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good condition.

jMarvland Delegation.

25. James :\[cnENRY, A. L. S., March 10, 1780, two pages,
in good condition.

2ti. Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, A. L. S., December
12, 1785, one page, in good condition.

27. Daniel Carroll, A. L. S., August 10, 1:83, one page,
in good condition.

Autographs of the Signers. 411

Virginia Deligation.

i.^8. John l^LAiR, A. L. S., i\[arcli '20, \7s7, two pages, in
good condition.

20. Ja:\ies ^Iadison, A. L. S., Ft'bruary ■.*'.', is;';!, onopago,
in good conciition.

'60. Gkohge WASiiiNcjTON, A. L, S., August :J8, Kin;, one
page, in good condition — returning thanks for a Fe»ui th of
July oration.

XoRT{i Carolina Dklecatiox.

;]]. William Blount, A. L. S., July :>, r^'j^, ono page, m
good condition. This letter is interesting, as referring to his
inipeaclnnent, and expulsion from the United States Senate^
apparently addressed to some friend in 'J'ennessee, where ho

"In a few days," he writes, "you will see published, by or-
der of Congress, a letter said to have been written by me to
James Carey. It makes a damnable fuss here. 1 hope,
however, the people upon the Western \Vaters will see noth-
ing but good in it, for so I intended it — especially for Ten-
nessee. When 1 shall be in Tennessee is uncertain; but
come when I will, I trust they will view that particular act
as well-intended, as all my political conduct ever has been,
towards them.

'•' I leave Philadelphia in a few hours, probably not to re-
turn to it shortly. Allison is inaxj. Nothing is done for
you. You had best look to yourself. I suspect the Natchez
w'll not now suit you. ByeriS is a rascal.''

32. Richard DuiiJiS Spaigiit, A. L. S., February 25, 1794,
one page, in good condition.

u3. Hugh»n, A. L. S., August 1, 17 Ts, one page,
in good condition.

South Carolina Deleciation,

;J1, John Kutli-:i)(;e, A. 1^. S., April 18, Wi'6, ono page, an
introduction, in good condition,

35. Charles Cotesworth Pinceney, A. L. S., JMarch IG,
1815, three pages, in good condition.

412 Wisconsin State IIlstorical Society.

;](j. CiiAKEFs riNCMvNEV, A. L. S., 110 date (but written in
ISo;), tliree pu^es. in good condition.

o7. I'WAUii IJUTLKR, A. T.. S., Jamiafy 15, isos, two ])a<^es,
ill good condition.

Geokcia J)ki.i:(;atI()N.

'3S. WiJ>r.iA.M P'ew , A. L. y., January U, 17'Ji), one page, in
good condition.

;;i). AiuiAiiA.M 15ai,1)\\ i.v, A. 1j. S., January •,'(;, K'Jl, one
page, in good condition.

Also an A. L. S. of Col. Wii.eiam Ja< ksox, NoveinixM- :.*,
JT'.)?, tho Secretary of the Convention, who attestod the
Constitution, one page, in good condition.

This enunieration of the sets of the Signers of the Leclar-
ation and of the Constitution, i)osses3e(l by the State Histor-
ical Society of ^Vlsconsul, presents a fine array of auto-
graphs in their line of collection, exceeded in only a few
instances in the Declaration series; while the Signers of the
Constitution are represented by full autograph letters in
every instance, and four were written in the year the Con-
stitution was formed, 17^7.

A subject so interesting warrants a reference to similar
collections extant, so I'ar as the best attainable infoi'ination,
derived from the principal autograph collectors of the coun-
try, will enable us to describe them, 'i'lie known full sets
of the Signers of the Declaration are only twenty-two; and
from the rarity of several of the autographs, the number can
never be very much increased.

In noticing tliese several collections, it is necessary to
establish some rules of precedence. On tlio whole, it would
appear most proper to fix upon the number of full auto-
graph letters in a collection; though their character and
condition — wliether pretty uniformly in folio or cpiarto size
— and the extent of their illustrations, should have their in-
fluence in determining their relative stantling. A few col-
lectors have made an interesting consideration of enhanced
interest and value, of letters bearing date in the Declaration
year, 1770.

