj^. 1 have mm •
to relate to you, but in the meantime please rent the missis':.
house for the Winter; and send me by the men, if you car.
fift}^ pounds of pork, fifty pounds of Hour, one bushel liullc :
corn, and two pounds of salt. I'Jease fui-nish the men wit!
moccasins, and send me three or four dressed skins. I hav
here my baggage, and William has forty packs of goods. I
practicable for horse-trains, I will thank you to send their.
It is not light when I write 'this, but hope that you may 1 ■
able to read it. Viy kind respects to your family. My coiii
jdiments to >\Ir. Louis Grignon.

I remain, yours truly,

K. Dickson.

Judgment of Judge Rendered in 1817.

District )
of Green Bay. f

Dominique Brunette ) ^.^^^^.^ ^^ j^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ p^^^^

'''"'Demknd.ut IpriT.] ) ^-^^^^^ ^'^ ^^^^^ ^P-^^ ^^^ '•

Joseph l^oiveril, / The Justice of the Peace having hear
Defendant. ) the demandant, [plaintiff] in his (!•
mands, and the deren(hint in liis answers [oppositions] li-
condemned the demandant to pay the oxuciises of the con;'
and to be barred of his demands, after arbitrators had bei
ofl'ercd to him, in the presence of the auditors, who won'
have been able U> render justice to the two litigants in ca^
he was not willing witliout reference to my judgment; ^i'
though the said demandant, in his proceeding, knew we
tliat lie could nc^t insist upon having any riglits upon tl
subject of letting the i)igs run, which entered sevei-al tin''
wrongfully [on defendant's land ?], after he [plaintiff] li-
been several times warned tu take them away; and it hai
pened that the said defejidant in chasing them, killed one ■

' Zacliaiy Taylor, .siiico rrcsideut.

Lawe and Grignon Papers, 170-1:-1S21. i;j5

:!u'in. Thereupon the said defendant has been condemned

:,» lose his pig, and pay the expenses of the court; wliich

liilo-meut has been rendered by me to the best of my knowl-

(Signed) Ciiles Reaume,

One and a half piastre. Justice of the Peace.

Sault St. Mary's, June ]9, 1817.

Dear Lawe — I have been at this place six days, detained
ly one of the Commissioners, wlio will not allow Lord Sel-
kirk's brigade" to proceed. However, I go off in a light
' Miioc to-morrow, with Mr. Gale, a lawyer of great abilities,
employed by his Lordship. It is impossible to convey to
_\'»u an adequate idea of the villainy of the North AVest
'Fur Company]; suffice it to say, that they have been
i;uiUy of eyary crime whose black catalogue has disgraced
'.he human race. Something ver^* serious is still appre-
hended; but 1 trust that no accident may befall his Lordship.
>ince I have begun this, 'Mr. Crooks has arrived, and from
■^liat I have learned from him, there can be no impediment
'o your going into the country. It will, therefore, be incum-
"'• nt on you to proceed with all celerity, and get the Indians
• ■ accompany you, and go as high as possible. I shall get
••'■" goods I vv-ant at Lake Ouinipigiui [Winnipeg] from tlie
Hudson's Pay [Company], and shall lose no tijue in ascend-
•■-; the Ped River.

1 hope you will be able to furnish Faribault, and to find
•■•••iiville what he requires. Renville will meet you at the
' -''^ry of St. Peter's. For heaven's sake be expeditions. I
-^ve learned much respecting the country from people well
■■'-'qnainted with it. It is a fine country, abounding in furs

• nil kinds. I think that you had better take, if you can
^f"euro them, four small canoes — say bark canoes. It will
' ;d)lo you to proceed with more ease, and may prevent

■''ors from following you. I have taken care that Thomas
''i'l Ids people will be well treated at Drummond's Island.
^ "'Hclose tliis to you in a letter to Mr. Abbot, who will de-

'"'"ii^-nle of bouts or canoes.

