Stephen D. (Stephen Denison) Peet.

The American antiquarian and oriental journal [electronic serial] online

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transmitted light, the color is a light apple green. It has been drilled at
two places on the back edges with holes 4 mm, (i in.) in width and has
been cut or sliced from some boulder, as three of the back edges show. At
one place on the side there are evidences of an attempt to slit it. On the
front, Dr. Valentini says that the cutting represents a human £Ebce or mask,
or rather the headgear ot a man, representing the symbol. Achau, mean-
ing the "Ross" or '^Lord," the head of the tribe, one of the most common
motives of the Maya, which is found at least one thousand times drawn and
colored in the Maya codics, forming the walls and friezes of their struc-
tures. AcJiau is also the name of the 19th day of the Maya month.

The two eyes are represented by circles with two flattened sides. Below
these is a beard or tattooing. A circle with a central dot repre-
sents a month, and the nose is an oblong between the two eyes, extending
below the tattooing. The ears are quite natural, and from them are sus-
pended feather pendants, which also cover the top of the head and proba-
bly ornament the chin also. It was undoubtedly used as a breast-plate or
ornament, suspended from the neck of a chief or idol.

He also said that the theory that jadeite or chalchihuitl (jadeite and not
turquoise was called such) was highly prized by the aborigines had been
greatly strengthened during the last ten years, more especially since Prof.
Putnam exhibited before the American Antiquarian Society, April, 1886,
his remarkable series of Nicaraguan and Costa Rican jadeites, which were
all ornaments made by cutting into halves, thirds or quarters, celts perfor-
ated by one or two drilled holes, in one instance two of them fitting to-
gether. Prof. Fisher's theory, he stated, was that this jadeite originally
came from the East. The sixteen-pound adze exhibited by Mr. Kunz at
the last meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Sci-
ence, from which fully two pounds had been cut ; the breast-plate herewith
exhibited only one-half inch in thickness, and the £Eu;t that Burmese jadeite
when burned or exposed to a high temperature will assume the grayish-
green color of the Mexican all tend to support this theory, although Dr.
Meyer, of Dresden, still firmly believes that this material will yet be found



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390 THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN.

in tUu in Mexico, and that a paper read before the American Antiquarian
Society, April 27th, 1881, by Prof. P. J. J. Valentini, described the Humboldt







Jhnuduleni Arrow Heads,
celt or votive adase and the I^yden plate, two remarkable carved jadeites.
The formercelt was 'presented to Humboldt by Del Rio in 1803, and the
Leyden plate was given to that museum by S. A. Von Bramm, who found



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LITERARY NOTES. 391

it near St. Felipe, close to the borders of Guatamala in Honduras. They
are both 9 inches in length and 3} inches wide, the former 1 2-5 inches in
thickness and the latter 1-5 inch. From this identity of measurement and
the &ct that the two, if placed fiEu;e to face, have exactly the same outline*
Mr. Kunz said he thought the two objects, which are among the most re-
markable ones of this material known, it is evident that they were originally
part of one and the same celt, and that the remaining parts might still be
found. He also announced that pectolite, the jadeite substance of which
many of the implements found at Point Barrow are made, had recently
be discovered in situ in Tehema County, CaL, and that he had obtained an
ice cutter of true jade, weighing nine pounds, from the Yukon river, with
the assurance that at no distant day a large mass directly from the rock
would be sent him from that district.