In view of the almost insurmountable difficulties in mak-

Autographs of the Signers. 413

ing a complete collection of the Si;^ners of the Declaration,
it is not a little sinj^ular that more sets of the Signers of the
Constitution have not been brought together. The Declara-
tion Signers number lifty-six^ those of tlie ConstiUitiou
only thirty-nine; so there are only about two tliirds as many
of the latter as of the former, and none of them so practi-
cally unobtainable as are several of the Signers of the 1 dec-
laration. While tile statistics show twenty-two sets of the
Declaration Signers, but sixteen full se-ts of the Constitutioi*.
Signers are known to exist.

Other Collections of DeclaratH'JN Signers.

I.— Dr. Tiio.MAS Al>i>is E\LMEr, Now York. His host set —
for he has .tiiree — takes precelence by common consent.
It includes lifty-four fall autograph letters of tiie lifty-six
Signers, the only exceptions being Morton, an autograph
document signed, and (Iwinnett, a very line specimen of a
document signed. This is the only set in existence which
has a genuine full letter of Thomas Lynch, Jr. It was ad-
dressed to Washington, and ol)tained by Dr. Emmet from
Dr. Sprague, in a }>artial exchange, i)ractically costing Dr.
Emmet some seven hundred dollars. Twtuity letters of this
collection were written in i?7iJ, and a number of them refer
to the great Declaration; of these, Clark's is dated July 1 1th,
in that year, F. L. Lee's, July liith, Wilson's, July Jiath, and
Hewes, July :<!.Sth, and an important A. D. S. of Hancock,
July 11th. Dut the acknowledged excellence of this s(it is
greatly enhanced by the elaborate extent of its illustrations.
Dr. Emmet's patience and success in bringing together his
illustrative matter is not merely remarkable, but is truly
wonderful — greatly excelling any effort of the kind ever

Taking the historical matter of Sanderson's Favcs of tlic-
Siijiiers, and the whole of Drotherhead's liookof the Sujiwj.s,
as the basis, all inlaid to folio size. Dj-. Enmiethas extendf^l
the work to twenty volumes. The illustrations are almost
innumerable, including twelve hundred autographs, many
valuable historical documents, old newspapers, original
water-color portraits of the Signers, together with a large

■iU Wisconsin State Historical Society.

number of portraits of the Revolutionary period, many of
which are now ahnost extinct, of persons montioued in the
papers or text, rare contemporaneous views of phices, coats
of arms of States, and many other appropriate ilhistratiojis,
all inlaid by Trent on Whatinati's drawing paper, of a uni-
form royal folio size. When completed, says ^Ir. liarns,." it
will be the {grandest monument ever erected to the memory
of the Signers by private hands; and on it, no expt^nse has
been spared, and the i)rint collections of both Continents
laid under heavy contributions."

Among the unique illustrations of this noble set of the
Signers are two early printed broadsides of the I)eclarati(m.
One must have beyn issued as early as July 5, K7G, as John
Adams on that day enclosed a copy to a lady correspondent,
the letter to whom, now in ^h\ Dreer's collection, is copied
into Dr. Oilman's paper on the Tefft autographs. But the
Becond one, which was sent out by order of Congress, Janu-
ary 18, 1777, to each of the States for a public record, also in
printed form, is pn^perly attested by their own signs man-
ual, by Secretary Tliomson and President Hancock, lioth
of tliese broadsides are about fifteen by eighteen inches in

To give some idea of the cost of such indulgences: '"'In
one way or another," wiites Dr. Emmet, ''I have spent
some twenty-five thousand dollars on the set, and have not
yet gotten it to my satisfaction." All will agree, that the
right jnan undertook this herculean labor, and has never
faltered for a moment in its prosecution.

