Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments.

Catalogue of the Stearns collection of musical instruments online

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Body with one straight and one curved side. Twenty frets. Three

stopped, and fourteen open strings.
Length, 56 cm. ; width, 26 cm. ; depth, 3.2 cm.
Signed "Jos. Neuner, Passau."

1 149. ZlTHER. Eighteenth century Germany

Narrow body with rounded projection on one side. Fifteen frets.

Two pairs of wire stopped strings. Fourteen open strings.
Length, 50 cm.; width, 30.5 cm.; depth, 2.7 cm.

1 1 50. ZlTHER. Similar in form to No. 1 1 47 Germany

Twenty-six frets. Fourteen open, and three stopped strings.
Length, 59 cm. ; width, 32.3, cm. ; depth, 3.5 cm.

* Monthly Mag. International Musical Society, 1909, Part n, p. 341.

Case XII. West Section. Nos. 1180 to 1227 (Left to Right)).


1151. ZlTHER. Pear-shaped body. Usual frets and strings .... Germany
Length, 54 cm.; width, 28 cm.; depth, 5.2 cm.

Signed "Franz Kren, Munich."

1 1 52. ZITHER. Similar to No. 1 1 48 Germany

Length, 63.5 cm.; width, 30.5 cm.; depth, 3.7 cm.

1 1 53. ZITHER Germany

Guitar-shaped body. Nineteen frets. Ten open, and four stopped

strings. Length, 5 1 cm. ; width, 33. 1 cm. ; depth, 5. 1 cm.

1 154. ZITHER Germany

Typical form. Twenty-nine frets. Twenty-five open, and five

stopped strings. Tuning mechanism. Modern.
Length, 51 cm.; width, 30.5 cm.; depth, 2.7 cm.

1 155. ZlTHER. Seventeenth century Germany

Shallow body. Eighteen frets. Twelve open, and three stopped

strings. Length, 57.2 cm.; width, 30.3 cm.; depth, 4.2 cm.

1 1 56. ZITHER Germany

Round body with wide neck. Sixteen frets. Seven open, and three

stopped strings. Erroneously said to date from the fifteenth cen-
tury. Length, 51 cm.; width, 31 cm.; depth, 5.1 cm.

1 157. ZlTHER. Eighteenth century Germany

Guitar-shaped body. Nineteen frets. Ten open, and four stopped

strings. Length, 51 cm.; width, 28.2 cm.; depth, 3.3 cm.

1 1 58. ZITHER Germany

Typical body. Twenty-nine frets. Twenty-six open, and five

stopped strings. Length, 53 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; depth, 4 cm.

1 1 59. ZlTHER Germany

Pear-shaped body. Fifteen frets. Nine open, and three stopped

strings. Length, 61.7 cm.; width, 29.7 cm.; depth, 6.2 cm.

1 160. "REGENT" ZITHER (No. 3) United States

Flat body. Twenty-four wire strings arranged in three groups of

chords. The pitches of the strings are given on a printed label. By
attaching a strip of paper on which are printed certain directions,
a tune may be played by plucking the strings in the order indicated.
Length, 38 cm.; width, 15.2 to 20.3 cm.; depth, 8 cm.

1 161. "REGENT" ZITHER (No. 5) United States

Similar to the preceding instrument but of greater possibilities.
Length, 48 cm. ; width, 32.2 cm. ; depth, 8 cm.

1 162. "AUTO HARP," "Miller's Akkord Zither" Germany

Twenty-four wire strings controlled by bars with felt dampers.
Length, 49 cm. ; width, 1 0. 1 to 28.4 cm. ; depth, 7.8 cm.


1 163. "SVRENE" Germany

Body of black wood. Thirty-seven wire strings. Over the strings a

steel plate is placed through which project thirty-seven small points.

A perforated strip of cardboard is moved over these points, per-
mitting only certain combinations to sound when a plectrum is
drawn across the strings.

Length, 56.4 cm. ; width, 40.4 cm. ; depth, 8.5 cm.

1 164. BECKER'S "SOLOPHONE" Germany

An instrument on the same principle as the preceding, excepting that

it is manipulated by pistons.
Length, 44.8 cm. ; width, 34.4 cm. ; depth, 9 cm.

1 165. "ARPANETTA" Germany

Flat body with curved peg-head. Thirty-six wire strings. When a

perforated strip is drawn under the strings by rollers, brass plectra
and felt dampers are set in operation defining the strings that can
be made to sound.
Length, 63.4 cm.; width, 53 cm.; depth, 10.5 cm.