130 Wisconsin State Historical Sociktv.

liver it into your own hands. I will write you on my aiTiv,
at his Lordship's establishment near Fort William. Plcp..
pay Dease forme seventy or seventy-three dollars; and set:"
my account with Mr, Aird. I think that I owe him six:;
This is all, and I shall reimburse you for the one hundr.
and twenty-five pounds, if there this Fall. I got my h.
[baggage] and forage money, which is of service. I hav
sold iny property at Mackinack. Remember me to the Gri.


I shall write you about our Indian Department office:
Governor Gore is gone home. I think if you have fifteen ■
twenty pair strouds with you — Faribault's and William-
not included, it will be sufficient -as I shall have an exeellei
quantity of goods sliould no accident happen. Goods c.\
be furnished at the Red [river] as cheap as at Montrea
You will sec the advantages that are to be obtained. Lo'
no time. By next [opportunity] I shall write you more r

With best wishes for your health, I remain,

Yours most truly,

R. Dickson.
Mr. John Lawe. :Michilimackinac.


By J. B. S. JACOBS, Su.
AVith Explanations by lion. M. L. ]Mautix.


Xa7)ics. E.r]>lanafionx.

I^OitMAX Amable, an old man, related to the Grignons.

Lalond Believed to be a nicknanie-truc name unknov :

— tenant of L. Grignon. |

Wr. I'OIU.IEH Jacques — principal trader, and farmer.

GUAUi>i:riE Alexis — voyageur.

C. B. :Masca Nickname; really Dominique Brunette, Sr.

Bell Dennis — farmer for J. Lawe.

r. GitKiNON raid, sou of Pierre Grignon, Sr.

Lawe and GRKiNox Papeks, ]:04-1S.21. lor

Y .._ ciiAVAiXE Louis — fanner and voyageur.

•y ^s^ Jtan or Jac<jues Veaux, fatlier-iu-law of Solomon

Junrau, tra fer.

]'. Hi'.iNET Perisclie, farmer for L. Grignon.

[.. (iiaoNON Louis, son of Piene Grignon, Sr., farm ou west


\V;i>o\\' Lii^uiEK "Widow of Jacques Lequior, or Lacuyer, a trader,

who died at Portage Uit}-.

<,\'L. BowYER Col. John Bowyer, Indian agent. Two mills baclc

of Bowyer"s, ou Dutchman's creek.

!". WiLLHiCK Pierre Ulnck, called "The Dutchman."'

U i.T. TiBEAU Farmer fur liHwe.

.^r vN Vex John Baptist Vine, farnier, son-in-law of Bri'^k


iMU'UAUl) Prichet, a discharged soldier.

'.'■.'MAlR Auguste Bunteire, voj'ageur.

i. DousMAN John Dousman, son-in-Jaw of J. B. Laborde, tra-
der and farmer.

J'. GuiGNOX Porishe, half Winnebago, son of Pierre Grig-
non, Sr.

liiAKLES Reaume, Esq. .Lower Kakolin.

\r<..T. GuiGNOX Bi^ Kakolin. .'on of Pierre Grignon, 8r.

Tu-entj'-five in all, with large families.


Mu, LoxGEVJNE John B. Longcvine, husband of the widow of

Pierre Grignon, Sr.
'■- CiiciGNON Pierre Grignon, Jr., one of the principal traders.

f uriER Lament, a farmer, died only a few years ago, at

the Bay settlement.
'• 'vKHKN Joseph Jwurdain. His house was sta-ading until

destroyed by fire in ISSl.
^'k Lawe John Lawe, one of the principal traders and farm

^- Gr.ioxox Louii Grignon, son of Pierre Grignon, S.-., trader

and farm owner.
-'•" KousE Lewis, trader; came to Green Bay with the troops

in 1810.

A !!M.w Derosiiez Widow of Atiiable Derochor, Sr., voyageur.

^•^i'OCK Basl La P.ock. firmer.

'■ ^ l>OiiN John B. Labordo, Sr., farmer.

'''• '•■ilAUME Joseph, one of the principal farmers.

'■' "-100U Jolm B. Pellig )H, farmer for J. Lawe.

10-11. C.