While Dr. Emmet's best set of the Signers has hevn scat-
tered through these twenty volumes of illustrations, he be-
gins to fear that they will be measurably lost in such a dis-
tribution, and is considering whether he may nut sui))>ly
this work with a less valuable fourth set, which yet lacks
two specimens for its com{>letion; and then put the best
set in a special volume, with portrait engravings, short
printed sketches, and fac siiiii/esot atitographs, etc.

But Dr. Emmet's three sets of the Signers of the Declara-
tion of Inde[)endence, and a foiu-th wanting only two spec-
imens, and his collection of the Signers of the Constitution,

Autographs op the Signers. 415

are by no means the only autograi)h groupings he has
made. His tastes, it will be seen, lead him to profusely and
tastefully illustrate them all. His entire collection numbers
fifty-two volumes, divided into the following groups or

1. The best set of Signers of the Declaration of Indepen-
dence, already described, twenty volumes.

XI. The Continental Congress, 17^4-1780, of whose mem-
bership Dr. Emmet has autographs of over three hundred
and sixty; ilhistrated by two hundred and thirty-eight por-
traits, having had several specially mac'e for this purpose —
seventy-two of the whole number are believed to be ^yithout
likenesses. Dr. Emmet has been many years engaged on
this collection — gathering materials for a biographici
sketch of each member, to be printed especially for this
series; and when thus completed, it will embrace six vol-
umes, a wonderful collection, including a large amount of
American biography to l)e found no where else.

.']. The third set of the Signers is nicely arranged with
Sanderson's Lioes of the Si(jiiers, in eight volumes, fully

4. The Signers of the Constitution, already adverted to,
in one volume.

5. The Albany Congress of ]7")t, twenty-five members,
representing seven Colonies, in one volume. The printed
illustrative matter is from the second volume of Docanient-
anj llistuti/ of Xciu 1 o/'A', and from Sir Wm. Johnson's
papers, giving an account of tliat Congress.

G. The Stamp Act Congress, 1705, twenty-three members,
representing nine Colonies, one volume. The printed matter
has been taken from Hughes' account in the second volume
of Hazard's lliu/i.^ter, ovi^^livdWy appearing in Almon's Prior
Documents, p. 45, et seq., and includes the credentials and

7. The first Continental Congress, 1771, fifty-two mem-
bers, from twelve Colonies, one volume. AVith this set of
autographs of the delegates, Henry Armitt Brown's oration
on the one hundredth anniversary of the meeting of this

416 Wisconsin State Historical Society.

Congress, was inlaid, with the addition of specially priutcd
matter appropriate to the collection.

8. yigners of the Articles of Confederation, 1?;S, forty-
one autographs, representing thirteen cohaiies, one voliune.

0. The (lenerals of the Revolution, both Continental and
State, eighty-six specimens. This collection has hvxn se-
lected with the greatest care, so that there is scarcely an au-
tograph which is not of especial historical value. Griswold's
M^asJiiiujton and his ilencruls, in two volumes, has been
brought into re(|uisition for this group, all inlaid, and ex-
tended to eight folio volumes, illasLratod with portraits,
newspapers of the day, and three hundred and forty-one

10. I'residents of the Old Congress, and Presidents and
Vice Presidents of the United States, nearly fifty fine spec-
imens, one volume. Dr. Emmet wrote, and had })rinted for
this collection, a sketch of each President of Congress, etc.,
on a single page, to face the autograph and engraving.

1 1. Paper money issued by the Colonies, about two thous-
and specimens, all inlaid, with a printed account of each
issue, extended to three yolumes.

VI. Paper money issued by Congress. Samuel Breck's
nistorical SLctcli of Paper il/o/ie//, 18 i:j, as republished in
ISU;), with an appendix giving in full the issues and denom-
inations, used as the basis for this collection, inlaid to
folio size, and illustrated, one volume.

All these volumes have special title pages printed for them,
with printed text, head and tail pieces.