1 166. KLAVIATURZITHER (Eng. Zither Piano) Germany

A trapezoidal body mounted on three legs. Tangents attached to the

ends of the key levers pluck the string as in the ordinary zither.

The piano key-board has a compass of five octaves.
Length, 48 to 91 cm. ; width, 96 cm. ; depth, 20.5 cm. ; height, 81 cm.

Signed "Zavelberg and Kremer, D. R. P. No. 79381,

Koln. Pat. i, 10 Staaten."
As the key-mechanism normally does not belong to this type, its

presence in this particular instrument does not place it in Class V.

For convenience, Nos. 1330 a monochord, or violin and 1346

a harp are placed in Case XIV, but they are not legitimate

key-board instruments.

1 167. KANOON, QANON, or QANUN Turkey

Flat trapezoidal body of light colored wood, artistically inlaid. On

the resonance-box rest two bridges over which sixty-seven strings

are drawn. Twenty-four are of over-spun wire, the remainder of

gut. They are grouped in sets of two, three and four. Played

with plectra. Length, 88.6 cm. ; width, 5.2 to 36 cm. ; depth, 7 cm.

Section F. Vibrating Strings actuated by Impact.

The Dulcimer and its kin hark back to the Assyrian Azor. At an early

date it migrated to Arabia and Persia from whence it spread throughout the

entire Orient. Known at a later date in the Caucasus as Santir, it is today,

as the Cimbalon, the chief musical asset of the gypsy bands of Hungary and

Transylvania. A perfected instrument of this type, called the Panteleon, gave

Schrb'ter the first hint of a keyed instrument that could produce forte and piano.


As is well known he was forestalled in working out the principle by Cristofori,
the Italian. The latter may have been incited by the instrument of this type
called in Italy Strumenti da porco, later known in Germany as Schweinskopf.
The present more euphonious German name is Hacfybrett, a board on which
butchers chop sausage meat.


known as Tambourin de Gascogne Basque Province, France

Over the long resonance-box run six gut strings. These are struck
with a stick held in the left hand. The instrument rests in an up-
right position on the right arm. The right hand manipulates the
finger-holes of the Galoubet, or Churula (Case VI, No. 493)
which is always played at the same time. This practice is called
by the onomatopoeic term tutupomponeyer, or tutupanpan. 6
Length, 88.5 cm.; width, 17.5 to 1 1 cm.; depth, 6.7 cm.
"Whittle and dub" is an old Oxfordshire term for this combination. 6
In a chapel in the only ancient Gothic church in Rome, Santa Maria
sopra Minerva, is a fresco by Filippino Lippi, painted in 1487 (restored),
which shows a viol-shaped tambourin du Beam and schwegel a vertical flute
corresponding to the galoubet, or flute des vielleurs. (See Sachs, p. 146.)

1 1 69. DULCIMER England

Body of mahogany. Twenty-seven groups of wire strings, four in

each group, run over movable bridges. Struck with beaters of
whalebone, the ends of which are bent into a loop and padded with
chamois skin.
Length, 33 to 77 cm. ; width, 30 cm. ; depth, 7 cm.

1 170. YANG K'lN, "Foreign kin" China

Body of enamelled wood with curved outlines. Fourteen sets of

strings, of four each, are drawn over the sound-board. Carved
ivory rosette sound-holes. Struck with thin strips of bamboo and a
brass hammer. Length, 74.4 cm. ; width, 29.5 cm. ; depth, 5 cm.

1171. KANUNA India

Twenty-two brass wire strings are stretched over the resonance-cham-
ber or body. Played with hammers. A hinged door opens into
the interior, which is a receptacle for music, the hammers, or both.

Length, 95 to 89 cm. ; width, 46 cm. ; depth, 1 7 cm.
A more elaborate form is called the svaramandala, 1 and a smaller
type with fewer strings is known as the fchudra

5 Mahillon, Cat., Vol. Ill, p. 377-
6 Sachs, p. 422.
* Day, pp. 133, 134-


1 1 72. TRIPLE DULCIMER United States

Trapezoidal body resting on three piano legs. As there are three in-
dependent sets of strings, three can perform at the same time on
this instrument, which has been called by its inventor one Mac-
kenzie the "Piano Harp."

Length, 183.5 to 67.8 cm.; width, 42 to 57.8 cm.; height, 65 cm.