138 Wisconsin State Historical Society.

■St. Rock Francis Larock, farmer for J. Lawe.

Bourdon Lou's, farmer.

Pkudex Laiiglols, farmer.

•Bt. Grignox John Baptiste, son of Pierre Griguon, Sr., farnu •

Prevon'CELLE Nickname; really Pierre Carbonean, farmer,

HOULLE Joseph Houlle, voyageur and farmer.

P. Prkvoncelle Pierre Carboneau, Jr., farmer.

Rapides — Mi. Law's farm, occupied by a tenant,

J^Ir. J. Jacobs J. B. S. Jacobo, school teacher, fatlier of Jolm ]:

Jacobs, Jr.

AViDOW Chevalier Widow of Bartholomew Chevalier, and mother ;:

Mis. Jacobs.
J. Dousman's Distillery.

[On both sides of the river, forty-seven inhabitants and fanners, besiJ
a good many who have taken up lands not yet cultivated. — Note by Mu



Arxable Normam>, o arpents [frontage?].

-Jacque Poi;].Ti:n. 1 } arp(>iits.

JVee.xis Guardetie, U arponts.

AVipowMacaki:, o.Wirpeuta.

DOMixiQUE BiUNEirE, G arpents.

JosErn BoiVEXD for Domiteele Gkigxox. G arpents.

Hypoeite Guioxox, 3 arpents.

Louis Gravel, 6 arjients.

JacQUE Yieau, 2; arpents.

Jeax Baptist P.urxET, pere, 3 arprnts.

Prisvie AiLLorrE, arpents.

Widow E.mvex. 7 arpi.nts.

John I^oyer, E^<,'., 6^ arpents.

Pierre L^LRKK, pere. about S arpents. • •■

AutJisTix Tin\rLT, 3 arpents.

Jean Baptist Yaixe, 4 arponts.

'Preserved anioujc the papers of Judge Keaume, and jnesonted t'"" '
Society by Frank Tilton, F-.j., of Green Bay. It is unfortunately witii
date, but presumably rehites to about the same i>eriod as the precedui;; '
of Mr. Jacobs. L, C. 1'

LA^vE AM) Gki(;x(jn Pai-ehs, K'.'4-iy - 21.


John Dousman, 4 arp^nts.
PlERiSME Grigxon, o arpents.
AUGUSTIN CiKiCNON, at Kakalin, 8 arpents.
\Vitl\in these limits, between all these lut-s, there is a good of land
which is not ocnipied at all, except eight or nine arpents where the In-
■lians make their descent to the bank of tlie river.


Jean Baptist Lanoevin, pere.

PlERKE GlilGXON, twO lots.

John Laave. for Mu. Fuank.
Joseph Joukdaix.
.Louts Grionon.


McKail Dousmax. two lots.
Amable Dukogheu.
Basil La Rock.
John Dousmax, two lots.
Jacque Poklier, two lots.
Joseph Peligord.

Jean La P<>rd.
Louis Bourdon.
Andre La Giiaine.
Joseph Roy.
Jean Baitist GRKiNON.
Pierre Cauboxneau.
Joseph LIoulle
Jean Baptist Jacobs.


Pierre Ulrick, JPv.
Pierre Carboxxeau, Jr.
Jean Baptist Brodeur.
Louis Dubee. -^""^
Jean Baptist Langevix, Jr

To this Judge Martin adds: The Green Ba}- settlement
must have extended a very triilc from 1818 to IS-^r. Avhen I
first saw it. There were but three or four wliat couhl be
called farms. Most of the inhabitants had small log huts,
iiud cultivated small patches of ground around them. There
were no roads — a wagon road was unknown; travel in the
■Summer was on horseback, and in Winter with trains or
carryalls through the forests, and on the ice of the river
and smaller streams.

Pierre, Louis, and Auguste Grignon, Lawe, Jos. Ducharme.
Hyatt and Porlier, were the principal farmers — some of
their farms were occupied by tenants. avIio wore frequtmtly
those who wintered with their employers in the Indian
country engaged in trade with the natives.