Dr. Emmet was born near Charlottesville, A^irginia, in
18'28. His father, John P. E nniet, was then, and for a peri-
od of nineteen years, Professor of Chemistry and Natural
History in the University of Virginia. Dr. I^^imuet's grand-
father, Thomas Addis Emmet, and his famous brother,
Robert Emmet, were noted leaders in the movements of the
'•'United Irishmen" in 17'.)8; and Robert, the younger, again
in 180 {, losing his young life in the heroic eil'ort to obtain
freedom for his distracted country. Thomas Addis Emmet,
the patriot leader, was long imprisoned; but was finally lib-


eraco'i, Sc-tiifi in. ^c-w \ ork L'tcy in i.^ t. where in trie e;;>i-
ing twetity-tlireo years ho rose to threat eniiiieiico at the bar.

While Dr. Emmet has long' been ranked among the ablest
members of the medical profession in New York City, it is
especially as an autograph collector that he stands pre emin-
ent. He began to form his first set of the >Signers about
18(j(), since which he has pros(;cuted the collection of jVmer-
ican autographs with unusual ardor and remarkable succc.-ss.

During the past twenty-five years, probably more auto-
graphs of the Signers have passed through his hands than
those of any one else in the country; and while he has been
able to improve his own collections, he has supplied other
collectors witii more than a single specimen of all tlie Sign-
ers, save perhaps those of Lynch and Gwinnett. lie has
thus proved himself a public benefactor — well worthy of
the high honor Mr. Burns designed to ascribe, when refer-
ring to him as " iJiO rreiiiier Ainerivati Aatoiiniplier.'"

II.— Simon Gkatz, of Philadelphia. In 1850, at the age of
seventeen, an accidental search among an accumulation of
family papers in his native city of Philadelpliia, gave IMr.
Gratz a taste for gathering autographs, which he has prose-
cuted for thirty years with rare discrimination and success.
]\Ir. Burns, in the Antiquarian, August, 18?0, stated that the
collection of Mr, Gratz of the Signers then lacked but two
autographs, and that it was then regarded as "a fine series."
That gap has long since been filled, and the whole set
greatly improved. It has now httythree full autograjjli
letters in ((uarto or folio size — the other three are ]\Iorton,
a folio autograijh document signed; (iwinnett, a very line
folio autograph document signed, and Lynch, a cut signa-
ture. It excels Dr. Emmett's best set — in the number of
1770 letters, having twenty-seven — one of which, that of
Wilson, was written on the njcmorable 1th of July in that
year; and a Hancock letter of July otli, r;7(J, covering a
copy of the Declaration to one of the States.

All the specimens are choice both as regards matter and
condition. It is largely illustrated with portraits and views,
as yet kept loose in scrap-books for possible further improve-

41S Wisconsin State Historical Society.

ment. No pains or expense lias been spai-ed to improve

its character.

Mr. Qratz needs only a Lynch to complete a second set,
which is used in his series of the ohl Conjjfress of liri —
178:). This group of the old Congress lacks but a few names
of being complete. A duplicate of Lynch lie once possess^-d,
but spared it to a fellow collector to round out liis set. Tliis
collection of the Old Congress, includes, of course, the incum-
bers of the Congress of i;;'i. and the Signers of tiie Confed-
eration of 1778.

Mr. Gratz, besides a set of the Signers of the Constitution,
has a complete series of autographs of the Generals of
the llevolution — all A. L. S., save two, one of which
is an A. D. S , and the other a letter signed. He has also a
general collection of autographs, which covers a very wide
field, embracing fully 25,000 specimens, American and
foreign, ancient and modern.

IH.— Ferdinand J. Dreer, of Philadelphia. Born in that
city, March 2, 1812. Mr. Dreer was for many years labor-
iously engaged as an assayer and manufacturer of gold
ware, retiring from active business in 1802. At twenty-two
he broke down from over- work, and has ever since been in
feeble health; yet since he commenced his autograph gather-
ings, about 18 t'J, he has found pleasant employment in col-
lecting, repairing and arranging his thousands of rare
letters of both hemispheres, and illustrating his books and
manuscripts, giving occupation to both body and mind, and
as he believes, prolonging his days.