1 173. YANG K'IN China

Body of wood. Fourteen pairs of fine steel wire strings run over two

metal bridges. Played with two curved wooden mallets and the
usual brass hammer.
Length, 71 to 42 cm.; width, 26.3 cm.; depth, 3.7 cm.

1 1 74. YANG-K'IN China

Similar to the preceding instrument but with wooden bridges. Played

with two delicately balanced bamboo hammers, and a combination

tuning-key and hammer of brass. Carried in a wooden case.
Length, 70 to 42.5 cm. ; width, 25 cm. ; depth, 4. 1 cm.

The san-gen-da-Jfin, with forty-two wire strings, and two bridges

(Crosby Brown Collection, No. 2006), and the san-gen-kin, with

three silk strings, represent the type in Japan.

1 1 75. YANG-KOM Corea

Body of odang wood. Fourteen groups of four fine wire strings each.

This is also carried in a case, the lid of which bears an inscription
in Chinese characters. The instrument, which is extremely light, is
supported by the tip of the left thumb, while the fore finger is in-
serted in a hole in the base. The strings are struck by a long, thin
strip of bamboo held in the right hand. It is a favorite instrument
of the educated classes, used both for solo work and as an accom-
paniment for the voice.

Length, 64 to 44 cm.; width, 16.6 cm.; depth, 3.1 cm.

Collected by a Mr. Cooper, of Chemulpo, Corea.

1 1 76. SALTERIO Italy

Body decorated with gilt carving and marbled sides. Two carved

roses in sound-holes. Over the sound-board run ninety-one strings
of brass wire divided into sixteen groups of four each, and nine
groups of three each. Three movable gilded wooden bridges.
A most artistic eighteenth-century representative of the type.
Length, 33 to 77 cm. ; width, 30 cm. ; depth, 7 cm.


Sections A-D-E. Vibrating Plucked Strings.

With a few exceptions, the instruments in this Case come from the Orient.
Many of them are of distinct beauty and all are of great interest.

1 1 77. GOPI-YANTRA India

Body of calabash shell. A bamboo rod, split in the middle, is at-
tached to the body. From a peg on one side a single string runs to
the bottom of the instrument.
Height, 88 cm. Width of body, 1 3 cm. ; depth, 20 cm.

1 1 78. ANANDA-LAHARI Bengal, India

Body of bamboo. Parchment head, secured to bottom. One string

runs from this to the end of a rod standing at an angle.
Height, 7 1 cm. Depth of body, 1 3 cm. ; diameter, 1 8 to 12 cm.

1 1 79. EKA-TANTRIKA, or EKA-TARA India

Body of gourd with a head of rawhide. One string of fibre.
Height, 77 cm. Depth of body, 1 7 cm. ; diameter, 1 7 cm.

1 1 80. EKA-TARA. Similar to the preceding Deccan, India

EJfa-tara means "the one-stringed." Used by beggars.

Length, 94.5 cm. Depth of body, 1 2.5 cm. ; diameter, 2 1 cm.

1181. YEKTAR, or TUNTUNI India

Body of wood, covered with red cloth. Parchment head, or bottom,

tightened by rings which engage cords. The instrument is held
under one arm. A string runs through the head and is attached to
a ring by which it is drawn taut by one hand, and plucked by the
fingers of the other.
Height, 57 cm. Depth of body, 13.5 cm.; diameter, 12 cm.

1 182. TONKARI, or MUKKO. Aino Psaltery 1 Japan

Long, narrow, sword-shaped body of wood, stained black. Five

strings, giving a pentatonic series, run over two low bridges to long
tuning-pegs in sides of sword-handle.
Length, 1 72.2 cm. Width, 8 cm. Thickness, 3.5 cm.

1 Romyn Hitchcock writes (Rep. Nat. Mus., 1890, p. 462) : "A three-stringed instru-
ment called the tonkari was mentioned by a Japanese traveler in Yezo long before the
Ainos from Saghalien took up their abode there. On the same page a cut of a tonkari
with five strings, and of more ornate structure than No. 1182, is shown. He also mentions
a similar instrument called the mackimono a name not found in the literature of the
subj ect.


1 183. BLIKAN Borneo

This resembles the blifyan of Borneo in every respect but one, viz.:

the body tapers to lower end instead of being cut off square. It has
the same stringing and ornamental string-fastener. The difference
between the length of this specimen 148 cm. and 136 cm. the
length of the one in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 2
represents the tapering end. The greatest width is the same
1 4.2 cm. In view of the frequency with which variants of such in-
struments occur, the name bUfyan is given with considerable con-
viction, but with a full sense of the possible error involved.