Louis Bauprez was a trader who followed up the Indians
in their wintering grounds; in Summer was with his family
i^t the settlement. His hut was mid-way between the mouth
of the Pox river, and the Papidedes Peres, around which he
''•ad a small enclosure.

140 Wisconsin State Histoijral Soviet v.

All these enclosures of inen more or less emplo^^ed as la-
borers by the traders, were cultivated by their women when;
they called icices, but really Indian women with whom thev
lived after the Indian custom.

Ulrick lived on the north side of Dutchman's Creek, and
Boyer's place on the south, running back to the stream
where the mills were located, Nvhicli belong^ed to Pierre
Grignon, Jr., occupied by a tenant — I think, Tiboau.

lu the preceding list I have in the name of '•' Richard," fol-
lowed the suggestion of Mrs. Ilarteau, an intelligent and
estimable lady of Green Bay, daughter of the late Louis
Grignon, she thinking that Richard Brichet was the person
referred to, who lived near Col. Boyer's, I learned from
Prichet himself, in 1S27, that he was born in Pennsylvania.
and, when thirteen years of age, was captured by the Sha
wanoe Indians on Bear Creek, a tributary of the Alleghany
river, in Armstrong county; and, after some years, was
given to the Chippewas, by whom he was taken to or near
Mackinaw among the Ottawas. Growing to man's estate,
he married a Chip])ewa woman, and became a government
interpreter at Mackinaw; and subsequently at Green Bay.
having removed there with Col. Bowyer, in ISIG, when the
Indian Agency was located at that place. While in my
otnce, in ]S\'7, Prichet met a man from Ohio, a casual trader,
whoso mother's maid'/n name was Prichet. It appeared on
further conversation, that th(> Ohio man was Prichet^;
nephew; and, o)i his invitation, Prichet visited Ohio that Fall.
and there found several mc^nbers of his family, none of
whom had heard anything of him before since his captivity.
He was then about fifty years of age, and died a few years
after, leaving a family of several children, one of whom,
Talbot Prichet, now resides in Siiawano count}', a few miles
from Capt. Powell's.

Lakr Tjjavkkse, April IS, IS::.'!.
Dear Sir : Although I have no interesting news to tell
you, I have the ])lt'asure of writing to you these few lines to
infoi-m you of our situation at this jdace. Since we liave


Laave and Grign'OX Tapers, 171)4-182]. 141

i«eii here, we have always lived without any trade: but I
liclJGve that we are goiug to commence this year. I left my
father' in good healtli when I left tlie Red river. There is
.•very kind of trade at the Red river. Tliere is an associa-
tion formed this A'car there, from London, for [the purchase buffalo skins. Tliey give ten shillings sterling per hide.
Wo have two shares in this company. Mr, Powell [is] with
iiic this year without any arrangement. He is there only
r.) live. There is to-day much talk and complaint against
him to the Governor, through the misconduct of Mr. Gra-
liam. I am here at Mr. Renville's block-house. 1 am to
return in nine da3's fro^n this time. 'Mv. Graham is [boundj
fur the North-AVest, and J\[r. Pullman is v/itli him here.

I close, wishing you good health and all sorts of prosper-
ity. Excuse the writing.

Your humble servant,

WiLi.iAM Dickson.'

John Lawe, Esq., Green Bay.

' Col. Robert Dickson.

■Tins Will. Dickson, was a half-hreei— sou of Col. Eobert Dicksou and a
"^iiHix woman. His letter, written in French, evinces some scholarsliip.
il-:' accompanied an Indian delegation to visit Die President in ISJl; and
'•■■IS btiU a licensed trader at Lake Traverse in lS2t). We learn from Neill's
''i>i»cf<ota, thai in 1S3G, Mr. Dickson, styling liini?ielf General of the Indian
1 i!' -rating Arun-, with several otliers, apjiearea in the Red river f-ettle-
f-'.'-nt. endeavoi-ing to enlist the settlors in a project to unite all the Indian
■ '.t ions under a common government, of which he was to be the head, with
••■'• title of Montezuma the Second. His olllcers were dressed in showy
''Ml". irins and glittering epaulettes. The cold weather ret in before
^"i^al at Red river, and Dickson had his toes frozen off, which crippled
•■lai as well as the whole enterprise. LCD.