Mr. Dreer's set of the Signers, like the collection of Mr.
Gratz, numbers fifty-three full autograph letters. lb has
been selected and improved with great care and expense.
The three specimens of the set not A. L. S.,are I^lorton, A.
1). S., G winnett, 1). S., and Lynch, a cut signature. Next to
the set of Mr. Gratz, iMr. Dreer's is the strongest extant in
1770 letters, having twenty-one specimens; no less than
seven of which were written during the month of July of
that year-Ratledge on the 1st, Clark on the immortal 4th,
John Adams on the 5th, Hancock on the 'Jth, and 2Uh,
Hewes on the 2 Ith, and Thornton on the 27th. The Adams

I *.

Autographs of the Signers. 419

letter came from iMr. TelTt's incomplete set, and is noticed
in Dr. Oilman's paper on the Teifc auto;,^raphs.

Such of tliese as needed it, %vere carefully repaired, and
are kept in cases, without yet having deterniintul their Hnal
grouping. Mr. Dreer has tifty-one letters andsigned docu-
ments towards a second set. and forty towards a third.

His collection of the Signers of the Constitution, limited
to those wlio actually signed the document, are all A. L. S.,
and is a very line one.

Beside these, Mr. Dreer has no less than seventy original
letters of Washington, from the earliest date to the time of
his death, remarkably complete and interesting — undoubt-
edly the largest accumulation of Washington letters extant,
outside of the Washington papers preserved by the Govern-
ment. He has also over forty letters of William Penn and
family; a large number of Franklin; no less than thirty of
Jefferson; and eleven of Edward Daitledge, written between
179.3 and 1797. These Washington, Penn, and Pranklin let-
ters are exclusive of those utilizad in various book illustra-

In addition to his own varied aquisitions, Mr. Dreer ob-
tained, some thirty years since, the rich collection of the late
Robert Gilmor, of Baltimore — including his set of autographs
of the Signers, and his especially rich array of foreign auto-
graphs, comprising the most celebrated sovereigns of l-^uropc,
with all the most distinguished generals, naval commanders,
statesmen, reformers, authors, artists, scientists, composers,
musicians, inventors, astronomers, explorers and travelers.
Among the set of musicians, are Handel, llayden, Beet-
hoven, Mozart, and Bach-all A. L. S.; astronomers, Galileo,
Kepler, the elder Herschel, son and daughter, all A. L. S.;
reformers, Luther, Melancthon, and De P.^za. fine A. L. S.;
also four of Cowper, four of P.)pe, four of Burns, two of
Gray, and others of Sir Christopher Wren, Thomson, Gay,
Byron, Shelley, Campbell, and Leigh Hunt's original of
Abou Ben Adhem.

In 1857, Wm. Brotherhead wrote, and privately printed,
an edition of twenty-five copies of a visit to Mr. Dreer's au-
tograph collection. It is in small folio size; and three pages

420 Wisconsin State Historical Society.

of the fifteen descriptive of all the groupings, are devoted to
the American portion, while twelve are given to the
foreign. It is a very interesti)ig exhibition of a noble gath-
ering of autographs, sparkling with gems of many a noted
man and woman of both continents.

jMany patient years has ^Ir. Dreer spent in arranging, re-
pairing and pressing his autographs, and adding tly leaves
for their protection. \lv devotes more liours to these inter-
esting labors tlian lie ever did to the acquisition of woalth.
His avarice is limited to the accumulation of autographs,
and grouping and improving them for noble and useful pur-
poses. Though in feeble health, he declares that his love
for collecting and repairing autogra])hs, and illustrating
books has added largely to liis happiness as Avell as aug-
mented his days.