^LD Ornaments — Mr. Kunz exhibited a large gold ornament, loaned him
by Dr. Rossiter W. Raymond, of New York, who furnished the following
account of its finding, and who will describe in the Trans-American Institute
of Mining Engineers : It was unearthed during some excavations made for
the foundation of mine buildings for the Great Bemance Gold Mine, situated
near San Francisco, at the northeastern terminus of a road connecting the
mines with the Pacific coast at Santiago, department of Veraguas, east of
Chiriqui, department Nactional de Panama, United States of Colombia. A
skeleton was buried with it and it had evidently been used as a breast or-
nament. It weighs 7.23 oz. Troy, dwts., and measures 20 c. m. (8 inches)
across the wings, and 10 c. m. (4 inches) from the head to the spread tail.
It represents a bat with a deer's head, the antlers having alligators'
heads, these on a human-like body with six toes on each foot. It is
made of two colors of gold, the body and right wing being of yellow gold
and the other of red gold. There are no signs of welding. The body proper
is undoubtedly a casting and on the back is an eye that served as a hook,
also a part of the body and evidently made at the same casting. The in-
teresting ornament is now awaiting transportation to England, but Dr.
Raymond will make every effort to retain it in the United States.

Fraudulent Arbow-Heads. — Mr. Kunz said that among some hundreds
of arrow-points sent from near Statesville, N. C, he noticed some that had
the appearance of having been re-chipped, or, in other words, repaired and
improved by some ingenious native, who, when he had an arrow-point that
was broken or out of proportion, very skillfully re-chipped it so as to make
a more perfect point or side, or a new barb. He then covered it with mud
which, when dry, was rubbed lightly off", leaving the newly made surfece
80 coated that the chipping was scarcely perceptible. A little washing re-
moved this, however, and exposed the deception. See cut.

f Aboriginal £otteby op the Middle States. — An article by Francis Jordan,
Jr., read before the American Philosophical Society, March 2, 1888, speaks
of the scarcity of whole vessels of i)ottery in the Eastern and Middle
Atlantic States, not exceeding twenty-five in all, three or four specimens
only having been found in New England. The most completel collection of
whole pieces being in the cabinet of the Wyoming Historical and Geologi-
cal Society, described by the late Harrison Wright. He thinks that the
pottery of the Atlantic seaboard is primitive in its character; but that that of



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S92 THE ABIERICAN ANTIQUARIAN.

the Miflsiflrippi valley will rank with the early prodactions of the pottery of
the Old World. There are marked differences in the design and decora-
tion. Theoommon_and most primitive shape being that of the gonid, and



the most advanced being that with rectangular tops, either square or octagon
in shape. Bottle-shaped vases are rare in New England; common among tTe

mounds. No imitations of the human

form in New England specimens, but
many in the Middle States ; also imi-
tations of birds and animals. The
potter's-wheel seems to have been
unknown in America, at least in
the eastern part of the continent.

We give cuts here of two pottery ves- ,

sels which were discovered in Michi-
gan and described by Bela Hubbard.
The first or larger vessel is of the com-
mon type, but the second or smaller
vessel is quite novel. It shows that

there was a very considerable difference between the culture of the differ-
ent races who dwelt in Michigan.



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BOOK REVIEWS. 39»



BOOK REVIEWS.

PaUnque, et La Cfimlization Maya. By F. A. De La Rochefoucauld. I. VoL^
octavo, pp. 192. Illustrated. Paris, 1888. Ernest Larouz.

It ought to require some courage for a person wholly unknown in Ameri-
can studies to come forward with a fluent translation of the Maya hiero-
glyphics, the inscriptions on the celebrated altar piece of Palenque, etc»
But here we have the man to do it. Without any preliminary hemming or
hawing, he informs the world that he has solved the enigma, and this, even
though possessed of the most rudimentary knowledge of the Maya language.

M. de la Rochefoucauld's system is of the simplest : The Mayas wrote
according to the method of 'Msible speech," now so familiar through Prof*
Bell's efforts. The figures of their manuscripts and sculptured stones rep-
resent the i>osition of the mouth and vocal organs in pronouncing the vow-
els and consonants of their language. By observations among Maya-speak-
ing Indians the author convinced himself of this, and soon perfected a
complete alphabet, which he found identical with the glyphs at Palenque.
Along with these, he asserts that they used the rebus, or what has been
called the "Iconomatic" method, in which the portraiture of an object
stands for its phonetic equivalent. Equipped with these resources he boldly
proceeds to translate in detail the Palenque inscriptions.