1 184. BLIKAN. Similar to No. 1 183, but smaller Borneo

Length, 98.5 cm. ; width, 1 4.2 cm. ; depth, 5 cm.


Long boat-shaped body carved from a single block of wood. Five

frets. Two wire strings. Sometimes called viola-da-kavan, but
without authority.

Length, 77 cm. ; greatest width, 9 cm. ; depth, 7 cm.

No. 1491 in the Crosby Brown Collection (Morris, p. 6) is a speci-
men (also given no name) considerably larger (97.9 cm. long and
1 0.4 cm. wide) and, unlike this, painted in red and green.

1186. HERRAUU. Zeze type. One string. Three rude frets. .Madagascar
Gourd resonator, decorated in incised lines and floral designs.
Length, 61 cm.; width, 3.1 cm.; dimensions of gourd, 9.5 by 12 cm.

1 1 87. GUITAR. Two strings. Gourd resonator Source unknown

This resembles the unknown instrument listed as No. 959, in Case

IX. It has wire strings running over two tubes on each of which
are incised frets, in two groups of four each.
Length, 60 cm.; depth of gourd, 15.2 cm.; diameter, 16 cm.

1 188. GuENBRl Sahara, Africa

Oblong box with belly of rawhide. Three strings, tightened by push-
ing them up the neck. Decorated with leather fringes carrying
cowrie-shells. A very rude and inchoate specimen.

Length, 90 cm. ; of body, 46 cm. ; width, 2 1 cm. ; depth, 1 cm.

1 189. GUENBRI Soudan, N. E. Africa

Oblong box covered with brocade. Painted parchment belly. Two

gut strings. Other names for the guenbri are: ganibri, ghimbri, 3

2 Morris, p. 16.

8 In "A Visit to Wazan" (London, 1880, pp. 310-311), R. Spencer Watson refers to this
instrument as follows: "In the evening I had a visit from one of the famous professionals
who sing at some of the cafes of the town. Unfortunately, he did not bring with him the
lady who usually sings with him, and his own performance on the ghimbri, a two-stringed
guitar, was monotonous and wearisome,"


gimbrede, gimbri, gnbri, guniberry, gunibri, and in all probability
still others.
Length, 53 cm. ; of body, 28 cm. ; width, 1 5 cm. ; depth, 1 6.5 cm.

1 190. GNBRI Soudan, N. E. Africa

An elongated body covered with parchment at the lower end.

From the bamboo neck extend two strings over a bridge. Played
with a plectrum. This closely resembles the mijue mijue of
Sumatra (Morris, p. 14) excepting that the long pointed end is
absent. This is an example of the frequently perplexing, but al-
ways interesting, points of contact between types representing widely
separated countries.
Length, 58. 1 cm. ; of body, 1 8 cm. ; width, 9 cm. ; depth, 5 cm.

1 191. GlNBRl Soudan, N. E. Africa

Body formed from a section of gourd with skin drawn over the front.

From the neck, of wood, run two strings.
Length, 42 cm. ; of body, 1 8 cm. ; width, 9 cm. ; depth, 7 cm.

1 1 92. GUENBRI Algeria

Body of the handsomely marked shell of a land tortoise. Belly of

parchment decorated with native characters in red. Two gut
strings run from pegs in neck over a bridge to a peg at the bottom
of the body.
Length, 44.5 cm. ; of body, 1 7 cm. ; width, 1 2 cm. ; depth, 6.5 cm.

1 1 93. GUNIBRI Soudan, N. E. Africa

An elongated pear-shaped body over the front of which a skin the

forehead of an ox is drawn. Rudely carved peg-head. A small
mirror and a string of wooden beads serve for decoration.
Length, 65.9 cm. ; of body, 35.5 cm. ; width, 12.3 cm. ; depth, 7.6 cm.

1 1 94. LoKANGA. Two strings. Zese type Madagascar

Body a straight tube of reed, to which a large gourd resonator is at-
tached. Two fibre strings.

Length, 58.6 cm.; width, 2.5 cm.; diameter of gourd, 19.4 cm.

In playing, the gourd is pressed against the breast. This practice is

a common one, for thereby the resonance is increased.
The Swahili call the three strings of the zeze: i/umn>a/z, utembwe,

and umondo.* In Mozambique this instrument is called yaita-

yatta. 5 It is known under many an alias in the widely distributed

sections in which its note is heard.