MlCHI]J.AlACKINAC, 31st AugUSt, 18J4.

Sir: — By the direction of Lt. Col McDoiiall, I have in
acquaint you, tliat should Lt. Col. McKay not have left witli
you instruction.^ fully to answer the necessity of providing
the garrison of Prairie des Chiens, that you will adopt, a?
early as possible on receiving this communication, the fol-
lowing plan, viz: That you inake out weekly certificates of
the numher of the garrison undej- your command, and
which you may be authorized to provide for at the public
expense; and grant your orders in confoimity thereto, on
sucli persons as will provide ilie necessary quantity of pro-
visions at the most reasonable rate — wln'ch orders, whei)
produced at this post, will be settled for agreeably to th<'
price you may have judged proper to grant, and wliicli
should he marked on your weekl}^ certificates.

Those orders, together with the certificates — which latter
you will please forward to the officer coming hero — will be,
1 am persuaded, the safest and easiest mode of settling fcr
the victualing of your garrison.

I rcjnain, sir, your very oht. servant,

G. H. Mo^-K.
To Capt. Anj)f;ks()N. Mjssisi^ippi A^olunteers,

or officer connnaiuling at Prairie des Chiens,

WlXNKIiA(;()ES AT TllH PkACE OF 1814.

. At a council at I\rackinaw. June, Od, 1815, between Sail-
sa-mau-nee, P>laek Wolf, and Xe-o-kau-tah or Four Leg>-
Winnebago Chiefs, accompanied by about forty warrior^.
and Lieut. Col. ivobert ^IcDouall, commanding i\rackina\"-'
and its dependencies, and Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
and Lieut. Col. Wm. McKay, Deputy Suix'i-intendent ami
Agent of Indian AITairs, with Lieut. Jos. Cadot, Indian 1>(-
partmcnt, and Louis Parthe, interpreter.


Papers of Capt. T. G. Anderson. 143:

^nu-sa-inau-nec, apparently, Speaker:

y'jj//,^;./__ Listen to your children, and open your ears. It
„ the voice of your children, the Winnebagoes, who speak
f..r the pi-lncipal part of the Nation.

;.V,//icr/-Last Winter and this Spring your speeches
r.^ached us, it gave us pleasure to find that you invited us
tothis place to assist in defending so important a point.
\Vc, the Winncbagoes, were desirous of meeting our invct-
.•rate enemy, the Big Knives.

jr^^/Z/e,./— Shortly after your invitation reached us, we re-
■ •eived information of your having made peace with those
bad people, the Big Knives— which intelligence was not
l.leasing, for we hate those Big Knives.

Fa^/^er/— Since our arrival here, we see plainly that you
have actually made peace. We have seen your young men
romoving your big guns from the Fort to the water side,
which denotes plainly that you intend to give up this Island
-this important post, that has afforded support to all your
red children to the westward.

Father! - You promised us repeatedly, that this place
would not be given up; and if you actually intend to aban-
don us to our inveterate enemy, who always sought our
destruction, it would bo better that you had us killed at
once, rather than expose us to a lingering death. It is
probable that the Americans may not at first show their
intentions of destroying us immediately; but we are fully
persuaded that they will avail themselves of the lirst op-
portunity for exterminating us.

Father! — The peace made between you and the Big
Knives, man be a lasting one; but it cannot be for us, for we
hatethem; they have so often deceived us that we cannot
put any faith in them.

Fa///e/-.'— We assisted you three years ago to take this
Island from the Big Knives: and as you told us to consider
part of it as belonging to us we have done so. and can not
think of giving up our part to the Big Knives.

i\(//<c/-.'- -Our Great Father beyond the CJreat Lake is a
t'^'iider parent; but when he agreed to give up this i»lace to

144 Wisconsin State Histokical Society.

the Big Knives, he did not rellect that he was putting u> !■ i
the power of our great enemy. i

Father! — Our Nation has not yet taken the Big Knive^ l. :
the hand, and it is a doubt to us here present, if our brL-ti:
ren, who are in tlie interior of the country, agree to bur-
the hatchet. For our part, we will consider what we intrr. .
to do, and speak again to you before we depart for our \r ;
spective homes.

