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charitahle to us, and give us something to take to our wive -
and children. They are expecting to be warmed by tli-
clothing of their Great Father."'

Taking some strings of wampum, he added: "Father: ]
got this from the White Elk (Cape. ]\IcKee) to open ;.
smoother path from our country to all your fires. I spok:
to the Pottawatomies with it, and they were happ^- ti
accede to our proposals of friendship. Now, my father. W(
have always obeyed your voice, and will ever listen to yoii:
counsels. With regard to the Indians, we have a good roai
from our country to your fires; but there are whites wlir.
appear strong, and tell us they will not allow us to see yo;:
any more. Should that be the case, we will be miserabL .
But if the road contiimes good, as Capt. McKee told us i:
Mould, we will see you every day (year)." Delivered tli.
Avampum.

■Answer of the Superintendent:

" CJiildren. .'—I have listened to your discou]-se — every
word has entered into my ears. W hen you came here, thre-
days (years) ago 1 gave you, of your Great Father's bounty
a much, greater p;'(>]i(>rtioii llian T did to other Indians, an "
told you your juesents would in future be given to you ;i'
Amherstburg. You were displeased. You went aw-ay di-
satisQed. I have again, this year, treated 3'ou well, Yo;^
appear dissatisfied still, and Avant more. I now tell y"'-
that your presents are at Amlierstburg, and that in futui'
you must go tlier(> if you wish to receive your Great Father'.-
bounty. I have done everything in my i)ower to plea^'
you and render you happy; but my efforts appear to hav'
been thrown away upon you. Go home, and I do not wi-^i
to see dissatisfied children about me again. With respe- ■
to the road being stopp'vl up, as you say, that is news torn-
I do not know tliat any steps have been taken to effect tha*.
and indeed if you behave yourselves, as 1 have always r«'
commended you to do, 1 do not believe you will be hinder-^ '
from seeing yt>tu- (ireat Father's fires."



Papers of Capt. T. G. ^\nderson. 117

Na-i-o-gui-man, a Chippewa speaker:

•father! — I have not much to ask of you. I return you
• , inks for what I have received. [ am not a chief. The
•, .•;in,^^ men sometimes invite me to their wigwams, and
: ^'ht this pipe for me (a war pipe). I have heard you say
I'.- careful of your ti-aders. I listen to your voice. I
.Ml about to tell you of our folly. This pipe I am not
:.!,\<ter of. The young men sometimes press me to smoke

-it of it [press him, being a war-ieader, to lead them against
!;;•> enemy]. Some of them have more sense, and know that
\>. in- advice to them, to remain at peace, is better than going
•■> war. I tlierefore deliver you my war club (war pipe), and
i. '^ for some of my good young men, more guns, kettles-
t '!»acco and provisions." Then delivered the pipe.

Superintendent's reply:

"Children! — I approve much of your determination to
^ive up that bad practice of carrying on a war with the
|>'-ople of your own color. It cannot bo productive of any
^s'l'od, and 7 night lead you to continue that bad practice, and
I'v- destructive to your families. Therefore, you have acted
wisely in giving up your war club. I will give to your
>'>ung men, one guu, one kettle, and a little provision."



C()uxt:iL OF Sal'k Ind]ans at Drum-Mond Island, July

30th, 1S21.

Col. ]\rcKay, British Indian Superintendent, Capt. Thos. G.
Andt^Tson. clerk and interpreter, Maj. Winnett and other
'■'Ulcers of the Sixty-Eighth regiment, and several interpre-
'<-'rs of the Indian Department present. .