Needless to say, he makes queer work of it. If all other students of the
Maya-writing have agreed at least on the signs for the numerals, this latest
investigator throws this with every other alleged explanation overboard.
A simple Nahuatl name becomes for him a long Maya sentence; as Culhua-
caUf which he translates ''the distant murmur of lofty wisdom arrives with
her"! ! His notes on the ''triangle of inscriptions," on "the days of the
Maya month," on "the translation of the first line of the Dresden Codex,**
surpass in wild vagaries the most astounding reveries of the Abbe Brasseur
de Bourbourg.

How unfortunate it is that works of this kind continue to be published
and even accepted by some as the regult of serious study of the subject I It
is discouraging to find that archaeology is still in such an infantile condition
as to allow the possibility of such groundless imagining to be placed on the
catalogue of a publisher of scientific books. D. G. B.

ArU de La Lengua Maya, par, Fr. Gabriel de San Buenaventura, Mexico,
1684. Reprint, Mexico, 1888.

This extremely rare ArU has especial value as representing the grammat-
ical structure of the Maya as it was in the first century after the conquest,
and its republication by Senor Icazbalceta is highly praiseworthy. It is in
fac nmile and very neatly done.

The Maya has since suffered great alterations by the efforts of Ruz and
other missionaries, who essayed to bring it into accord with the Latin
Grammar. Buenaventura, an educated Frenchman, learned it and analyzed



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394 THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN.

it before the tongue was thus maltreated. He also composed a large dic-
tionary, which has been lost. The students of the Maya will be wise to
prefer his opinion on any grammaticai question, when it differs from that
of Beltran and the later writera on the language. D. 6. B.

Qabbalah, The I^Uosophical Writingi of Solomon Ben Yekudah Ihn GdArol,
or Avlcebron, and Their QmnectUm wUh the Hebrew Qabbalah and Sepher
HorZohar, etc. By Isaac Myer, LL3., etc. ; I. vol., 8yo., pp. 497. Illus-
trated. Published by the author. Philadelphia, 1888.

The Cabala— for in spite of the author's arguments we shall employ the
orthography which long use has sanctioned for the English language — ^is a
body of Hebrew writings which first came to the knowledge of the learned
toward the close of the thirteenth century. They were composed in a de-
signedly obscure style and in an impure dialect They treated ostensibly
of the mystical interpretation of the Pentateuch, an interpretation alleged
to have been handed down orally from the remotest ages of Israelitic cul-
ture, and in writing from the second century of the Christian era; but, in
&ct, they go much beyond this, and constitute a compendium of speculative
philosophy and practical ethics clothed in simile and symbol, parable and
allegory.

These reveries have many points of contact with the Neo-Platonism of
Plotinus and the theosophy of the Alexandrinian Jews ; and consequently
when this Neo-Platonism became popular in the sixteenth century, deep
interest was awakened in the Cabalistic writings. More than one bril-
liant genius, like Pico of Mirandola, fell a victim to their labyrinthine
subtleties, wasting high intellectual gifts in threading these aimless mazes.

In the present age we approach the Cabala in a different spirit from the
sixteenth century students. We turn to it merely as an exposition of one
epoch of metaphysical speculation, as an illustration of One phase of the
human mind struggling with the great secret of the universe, not by any
means expecting to find in its dark pages that great secret itself.

The chief criticism we have to make of the author of the work before us
is that in some passages, and perhaps in the spirit of his whole laborious
investigation, he really seems to believe that this secret does lie somewhere
in the mystic philosophemes he explains; but perhaps it is merely the en-
thusiasm of the earnest student which imparts this tone to his words.