* Sachs, p. 430.
5 Sachs, p. 426.


1 195. JANTAR. Two strings. Resonator in two sections India

The body ends in a rude violin scroll and peg-box. The strings are

tightened by screw-pegs. The resonator consists of two sections of
gourd, one superimposed on the other. It exhibits considerable
constructive skill.
Length, 62 cm. ; width, 3 cm. ; diameter of gourds, 9 and 1 7 cm.

1 1 96. GUENBRI North Africa

The back of a turtle forms the body. Parchment belly. Two gut

Length, 84 cm. ; of body, 1 8 cm. ; width, 1 6 cm. ; depth, 1 0.2 cm.

1 197. CAMBREH 6 Sierra Leone, Africa

Long narrow body carved from a single block of bile^e wood. Head

of parchment. Four strings of horse-hair. Played with a plec-
trum, colonde, the tooth of a native rodent, agonto.
Length, 7 1 cm. ; of body, 38.5 cm. ; width, 1 cm. ; depth, 7 cm.

1 1 98. CAMBREH Haussa Tribe, W. Africa

Body of palm-wood. Belly of parchment. Three strings of horse-
hair fastened to leather bands about the neck, the primitive tuning
device. Length, 54 cm. ; width, 1 cm. ; depth, 8 cm.

1 199. GUITAR Egypt

Body of rude construction. Parchment belly. Five gut strings, four

of which are grouped in pairs. Played with a bone plectrum.
Length, 68.5 cm.; width, 12 cm.; depth, 7 cm.

1 200. GUITAR. Native name unknown Somali-land, Africa

Body, neck, and head, of one piece. Parchment belly. Finger-
board ornamented with rude carvings; the body with a rosette
sound-hole, and a mirror. Six gut strings, in groups of two each.

Length, 65.9 cm. ; width, 10 cm. ; depth, 6.4 cm.

1201 . GUITAR Arabia

Carved from a single block of hard brown wood. Parchment belly.

Elaborately constructed finger-board. Carved head. Six strings
of gut. Rosette sound-hole. The body of this instrument resembles
an elongated rebab, but it does not present the characteristics of any
of the Arabian bowed instruments. It can safely be included in
the designation given above.
Length, 63 cm. ; width, 1 1 cm. ; depth, 6 cm.

Mahillon (Cat. II, p. 174) gives an illustration of a native playing an instrument iden-
tical with this. He calls it the halam, ''an instrument resembling the cambrek," but gives
no further information save its source, Senegal. Sachs (p. 76) gives the alternative name,
chalam, and calls it a Saiteninstrutnent, Kambre.


1202. STRINGED INSTRUMENT. Tanbur type Slavic

Elaborately decorated body. Circular sound-hole cut in centre of the

back. Parchment belly. Inlaid finger-board. Four wire strings.
Length, 106.5 cm.; of body, 33.4 cm.; diameter, 28 cm. ; depth,

1203. GuiTAR. Native name unknown China

The entire shell of a large turtle forms the body. Six strings. Eleven

frets. The peg-end of the finger-board bends backwards and ter-
minates in a typical Chinese scroll (reversed). The fact that
neither Mahillon, Moule, Sachs, nor Van Aalst mentions such an
instrument is significant. It suggests European influence.
Length, 101 cm.; of body, 38 cm.; width, 33 cm.; depth, 31 cm.

1204. TA'KHE (Lizard) Siam and Cambodia

Body of dark red wood resting on six short legs. Three strings pass

over a group of frets. Played with an ivory plectrum held in the

right hand while the left stops the strings.
This is a variant of the megyoung, Case IX, No. 990.
Length, 1 24 cm. ; width of body, 11 to 2 1 cm. ; depth, 1 2 cm. ; height,


1 205. DoMRA 7 Russia

Oval, bowl-shaped body. Leather belly. Carved head. Three

strings of wire. Played with a wooden plectrum, sc/iepoc/i^a.
Length, 91 cm.; of body, 23.5 cm.; diameter, 24 cm.; depth, 9.5 cm.

1 206. STRINGED INSTRUMENT. Tanbur type Slavic

This instrument, like No. 1 202, refused to be placed. No one among

the many authorities consulted has been able to give more specific
information than that contained in the title. Both instruments are
of unusually fine construction, of sonorous tone, of unmistakable
type and, in a general way, their provenance is quite certain, but as
they do not correspond in details to anything in the literature of the
subject the nearest approach being No. 769, Mahillon II, 1 14-5
the titles chosen will have to stand for the present at least, for
"while there's life there's hope."
Length 1 09 cm. ; of body, 30.5 cm. ; diameter, 26.5 cm. ; depth, 8 crn.