We-tau-wau-no-quet, speaker, holding some strings of
^va)npum in his hand, said:

"Father! — We liave come to give you news from the
chiefs of our village. This is the parole we received from
*i-o Knglish at the stone house (Fort George) last Fall. We
''•>vo attended and always will attend to the words of our
<iri'at Father beyond the Salt Lake. You see the day in
^^hich we talk to you is fme. ^'ou see the water on which
^'•'e voyaged to this fire is smooth; the earth is clothed in all



148 Wisconsin' State Historical Society.

its beauties. All, my father, was made by the Great ^las:
of liife. He hears us. AVhat we say is the truth. "VVelij,
not forgot tlie words of our Great Fatlier. We will ncv^
forget what you have said to us. Xow, my father, we ;.
distressed in our own country. I called upon the two chi. .
seated there to sliow you your paroles. I asked them to a-
company me here.

"Fatlier! — I have been speaking for the warriors; tL
chiefs will now talk to you."

Met-che-quai-au, holding the same wampum in his han ;.
said:

"Father: ~\Vhat the warriors have said to you is t!,
truth. I am now going to tell you the opinion of the chief-
I believe the Great Master of Life supports us. He mii:!
everything. I am happy to have got into your house. I
was intended by the Great Spirit that we should stretch or/
our arms and join our hands to yours. We hold you fa^■.
and will continue to do so." Dividing the wampum int
two parts, and holding one half in his hand, he continued

" This is the Red Head's' message. He sent it to us by tl:
way of the Kock river, two nights ago, and told us in tl!>
words of our Great Father, saying: ' This, my children, wii'
give you life. Those who listen to the words I tell you wi'.'
never want. When any of the Red Coats see this mcssai;o
they will be charitable to you." When he delivered us tlii-
spct. ch, lie told us to make it known to all the surroundin-'
nations, and desire them to unite in our opinion that tli'
Great Spirit is opening a road to make you forever happy-
and ' I tell you,' he added, ".the truth. Sauks and Renard-^-
hold fast of 3'our lands. AVhenever you wish to direct you'
voyages towards the Red Coats, you will be well received.
The doors will be always open to receive you. When yon
see the whites in your country, 1 hope you will be careful oi
them.' "

Taking. the remaining half of the wampum, and seleotiui:
a single string from the bunch, he continued:

"This is from the Nau-do-ways; the remainder we re-

' Col. Robert Dickson, British trader.



Papers of Catt. T. G. Anderson.] 149

.vol from the English at the stone house last Fall. Our
\;.f> are again gone to the stone house, to hear more

Then, taking all the wampum in his hand, and holding it

V the middle, said:

•• I have told you the v/ords on that part of the message
.'•. .ve my hand. It came by different routes to our village
;-;.hT ground, but all on the same subject. I cannot repeat '
•lis part of it (below his hand) at present. Our Great
■ .itiier recollects the remainder. You, my brother warriors,
.r.not be ignorant of what is going on. It is, therefore,
■. 't necessary to repeat anything more. I hope my Great
■"".iiIkt's soldiers make one with us. My father, you have
..••;ird us speak. Think of us, and say to yourself, My

hildren are poor, I have repeated the words of my father.
Wr came here to hear if you had any more news for us.
I JKive nothing more to sa}^''

-Vnswer, by the Superintendent:

'■ Children! — Your father has listened to you with great
intention. He has not allowed one word to escape unno-
-'•'^'d. He is truly happy to see you all in good health.
'♦^ hen your war chief, Black-Hawk, was here, a few nights
= -:o, I told him to inform you that your presents would in
' tare be given to you at Amherstburg. Your Great Father,
"■'-' l:ing. is not unacquainted with the diiferent routes from
' ur country to his fires, and knowing your situation with
*• s^u'd to voyaging, has, to make it inore convenient for
,' J, directed your presents to be issued at Amherstburg,
■^iiere you must go for them for the time to come, and not
'■••■lie here any more for the purpose of being clothed. Your

• itiior has, by depriving other Indians, and, as if by stealth,
'"•"'nnged to give you a few articles; but you must not ex-
;*rt anything more. A'our Great Father, the king, cannot
'* d an untruth. The promises he makes are inviolable,
'"Usee them fulfilled everyday. Follow his advice, and
.'' u will be happy. I have nothing further to say to you at

• ■'■'^eut. 1 wish the Great Spirit may piotect you, and en-

• '0 you to arrive safe in your own country,'"






INDIAN CAMPAIGN OF 18IV2.