Certainly he has exploited his mine most conscientiously. He defends
the Zohar, which is one of the principal Cabalistic books,- against the chaige
of being a forgery ; and if he fiiilB to prove this, we Ithink he does show
that at least it was based on other older documents and ancient oral Jewish
tradition. Mr. Myer then enters into many interesting expositions of the
relation of this mystical philosophy to portions of the New Testament,
showing quite plausibly that many [sayings of Christ and expressions of
the apostles bear reference to, and can only be understood by, this esoteric
Hebraic theosophy. The account of the creation (Gen. I.) as explained by
the Cabalistic teachers is a striking example of their method, and the author
devotes a chapter to it. The notion of man as the microcosm, a £Etvorite
idea of the Cabalists, is developed at length. The connections of the doc-
trines of the Zohar and its exponents with those of the Neo-Platonists, the
Gnostics, the Assyrians and Babylonians, the Chinese, etc., are set forth



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BOOK REVIEWS. 395

with extensive eradition. Indeed, no one, even if unacquainted with the
subject, can examine the volume without being impressed with the wide
reading of the author, and his determination to avail himself of all the
light which generations of scholars have thrown upon this obscure branch
of learning. D. G. B.

Anaies dd Muses Michoacans. Redactor. Dr. Nicholas Leon. Morelia, Mex-
ico, 1887-8.

Gur worthy colleague, Dr. Nscholas Leon, continues with unabated zeal
his studies into the ethnology of Michoacan, the home of the ancient Tar-
aacas. This people, at the time of the contest with Cortes, submitted them-
selves peacefully to the Spanish yoke, but felt its weight none the less
heavily. They were quite well up in culture, the equals apparently of the
Aztecs. Their language is veryjdifferent fix)m the NahuatI, being peculiarly
rich in vowel sounds and long, harmonious words. Very little attention has
been paid them by archseologists, and hence the efforts of Dr. Leon to col-
lect and preserve their existing remains, to describe the ruins of their
edifices and to republish the scant and scarce works upon their language,
merit the recognition and thanks of all students. This he sets about to do
in the periodical publication named at the head of this notice, and we be-
speak for it the attention and suyport of those interested in Mexican
ethnology. The doctor may be addressed Morelia, State of Michoacan»
Mexico.

Meura ei Monuments des Peoples Prehistoriques, Par le Marquis de Nadaillac.

Dlustrated, 8vo., pp. 312. G. Masson, Paris, 1888.

It is astonishing, when we come to look at in detail, what an amount of
real knowledge we are acquiring about the ages before history began. This
is admirably illustrated in the handsome volume us, by the well-known
author of UAmerique Prehistorique. No one is better qualified to treat the
many debated questions relating to prehistoric times with wider knowledge
and a more judicial mind.

After a preliminary chapter on the extent and duration of the stone age,
he sets forth to depict the condition of man during that time as illustrated
by his remains. In this survey, the reader is brought into acquaintance
with the food and clothing of those ancient peoples, their arms and uten-
sils, their ornaments, arts and habitations. With regard to the last men-
tioned, special attention is given to the cave-dwellings, the pile-supported
villages of Switzerland, the shell heaps, and the megalithic monuments.
Their fortified towns, as Hissarlick and Santorin, are described, the ancient
highways of commerce are mapped out, and finally the methods of inter-
ment and sepultures of these pristine fathers of the race are discussed.

The volume is abundantly illustrated and attractively written. What is
more important, it's statements can be relied upon as trustworthy reports of
the latest investigations, as it's author ranks second to none as an authority
on the topics trerted of by his pen.

Hrsl Contributions to the study of Folh-lore of PhUaddphia and Us VxcinUy. By
Henry Phillips, Jr. Read before the American Philosophical Society,
March 16, 1888.

Folklore of the Oermans, By the same.
The establishment ofT;^ JMk^lore J<mmal has already resulted in the de-



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396 THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN.

velopment of considerable literature in the line of local folk-lore and saper*
BtitioDS. Pennsylvania seems to be the home of a considerable nnmber of
these traditionary tales and notion4. The customs which prevail among the
German fanners are based on superstitions which have been handed down,
some of them transmitted from the old country.

IL Adventures of Pioneer Children; or, Life in the WUdemen, £. Fenwick
Colerick. Price $1.00.