1\\— Prof. Edward If. Leflingv;ell, son of William and Sally
Maria Beers Letlingvvell, was born in New 1 Liven, April W>,
180;5. He was graduated from Yale College in is-r^^, and
two years later was gra<luated in medicine. In isi"), he
went to Lima, South America, remaining there three years
in the practice of his profession, when he removed to Lam-
bay que, in Northern Peru, where he resided six years. Re-
turning to the United States in 18:5 1, he received the appoint-
ment of Professor of Chemistry and Natural History in the
University of Missouri; and, in 18;](j, he visited Buenos
Ayres, and the next year returning to his native country,
located a while at Brunswick, Maine, with a view of more
thoroughly prosecuting the study of physical science, under
the direction of Prof. Parker Cleveland, of Bowdoin College.
Returning to St. Louis, he resumed his chair in the Univer-
sity; and after nearly nine years' connection with that insti-
tution, when, owing to ill health, he I'esigned in J8V,*. lie
subse(iuently accepted the chair of (Chemistry and Toxicol-
ogy in the Medical College of Memphis, Tenn.; but the con-
dition of his healtli did not admit his long continuance

Prom 1855 to 1803, he resided in Boston; since which he
has made his home in New Haven. He commenced his au-
tograph collections upon his settlement in Boston. His full

Autographs of the Signers. 421

set of the Signers are all in folio size, save that of iMiddleton,
Avhicli is a ({iiarto. ]\Ir. l>iirns proaouiices it " a fine collec-
tion." In lsj7, it lacked only the autograph of I'aca, which
Avas soon after supplied. It numbers iifty-one A. L. S.; of
the remaining five. Hart and Morton arc A. I). S.; Hopkins,
L. S.; Gwinnett, D. S., and Lynch, a single signature. The
set has several 1 ; T'J letters, ami is unbound, prestu'vcd in
cases, and copiously illustrated with portraits and (.uigrav-
ings, biographical and historical cuttings.

He has a set of the Signers of the ( -onstitution, and of tlie
generals of tile Itjvolution; Prosiilents an-l Vice Presidents of
the United States, from AVashington to IJ.iclianan inclusive,
with the ht-ads of l)jp irtments, Judges of the Supreme
Court, and ministers to foreign courts; a set c>f the Protestant
Episcopel Bishops, from Seabiu-y to (Ireen; a set of English
sovereigns from Henry VII, witli two exception; and a set
of the English iVemiers from liOt to i^ord Peaconstield^
with a single exception.

v.— Dr. J(JiiN S. H. Fogg, Boston Afass. Dr. Fogg was born
in Eliot, York County, Maine, May Jl, 18>!0, and commenced
picking up autogra[)hs about the time of his graduation
from college, in IS-IO, nuiking (i[uite a collection of old com-
missions, etc. He re-commenced gathering autographs in
1M58, and for a year or two collected (piite a good number.

In IS?;), he was postrated by paralysis, and has ever since
been confined to his room, a constant sufferer. ] Recovering
somewhat from this attack, he turned his attention, in 1875,
to forming a set of the Signers, of which he already had a
few specimens, lie consummated the collection in 18S1 — a
wonderfully short period for such aditlicult accomplishment.
Many of these specimens he has since very materially im-

Mr. Burns declares it "really a fine set," which its com-
position proves. It is made up of lifty A. L. S.; Hey ward
Middleton, L. S.; Hart, Morton, and Gwinnett, D. S.: and
i^ynch, a cut signature. It presents an unusually strong
array of letters written during the Revolutionary period,
numbering forty-two; of which eighteen were written in
Independence year, 177G — three in July, Witherspoon's the

42-2 Wisconsin State Historical Society.

3d, Clark's the !)tli, and Hopkinson's the 23d. Such letters
as needed it, luive been thoroughly repaired; all are
mounted in a lly in a wrapper, and the illustrations are
mounted in the same wrapper. These illustrations consist
of engravings or etchings of all the Signers save ]\Iurtoh;
of some there are several dilferent likenesses, together with
Brotherhead's/ao siiitiles and views. As yet they are un-
bound, awaiting still further possible improvement.

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