By Cait. lIENlvY SMITH, of Atkinson's Brigade.



Heniy Smifli, the writer of the following valuable narrative of t!
Black Hawk War — the first detailed sketch of tliat contest that ever ui
peared in print — was of gcotch-Irish descent, horn at Stdhvater, N. T
Sept. 25, I'iOS. He became a ca'let at the Military Academy in May, I'r:
and graduating, entered the Artillery as Third Lieutenant, ia March, ISl'
He was j romoled to a Second Lieutenancy in the Second Infantry, '.
June 181G. He served as Adjutant in 1818-19; regimental Quarter-Mast!
in 1820-21, serving as such at Green Bay in 1822; First Lieutenant and A-
sistant Quarter-Master iu 1S23, in which year he was assigned to the Si.xt'
Infantr}-. He served as an A id de Camp to Maj. Gen. Scott in 1823-26, an ;
was promoted tD the rank of Captain, in July of tlie latter year, and ado
as Quarter -Tilaster from April, 182G to Oct. 1830.

During the Black Hawk War, in 1832, he served at the head of his can
pany in Gen. Atkinson's Brigade, and l)ad the bsst of opportunities i
Jearn all the leading facts and events connected with that frontier servic
He resigned from the army in Nov., 183G. From that time until 1840. 1
Berved as a Civd Engineer, superint.-nding United States harbor improve
nicnts on the Lakes, in New York, Oliio, and ^Michigan. He was a meir-
ber of the Jlichigan Assemblj' in 1837 and 1810; disbur^sing agent oft!'
Indian Department in 1S38; Major General of the ^Michigan Militia :
1S41-4G; and I^layor of Monroe, Michigan, iu 1S4G. On the 3d of M:)rc:
1847, he was appointed Q>uarter-Master in the army, with the rank - ■
Major, fcicrving first at Dotioit, and then on the staff of Gen. Scott :-
Mexico. Coura.'cous and high-spirited, he promptly repaired to the fi' '
at Vera Cruz, fully conscious of the danger of the climate at that sea-'
of the year, where he soon fell a victim to the yellow fever, July 2^;'
1847, in his forty-ninth year.

Capt. Smith's papers on the Indian Campaign 0/1832, -was written in 1''
at the re<juest of the conduivtors of the Militari/ and Xaval Magazine, jjuhl!- '
ed at Wasliington; and apjieared inAugustof that year, as written '-hy :•
oflicer of Gen. Atkinson's Brigade." It was thus prepared M-hilc the iccvW- '
tious of that frontier service were yet fresh in his memory. He left a c ■;
in manusfri])t, which was furnislied by his daughter, Mrs. A. W. Sn>^li'
of Ixockford, 111., to tlie Journal of that city, in which it appeared Au^'i-
12lh, 18S2, and •.•oi>ied into the Milwaukee Jirpuhlican-Soitincl '•
the following 17th ami 2Jth of September. These two copies have l"'^'''



n



4



Indian CamPxVKjn of 1So2. 151

A.-ofullv collated, aud errors corrected. Ic will prove a valuable addi-
• <>i5 to the history of the Black Hawk War. His public services, for
, priod of thirty-four years, were varied and eventful, and alike hon-

f.iMe to himself and useful to his countr\^

l-irlv in life he married Miss Elvira Foster. She died at Watertown, N.
v.. in 1S70, Seven of their children yet survive — five daughters and tv,-o
V. i;s; one of the latier is Hon. Winfield Smitli, of Milwaukee, formerly

\tloruey General of tlie .State. IMaj. Smith was about five feet, six iuclies

n lioiglit, of about one hundred and sixty pounds weight, with ruddy com-
•Ii'.xioD. gray eyes, and brown hair — of handsome appearance, erect, and

i tiiilitary l»earing.