This interesting little book brings before us scenes which were common
at any early day in Ohio. Stories are told of adventures with wolves, with
Indians, with snakes, bears, etc. The book is illustrated by a number of
full-page wood-cuts. Among them is a picture of Boone's block-house at
Boonesborough and the burning of Ck>lonel Crawford ; both of which bring
to mind important historical events. Like all of Robert Clarke's publica-
tions the book is gotten up in excellent style.
Ill, Forman'e Journey Down the Ohio and Mxeaimppi in 1789-90. By Lyman

C. Draper, LL.D., of Wisconsin.

The journal of a pioneer excursion down the Ohio river in X789-90 is given
in this little volume. There is a mention of various points of interest;
Pittsburg, Marietta, Ft. Washington, Judge Symme's settlement, Louisville,
Fort Massac, New Madrid, Natchez.

The author delights in morsels like this. He has a large amount of man-
uscript in his fire-proof library building, and it would be well if other mon -
ographs were prepared by him.

HiMory of Civilization. The Ancient World or Dawn of History, By E. A

Cincinnati: Central Publishing House, 1888.

We have already reviewed the first volume of this series. It bears the
title of ''The Prehistoric World." This, the second volume, treats of the
following topics: The Races of Men, Ancient Society, Primitive Culture^
Primitive Religion, Yellow Races, Ancient Egypt, the Semites, and the
Semites continued. It is a subscription book, but is nicely gotten up, and
is written in a very scholarly and interesting style. The auUior has spent
a great deal of time in its preparation, and has done honost and good work.
The plan is to write four books on the history of civilization, though it is
probable that the first two will be the most valuable of the series. Thev
will be at least regarded so by archeeologists. as they treat of the prehistoric
and early historic subjects. It is well that this compendium of all that has
been written on these different topics has been prepared and published, for
it will save archseologists a great aeal of time and expense. The author has
had access to the books in the public library at Cincinnati, and has a facul-
ty of skimming the cream from them. Of course the specialists in different
departments will prefer to fgo to first sources, and yet he will find many
things su0?estive m this work. We are ^lad to commend it to our readers
as a valuable contribution to proto-histonc archaeology.



BOOKS RECEIVED.

Oeology as a Means of Culture; Geology and (he Bible; Speculative Consequences
of Evolution, by Alexander Winchell, LL.D.
CeU Life, byJulius Pohlman, M. D.
Glondn, a "Heart Remedy, by E M. Hale, M. D.
Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society , April 25, 1888.
Transactions of the New York Academy of Science, 1887-1888.



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X. JANUARY. 1888. No. i.

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©rieutal ^ourttaL



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ai-Motmii.T.
Terms, $4-00 per Aiuiufli.



Addraee a D. PBBT» BCendon, BUnote.

Ob IT* WABA8H AVWrUB, 0HI0A4O, iM*



fEnUred at the Postofflce, at Mendon, III., as noond-claas matter.]



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TABLE OF CONTENTS.



Qbbat MonvD K^ab Dwaqn, .... Frontiflpiece

PiMp i wu MC AmmMOLoat nr W«nnor Eubopb. Saoond Fscper. Att-

tmUd. By ThoDUH WHaon, WMhiiigtam, D. a, 2(

Fbooib OF AaoBiaiKAL CuLTvnuk By H. H. Bancroft, Sui Fntneifloo, - 21
Poor Soumd Indiani. Fifth Paper. By Bev. M. Eells, ShokomiBh,

