Stephen Georgeson Hatherly.

A treatise on Byzantine music online

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ffypadorian Mode, with its minor sixth and major seventh, is an outcome of the Oriental system, being a mixture of
the diatonic with the chromatic genus* (Paragraphs 106 and 107).

327. That while the octave scale of the chromatic genus develops two major fourth tetrachords against one in
the diatonic genus (Paragraph 111) :

328. It gives us but one instance of the diminished fourth tetrachord to two in the diatonic genus (Paragraph
117). This one chromatic diminished fourth tetrachord was, as we have seen in paragraphs 27, 117, and 306, first
developed by the diatonic genus.

329. That the onehundred and eight chromatic scales thus far recorded divide themselves into two distmct
orders: (1) pure, (2) mixed (Paragraph 124).

330. That of the onehundred and fortyfour diatonic and chromatic scales, eighteen are unworkable, thus reducing
the number of practical scales to onehundred and twentysix (Paragraphs 125 to 127).

331. That while fiffcysix of those onehundred and twentysix working scales contain in their internal incidence
none other than the twelve diatonic and chromatic tetrachords, the remaining seventy scales fare not so happily
framed, but develop fourteen non-fundamental tetrachords (Paragraphs 128 to 130).

332. That of these fourteen non-fundamental tetrachords, five only are worthy of retention, and constitute a
compound genus : (1) the four additional major fourth tetrachords, and (2) the one instance of the doubly-diminished
fourth tetrachord (Paragraphs 131 and 136).

333. These five additional tetrachords introduce us to fortytwo new scales needed to complete the ten classes or
families of the former series to which they are allied. The nine rejected non-fundamental tetrachords govern also
fortytwo scales of the former series. By removing these latter fortytwo scales with their undesirable internal
incidence, we make room for the former, and still preserve the number of one hundred and twentysix working scales
(Paragraphs 150 to 152).

334. That the onehundred and twentysix selected working scales form eighteen classes or families of scales, with
seven instances each (Paragraph 152).

335. These eighteen classes or families of scales being analysed and detailed in paragraphs 157 to 195, we have
nothing to add thereto. But the following sample scale from each of the classes on the tonal level of the first or
Dorian Mode, | will, we think, be of interest.



of



Class 1.



EXAMPLE CXCIX.



Class 2.



Sicz:^^



^^g?=^-=^ (3)




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Class 3.



Class 4.



ffl ^^^^S^^^^ EJS^ m ^=^ nia =?^- {°l'r^-^^



* In paragraphs 78, and 310 to 312, we give the list of minor and major scales in the earlier part of the diatonic genus. It may be
as well to state that besides these there are, in the remaining onehondred and eleven working scales of paragraph 155, no fewer than 43
scales with minor thirds, making a total of 51 minor scales; and 42 scales with major thirds, making a total of 4/9 major scales. Sixteen
of the residue haye diminished thirds, and ten have augmented thirds, but both these groups are external to the modem dassiOcation.

t Of these seyenty, twofif ths only, twentyeight in all, are ultimately retained.

t We purposely use the words <* tonal level of the Dorian mode," because several of the scales in this example, notably those with
the fundamental major fourth tetrachord, could by no possibility be styled even Pseudo- Dorian. Some with the fundamental minor
fourth tetrachord are already otherwise denominated : e,g„ No. 37 is a ffpper Chromatic ffypodorian; NOi 88 is a oo-normal Hyper
OhromaUc Lydian; and No. 39 is a oo-normal Hyper Ohromatk Hypolydian* See Example CVX

/



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336. It will be observed that the above sample scales could have been set out in f-natural or b-natural, the other
two of three common notes, on the tonal level of the Hypolydian or Mixolydian modes. Our readers wiQ long ere this
have learned that these modes have not the pre-eminence attaching to the Dorian mode : hence our preference for the
latter. But it will be a useful exercise, if the reader chooses, to set himself the task of laying out other examples of
like nature with the above, on the tonal level of those two modes. After which he may proceed to the tonal level of
each of the other modes : but for these he will need occasionally to use the ordinary artifices of transposition.

337. That certain of the mixed diatonic and chromatic scales, having the lower tetrachord diatonic, are numbered
with the eight tones as a chromatic variety : while certain, having the lower tetrachord chromatic, form a Hyper
chromatic variety (Paragraph 196).

338. That the untransposed chromatic scales possess no d-natural, the most fertile note of the diatonic genus
(Paragraph 197).