It is justly said of him, in the U. S. Biogvaphical Dictionary iovV\\scow-
vn, that "he was an able and accomplished officer, understood thoroughly
•.'.•• details of his ])rofession, was governed by a high sense of honor, frank,
.;• licrous and upright. A gentlemen of fine talents, and varied iuforma-
t.oi), agreeable in society, and had many warm friends among the leading
!:kii of the Nation. He was ardent in liis family attachments, constant
.^'.d devoted in liis friendships, an exemplary member of the Episcopal

I'.urch, of spotless reputation, esteemed and respected b}- all who knew
Ixmr L. C. D.

Ocnllemcn: — It would give me pleasure to comply with
your request on the subject of the recent Indian hostilities,
Were I not perfectly sensible of my incapacity to interest
you and your readers. As it is, flattered by your solicitation,,
and acknowledging the obligation to contribute my mite to
yuur valua])le work, authentically, I undertake the task.

"To begin then, with the beginning" — The Sauks and
loxes forming one nation of Indians, occupying until 1831,
more or less of the country on both banks of the Mississippi
for about one hundred and fifty miles above and below
Kock Island, have always manifested as a people, liostile
'Oeliiigs toward the people of the United States. During the
^var with Great Brilian, they were active allies of the Eng-
•'^li; repeatedly and— as they boast— always successfully en-
gaged against us. Several detachments of our army and
"dlitia, one under command of Col. Z. Taylor, now of the
^' ii'st Infantry, were i>revious to 1S15, defeated by this warlike
i'eoplo. Since the latter date, the hostile feeling has been
"/"'"/// shown only by a portion of the combined nation
^'alled the " British Band,'" of which a chicsf called Muck-ut-
^^U-i'iiclc-ckaw-kaik, the celebrated Black Plawk, was the



'Tlie Iiulians came opcnl}' armed iiUo council witli tlic General — a pro-
ceeding, it is believed, williout precedent auiong them. Tliey used in
8peech the most violent and threatening language and gestures. Had noi
the General felt c impassion for their infatuation, he would probably have
chaslised them on the spot.



153 Wisconsin State Historical Society.

head. This band occupied the territory on the east bank (•:
the Mississippi, principally along the Ilock river, and ordi
narily numbered about four hundred warriors.

By treaty., duly signed and ratified, the Sauks and Foxe>,
previous to 1831, conveyed this portion of their country ea-;
of the I\Iississippi to the United States, and our settler^
advanced to the shores of Rock river, the Indians so fa:
acknowledging- the treaty as to cross the Mississippi, wheiv
the majority of them, if not all, took up their residence fo;
a time.

In the Spring of 1831, Maj. Gen. Gaines, commanding tli<^
Western Department, learned by express that the Indian.^.
in great numbers, had re-crossed the I'iver, commenced a
system of aggressions on the whites, and by threats, and in
some instances by violence, had driven off many families,
and bade fair to break up the settlements along the frontier
of Illinois. The General promptly moved with such troop?
as he could find disposable — the Sixth, and a small portion
of the Third Infantry — to the scene of difficulty. Here he
found the tone of the Indians so high, and their deportment
so insufferably insolent, that apprehending the necessity of
an immediate resort to blows, he called on the Governor of
Illinois for an auxiliary force of mounted militia, and made
preparations to enforce the demand he had already made of J
the Indians, to evacuate the ceded territory. After much -^
delay and unusual display of reckless audacity on the part
of the Indians,' they fmally crossed again to the west side-
of the river, and made and executed a treaty solemnly pledg-
ing themselves never to land again on ilie east ban/: of the
Mississippi ivithout the consent of the President of the
United States, and the Governor of Illinois.