7 With only partial assurance of its correctness, the name domra is assigned for the
following reasons: It corresponds to the description given by Sachs (p. 114); it has the
peculiar wooden plectrum; it has everything in common with Slavic and Balkan types; no
authority consulted could suggest either name or source, other than one of those just given;
and, finally, Mr. Stearns" correspondence shows that in 1000 he was negotiating for speci-
mens of the instrument, although there is nothing to indicate that the negotiations were
successful. The Turkish-Albanian yonghar and the Georgian chnnguri, each with thres
strings, and the changura (kontrastiica), with four strings, might be suggested, but their
identification is incomplete in essential details. Not one of these instruments is listed in
any catalogue, nor is the domra.


J207. THARI Caucasus

Body carved from a single block of wood. Belly of fine parchment.

Sixteen gut frets. Five strings.
Length, 83 cm. ; of body, 30 cm. ; width, 20 cm. ; depth, 1 8 cm.

1 208. TAR Shiraz, Persia

Body similar in form to preceding. The entire body, neck, and peg-
box, are exquisitely inlaid with minute bits of metal, wood, and
ivory, in geometrical patterns. Inlaid finger-board. Parchment
belly. Five fine wire strings.

Length, 91 cm.; of body, 35 cm.; width, 23 cm.; depth, 18 cm.

1209. FuEH CH'lN, or YUE K'lN. "Moon-guitar" China

Flat, circular body with neck and rim of shitan wood. Eleven frets.

Two pairs of waxed silk strings. Wire snare within body. This is
not for noise merely, but, as it has a fixed pitch, it aids the musician
in his tuning.

Length, 62 cm. ; diameter of body, 35. 1 cm. ; depth, 3.9 cm.


1210. YuEH CH'lN. Similar to No. 1209, but 3 cm. shorter China

The body of the pue/j c/Tfn is of rvu t'ung wood and the connecting

rim of boxwood.

1211. GEKKIN China, and Japan

The peg-head is carved and bent forward as in the typical gefn, but

the face of the body lacks the usual decorations.
Length, 62 cm. ; diameter of body, 3 1 .6 cm. ; depth, 3.8 cm.



Flat, circular body, with neck and rim of shitan wood. Nine frets,
over which run four strings grouped in pairs. This has a much
shorter neck than No. 1217, which is a typical specimen. Possibly
it would be more discreet to simply call this a "moon-guitar" but, as
it is from Anam and the Anamese ngnyet means "moon," the risk
is assumed.
Length, 56 cm. ; diameter of body, 34.5 cm. ; depth, 3.6 cm.

1213. MOON GUITAR Japan

Peculiar proportions. Decorated with carved wooden ornaments, and

a trefoil of fish-skin under the strings. Fourteen frets. Two pairs

of silken strings. The body also contains a wire snare.

This instrument has the round body and decoration of the gein, but

not the short neck ; it has the long neck of the gentt>an 8 but not the

8 Piggott, p. 171.


octagonal body. The number of frets, and certain of the measure-
ments do not coincide with either.
Length, 94 cm. ; diameter of body, 2.5 cm. ; depth, 3 cm.

1214. PEPA, or P'IP'A China

The elongated oval body is of ruu t'ung wood, and the neck terminates

in a carved representation of a bat's head. Four rounded and two
flat plates of ivory are attached to the neck. There are nine frets on
the face of the body, over which two pairs of strings run to the peg-
box. The long pegs are fluted as in most Chinese and Japanese
stringed instruments.
Length, 97 cm. ; width of body, 3 to 23.6 cm. ; depth, 6 cm.

1215. BUGAKU-BIWA Japan

Shallow elongated body of a very heavy wood (the instrument

weighs 6J/2 Ibs) . Four frets. Four strings.
Length, 99 cm. ; of body, 60 cm. ; width, 29 cm. ; depth, 5 cm.

1216. SATSUMA-BIWA Japan

Flat oval body decorated with two metal crescents. Four strings.

The neck can be removed in order that the instrument may be

packed in small compass.

Length, 102 cm.; of body 40.5 cm.; width, 18.7 cm.; depth, 6.2 cm.

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