339. That Oriental music^ especially of the olden time, as the product of a simple nature, is, of necessity, also
simple (Paragraph 199)



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153



BYZAKTINE MUSia



340. Comment on the ancient and modem specimens thereof given will be found in paragraphs 200 to 281.
These comments, it is hoped, are sufficiently explicit to give the reader a fair idea of the peculiarities of the Eastern
musical mind. The specimens given are gathered from the thirteen following sources : —

(1) Balakirers Shomik EoosskiJch Narodnikh Peysen: Examples CVIII., CXIX., CXX^ CXXL, CXXVIII.,

CXXXIL, CXXXIV., CXXXV., CXXXIX., CXLIV., CXLV.

(2) Traditional Eussian Church use : Examples CIX., CX., CLL, CLII.

(3) Oratoriette Baptism ;* Example CXI.

(4) Bourgault-Ducoudray's Trenle Melodies Populaires de Grke et d^ Orient: Examples CXIL, CXXVL,

CXXXL, CXLL, CXLVL, CLIIL, CLIV., CLXIX., CLXX., CLXXIL, CLXXVL, CLXXVH.,
CLXXXIL, CLXXXVIIL, CXCIL, CXCIII.

(5) The Scottish Review on Rev. Jules Blin's Chants Liturgiques des Coptes:* Examples CXIIL, CXXXIIL,

CCVIII.

(6) Traditional Greek Church use, from Kev. Dr. Neale's Ei/mns of the Eastern Church ;* Example CXVIIL

(7) Naumann's History of Mxisic : Example CXXVII.

(8) Aria PaUtica:* Example CLVIII.

(9) Tchouhadjian's Opera Leblebidji Hor-hor Agha : Examples CLX., CLXXVIIl.

(10) Guatelli's 24 Arie nazionali e Canti popolari Oneniali: Examples CLXL, CLXIL, CLXIIL, CLXVII.,

CLXXL, CLXXXI., CLXXXIL, CLXXXIIL, CXCVI , CC.

(11) Christ and Paranakis' Anthologia Grosca Carminum Chmtianorum : Example CLXXXVIL

(12) Specimens of Ancient Byzantiiie Ecclesiastical Melody :* Example CCII.

(13) Osmanii Imperial March: Example CCIV.

341. In footnote t, at page ,103, we allude to the rhythm of the sevenfold or septuple measure, but the Specimens
in Part V. furnish no instance of the measure. We think it right to supply the omission, as all Eastern peoples are
very fond of this rhythmic form, and as Western composers occasionally show their appreciation of it.f We are
again indebted to a talented member of the Imperial family at Constantinople for a very fine example.



Andante eon moto.



EXAMPLE CC.
Melody op Eafib Sultana, Daughter of the Late Sultan, t



^^^^^^^




* Theie five are publications of the present Writer. f Berlioz han a notable instance in the "Incantation mnsic " at pp. 28-31
of his Trilogy The Childhood qf Christ (London : Forsyth, Brothers) ; but the editor has unfortunately divided the 7/4 measures into
alternate measures of 3/4 and 4/4 rhythm, thereby adding nothing either to the clearness of the Composer, or to the ease of his readers.

X Ouatelli, Series I , No. 5. Transposed a minor fourth higher.



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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.



153



342. We have left it to the student to supply the harmony in this example, which he will find a not very
difficult task, as the melody is practically in the now popular form of the Minor mode, with minor sixth and major
seventh, aud in the universal Major mode. The Minor mode takes the co-normal form of The Hyper ChromcUic
Hypodorian Mode^ of which it utilizes six notes, with an external lower note ; while the Major mode takes the authentic
form of TAe Lydian Mode, of which it utilizes also six notes, with an external lower note.



EXAMPLE CCL



No. 9.



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The melody divides itself into four periods of four measures each, of which periods the second and fourth are
similar, as are also the second section of the first and third. The measures themselves, unequally though they
divide (1, 2, 3, 4 : 1, 2, 3), form each a complete phrase; but the phrases in periods 2 and 4 are very compactly
joined, so compactly, indeed, as to form a continuous stream of notes. The ad libitum small beat-notes, placed for
convenience at the commencement of the example, are, of course, not included in this measural reckoning, not being a
portion of the melody proper.