Within four months after signing this treaty, a numerous
war party of this very band ascended the ^Mississippi, landed
on the east banic, and within the hmits of the American vil-



Indian Campaign of lS:y^. 153

.^,. ,.f Prairie du Chien, attacked a body of Menomonees
;i iiaiion distiDgiiished for tlieir unalterable friendship for

• :•,.• I'liited States — and murdered, it is believed, twenty-
. ^]it persons. It was for the purpose of demanding and

• :aining the leaders of this outrage on our flag, that Brig.
<.t!i. Atkinson was ordered with his regiment, the Sixth, to
..-.N'ud the Mississippi in the Spring of 1832, and the
, .rcuinstances have shown that the Secretary of War," with
:'.(> acLiteness of judgment for which he is distinguished,
A'k'd by a thorough knowledge of the Indian character,

i-arly foresaw the result to which the disposition of the
lii'iians would lead, yet very few others anticipated any oc-
' irrences more bloody than those of the preceding year.

I hi the Sth of April, 1832, the force under Gen. Atkinson,
«;.\- Companies of the Sixth Regiment, numbering about two
*; iiulred and eighty in the aggregate, embarked at JefTerson
:'• wracks, and proceeded up the ^Mississippi. At the Des
M 'ines rapids two hundred miles above, it was first learned
I'V the detachment that the Indians meditated not onl}' rc-
-:>tance to the demand for the surrender of the murderers,
i'.it the seizure and holding the territory — the debatable
la.'id — alread}" twice or thrice ceded by them. Accounts
'■<.Te, made the number of Avarriors between six and eight

• 'iuidred, who had ascended the Mississipi)i toward Rock
Maud. Gen. Atkinson arrived at Rock Island about the

• -til of April; and there ascertained that on that day or the
'•■ly before, the Indians had entered the mouth of the Rock
':^"or, and were ascending it.

The General here received correct and undoubted informa-
i'.oii of their numbers and condition. DifTerent traders and
'■'Hers had carefully counted them, and reported the number
^"'^ ollicient warriors to be about six hundred and lifty, con-
^'•■^ting of Black Hawk's "British Band," the friends of the
^■^u- parly who had committed the murders at Prairie du
■- 'iicn, and about one hundred and twenty Kickapoos; they
'•^vo subsequently joined on the Rock river by the Prophet's
^'^nd. About four hundred and fifty of this force were



' lion. Lewia Ca.ss.

n-H. c.



154 "Wisconsin State Historical Society.

mounted, and it is but justice to say they were very efficii,.
cavalry on hardy and generally well-trained horses — tli-
nevcr came into contact with our militia, both mounted, tlu.
the Indians did not come off victors, whatever might ].
their inferiority in numbers.

Under their intention of holding the country, they ha
brought with them their families and movables of every d.
scription. ^^

Gen. Atkinson immediately summoned such of the chiefs
of the Sauks and Foxes as had not participated in the movv
ment, at the head of whom was Tash-e-paw-ko, Wa-pel-i.
and Keokuk; demanded of them such of the murderers a
were in their power, and warned them of the consequeuci:^
which would result on their joining or aiding the invadinr
band. The murderers (three, being all within the control < f
these chiefs) were promptly surrendered, and the Genero':
was assured of the fidelity of the chiefs to the Governmcr.>
of the United States. The conference was concluded by a;,
order from the General for the friendly Indians to return t
their home, west of the Mississippi, and remain there.

Two messengers, a friendly Sauk chief, the son of Tay-f
mah, and a half breed whose fatlier was a Frenchman ar.l
mother a Sauk woman, were dispatched to the Black Ha^vk
by Gen. Atkinson, not only official y ordering him and hi
people, in the name of the President, to return, but indiviil-
ually advising hijn of the consequences of his persisting i"-
his present enter]>risc. The demand for the surrender v(
the murderers was also made. Up to this time, it appeart ;
to liave been the general belief of the officers of the army
as it certainly was with the writer of this narrative, that th^
Indians — almost always " more sinned against than sinning.
— would under the forbearing, dignilied and determiiu'-
course pursued by the General, be brought to a sense of
thtir conduct and situation, and induced to comply witl".
the demands of the Government. But we were soon uiuh'-
ccived; the messejigcrs returned greatly alarmed, after hav-
ing been abused and insulted, and comi)elled to escape i'-
the risk of their lives. They brought from the Indians tl"'
most insolent and bullying replies to the General's message'.