Washington Tdrritory, ...... 26

Abcbmojjoqy of Miohioan. niostnled. By Stephen Jk Peet, 86

Tubal Bouitdabixs of tna finLncoa. By Fnnz Boas, K. Y. City, - 40

OoKBBFONDKMCB— Novel Mothod of Preaerving Peace, by Jaa. Deana,
Yictoria, B. C; Belic8ftomaOayeinOhio,byJ.R.NiBBley,Ada;
Two-barred French Gro08,by Profl James D. Bntler; A Stone
Charm in th^, Jtfpoth pf .i^.Moi\!id*baild||r, 4>y R P. Vining, - 42
EonoBiAii— PaleoUthics, Momd^biiildeM, the Age and Date of each, 46
LmsAior. JjfqrnB^rhy the Editov-inrOhief— Thc^ Mtmn, Ba^ns, The
79lt^(^ Chamay's New Book, Chanibcpi m Moondfli Colossal
Heads* Death's Heads and ftniliiig Flaees, Oouposite ¥ltptog-
n^ptot Serpent and jBiva. Wonih^)^ A Chi^^ gymhpl «t Q>pan,
T^ Ffgores Seen by Marquette. Thegphin^ in America,
: cThe^Bownepf the Jg<cho». Wheeled Carjiag^ ja iEr^historic
• Timesi TAttooiqg; Th& STatives of Hispaniola» I^setuiaQS. on
P4^tiDe, Foqr Baoes in YocatM^ The .€ef|Mait. $b^mbol in
Qweden, - «..-.-.•.•.- - 61

Book BsviswB-^Sixth Annual Bftg^oft ef the United Statea.Geelegical
Survey, Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Cone-
wago, Ancient Nahuatl Poetry, Totemism, Ancient Cities of the
New World, Records of Ancient Cities in the Mississippi Val-
ley, Bibliography of the Eskimo Languages, The Science of
Thought, Conventionalism in Ancient Ameiioan Art, 60



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ALL made of handsome material and of the finest wcH^SiofuislMiMnjare. All of
good workmanship, but slightly defined. All make gckia c«iDind€jpeclmen8.

Common and Bare Types Bpeeifled.

No. *L Level base arro^ jpelats, price ^.. 80. to 80o

No. 2.. Round " " ». *^»«' .♦ •• _.... ;. 7cto80o

No. S. Indented base anpw points, prioe '..., ...«, lac. tofiOo

No. 4. Stemmed " •* *••. " « .'.„ 4c to 16c

.No. (L. Indented 9tem arrow points, '* SctoaOo

No. e. Notched base ". " " .,...! 4cto20o

No. 7. Leaf shape,, thin outiing edge all around the drcumferenoe, price.; lOc to 50o

. mP' 9> Barbed ba«e arrow point, price ^ lOe. to60o

No. £ Rotary ** ' « "^ *^ « ..; ;; ;_ «o.to40o

No.ia Beveled - " « " ,1 l^.totl

J^o.ll. Serrated ed«e ". •* . " ....,....-...,. ,.., ...v-mw lO^toll

AU the abovo types mn be ftapMshed in Apear j«ea^V pn« afi^ dii(iiii^ng for «^p.
0end< stam p for lUustca^d catalogue of relics.

J. B. NI8BLX7. Ada, Hardin Oo^ O.
Mr. Nlssley is the authorized agent for the Americctn An Hquarian.

Geologioftl and Arehaologioal Spaoimens, and Sekntifle Books.

/lOBAIiB firom the &lla of the Ohio a specialty. Gan fhmish from a single ez*
V/ ample to one hundred thousand. Correspondence with advanced coUeotprs and
Professors of Colleges solicited. Best of reference given and satisflusUon guaranteed,
or money will be reAmded.

a. K. aBXBNS,

No. 17D East 80th Street, New Albany, Ind.
x4-ttt MenikmikeAnUtuwrian.

DXAUEB or

BUFFALO HORN ORNAMENTS.

CIGAR VASES, Match Boxes, Toothpick Holders, LampUghter Vases, Pin CushiOBa,
Flower Vase^ All kinds of Horns polished and mounted to order. (Men bar
io*U wUl receive prompt attention and satlsOMstion gupiranteed.

^V'Homs of every defMsription bought and sold. Sanboniy Dal^ote*

x-1-10 ' Mention the A fUfquarUm.



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Online LibraryStephen D. (Stephen Denison) PeetThe American antiquarian and oriental journal [electronic serial] → online text (page 87 of 88)