• On the 7th of June following, the same parties metagair..
when young Sau-sa-mau-neo rose and said: ;

Father! — Your children, the Winnebagoes, addressed yo:; \
some days ago, and told you that they would again speak t ■ ;
you before they would take tlieir leave of you. I

jP«^//c?V— Though we regret much that this Island whicli |-
we liave fought for, is to be given back to the Big Knive.^. |
yet we must submit, for it is the doings of our Great Fatlur |
beyond the Big Salt Lake, and we know well it is not your j
fault. We believe vou have done what was in 3'our power \
to prevent it being given up. J

Father! — Our Xation has always been considered as a tin- j
bulent set; it is owing entirely to our being an independent ;
people, who have made our enemies always feel the weigbl 1
of our anger. AVe have in this, and in the former war, doin^ i
our duty as warriors, which is w^ell known to the rest oi |
your red children. The VAg Knives hate us more than tln' j
other nations on that account. \

FiifJie)'! —When we left our country to come to this place,
our brethren that remained were pensive and melancholy.
Distress was painted on tlieir countenances. The news of
your liaving made peace with the Big Knives was the cause
of their distress. We are anxious to get back to them in
order to acquaint them of your sentiments, and desire them
to '• bury the hatchet." We are fearful that before we get
back to our country, some may have foolishly gone to war.
contrary to the promise they had made us previous to our
leaving them.

FaiJier! — Some of our chiefs proj)ose going to Quebec for
the ])iirpose of seeing our (J reat Father, who gave our Nation.

Papers of Capt. T. G. Anderson. 145

:}.rougli me, an invitation to visit Jiim every mid-day.' AVe
t'i-Tcfore request you will permit our interpreter to accom-
;;uiy them down.

Father! — Your children are destitute of clothing. We
r.'iuest you will afford us some clothing. Our w^omen re-
.;\iost match-i-ko-talis. Our little children are entirely

Father! — As we do not believe that the peace will be of
! 'iig duration, we will always be ready at a short warning.

Father! — Your cliildren want to draw near your breast."

They liavc not been troublesome in this wv.y.

^PF.ECHES OF Black-Hawk and Xa-i-o-gui-man, at Dkum-
MOND Island, July 13, 1821.

Present, Lieut. Col. Wm. McKay, British Indian Superin-
MiiJent; Capt. Thos. G. Anderson, Clerk; Maj. James Win-
n'tt, and other officers of the Sixty-Eighth British
IN'giment, together with Lieut. L. Johnston, and three in-
t'Tjireters of the Indian Department.

Tlie Black-PIawk, speaker:

"Father ! — I am not very able to speak — probably I may
Niy something iin}>roper. I may have something to reproach
f'V father with. I could not get au}^ of my chiefs to come
^"^ itli me. One of tlie Eenard or Fox chiefs accompanied me,
•J!iil some of the Menomonees who reside amongst us. My
•iHiul has been entirely taken up, since I left home, with the
' ''•<! that every stroke of my paddle carried me nearer to my
''Ti-at Father's fire, where his soldiers, the red coats, would
^'•' charitable to me, and cover iny naked skin; and that, in
^ '''sequence of my not having been able, for three years, to
'■'•■p across the barriers, which separate us from them, I
*">uld receive a double i)roportion of my Great Father's

^ he Americans, my fatlier, surround us, but we are ever
*"■ ^^'b' to meet them. Now, ni}^ father, as we see you but

•^Ii^MK'of tlieyear,

'I'o Indian mode of begging for liquor.

14G Wisconsin State Historical Society.

seldom. I hope you will open your stores and give us umr-
presents than you do to other Indians who visit you annu
ally. Now I speak to you, my father, in hopes you will 1,.

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