I



I



Indian Campaign of 1S32. 155

■^'♦'iierally, in effect, ridiculing his demands, and challenging
the Americans to come against them.

About this time Henry Gratiot, Esq., the sub-agent for
tht^ Winnebagoes of the Mining Country, obeying the im-
j ulse of his duty, intrepidly proceeded to Black ITa%Yk's
ramp, near the Prophet's village, for the purpose of hold-
ing a council with the chiefs, to ascertain their object,
;»iid to warn them to return. The Indians not only re-
fused to hear him, but tore down his flag, raised the
i'ritish flag, and took Mr. Gratiot prisoner. There is little
iloubt thai his fate would have been sealed but for the
interposition of the Winnebagoes, who purchased him of
\hv Sauks, and. restored him to liberty. We also learned
tliat the Sauks and Foxes had been instigated to their pres-
ent course by Waw-be-ka-shick, the Prophet, a half Winne-
bago and half Sauk, and possessing much influence with
botli nations from his assumption of the sacred character,
from his talents, his inveterate hostility to the Americans,
nnd his cold-blooded cruelty.

Gen. Atkinson, an oflicer possessing all the requisites for
command, military skill, undaunted courage and persever-
ance, together with a knowledge of the Indian character,
now commenced vigorous preparations for a campaign. He
tirdered such troops as could with safety bo called from the
po,sls of I'rairie du Chicn and Fort Leavenworth, to rein-
lorce him- and was, in consequence, joined at Rock Island
by four companies of the First Infantr}^, and subsequently at
i'ixon's Ferr}^ by two more companies of the Sixth Keg-
iiiient from Fort Leavenworth. He took measures for
C')llecting piovisions and stores and means for their trans-
l'<^>rtation, a work of exceeding difhculty, under all circum-
•^tances — and lastly, he nolilied the Governor of Illinois,
bleynolds, that the Indians had ascended Hock river in a
bostilc attitude. The General also took measures to secure
^be neutrality of the surrounding Indian nations; or, should
'ie doom it proper, their assistance. Tbose preparations de-
'•dned the troops at l^ock Island about three weeks, during
J!'uch of which period the weather was unusuully coM and



150 Wisconsin State Historical Society. -v|

rain}^, and our tents quite unfit for service, and useless as a 1
^shelter. I

About the OLh day of May provisions and boats liaving |
'been collected, a force of nearly eighteen hundred militia ]
•arrived, fifteen hundred of wliom were mounted, who had
'been ordered by Gov. Heynolds to report themselves to, and
ireceive orders from the commanding officer of the regular
troops. Our force moved up Rock river — the regular troops
were tiien under the immediate command of Col. Tay-
lor, First Infantry, and the mounted militia, under l^rig.
Gen. AVhiteside. Gov. Reynolds also accompanied his force
in person. The mounted men were ordered to proceed to the
Prophet's village, about thirty or forty miles by land, and
sixty or seventy by water: while tlie regular force was
•charged with the severe and unpleasant duty of dragging
•up the river our provisions and stores in boats, one keel of
ninety tons, and one of tliirty, and five or six ■Mackinaw
•boats. It is unnecessary to describe this duty better than to
say, that the weather was cold, and that for many days the
troops, so employed, had not a dry thread on them, com-
pelled to wade against a rapid stream, dragging or lifting
the boats along from day-break until night. On our arrival
at the Prophet's village, it was found that the mounted
militia had advanced to Dixon's Ferry. About thirty miles
below tlie last named point, an express informed our com-
mand of the defeat of a battalion of the militia under Maj.
Stillman, and tlie troops were hastened forward with all pos-
sible dispatch. At Dixon's Ferry, about one hundred and
twenty mils from the mouth of Rock river, we learned the
particulars of this defeat.

Maj. Stillman, commanding a volunteer battalion of



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