343. In CONCLUSION we present two specimens of greater length and importance than any we have yet
given: (1) a portion of an ancient chromatic setting, in great repute, of the Lenten and longer Liturgy of the Greek
Church, contained in Specimens of Ancient Byzantine Ecclesiastical Melody, according to the use of the Great Church of
Christ in Constantinople (London: Augener & Co., 1879); and (2) a modem application to military piu'poses of the
same chromatic genus.* The first of these specimens is as follows : —



Moderato,
Eu



EXAMPLE CCn.
Benedicttjs, from the Greek Liturgy of St. Basil, for four voices.
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* The copy here foUowed was made by us many yeira ago in Turkey, but whether from a printed edition or MS. our memory is
not certain. Many different musical gems were copied by us during our different periods of research, and the greater number of the
originals were in MS.

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344. The melody of the foregoing is constructed, in the main, in The Pure ChromcUic Mode, with an admixture of
The Eypolydian Mode transposed a major fifth lower; but is printed without signature to impress its chromaticism
more plainly, and to make its vocalisation more sure.



Mo. 40.



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No. 12, transposed.



345. The student, in setting four part vocal harmony to these Oriental chromatic melodies, will at once feel the
difficulty caused by the augmented second of the chromatic scale. However freely that interval may be used in the
melody, as in the present instance, where it occurs twelve times in descending and ten times in ascending, it cannot
be introduced with the same freedom in the accompanying parts on account of the uncertainty of its attack by the
average choralist, singing without instrumental assistance. The minor second and minor sixth of the scale can be
utilized whenever other than the major third and major seventh are immediate neighbours : but when these latter
exist, the second and sixth become almost of necessity major also. Hence it will be seen in the above Example
COIL, that the augmented second occurs in the accompanying parts once only, in a short imitation passage
(made all the easier by its being an imitation) at bar 18, which may be regarded as a small acknowledgment of the
modal claim : while the a-flat and d-flat are used freely enough whenever contact with b-natural and e-natural could
be avoided. The two transposed Hypolydian phrases of four and a half measures each, commencing with bars 19 and
28, afford an excuse for anticipating the harmony of that transposed mode, with its b-flat, on the four and a half
measures commencing with the second half of bar 8 : a very convenient and justifiable means of avoiding, for
these latter measures' length, the difficulty of the previously alluded to augmented second.

346. Our second concluding specimen, well known and appreciated in other as well as Turkish official and
military circles, is the following, which, like Example CCU., we print without signature.

V2



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156



Alia marcia,
(a) ' 3



BYZANTINE MUSIC.

EXAMPLE CCIV.

OSMANIE IbIPERIAL MaRCH, FOR THE PUNOFORTE.



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COKCLUSION.



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168



BYZANTINE MUSIC.



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347. This fine March, being an instromental piece, can venture on what would be out of place, or even
impracticable, in a vocal composition. The melody is constructed of twentjrfour differing notes, which aggregated,
stand thus. —

EXAMPLE CCV.



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These notes, when separated, furnish us with three classes of scales : (1) The Chromatic and Eyptr Chromatic
Hypodorian Mode, transposed; (2) The Pure Chromatic Mode, transposed; and (3) a resolution into its normal
pitch of The Eyper Chromatic Hypodorian Mode.



No. 44i, transposed.



EXAMPLE COVL



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euphonies.



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No. 87, transposed.






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CONCLUSION. 159

A considerable effect is produced by the judicious use of the three different euphonic notes which stand external to
the scales. We will now take a short glance at the treatment of the different periods in this March.

348. The first period, of eight bars, though it passes, at the end of its first performance, into the dominant of
the principal or ChramcUic Hypodorian Mode, closes in the principal mode at the repeat. It is in this first period that
we experience the first effect of the euphonic g-sharp and d-sharp, and few can be found to other than enjoy that
effect.

349. The second period, of twelve bars, is in two distinct modes : (1) The Pure Chromaiic Mode, transposed, at
bars 1 to 5, and 8 ; and (2) the normal E^>er Chromatic Hypodman Mode at bars 6, 7, and 9 to 12. In this period
we notice the vagueness alluded to in paragraph 249, caused by the absence of the third from the accompanying left
hand measures, which vague accompaniment, though intended merely to represent the beating of the small side-drum,
adds much to the mystery of the chromatic melody careering above. This side-dnim accompaniment in the first bars
of the repeat is led in by the final bar of the first performance. The last four bars of this period stamp the whole
piece with the brand of modernism, in spite of the euphonic d-sharp, which aims at giving it a chromatic connection
by inducing an augmented second with the adjoining c-naturaL

350. The third and double period of sixteen bars reverts to the original Chromatic Hypodorian Modes, both
authentic and plagal, and occupies the whole of the thirteen notes assigned to them in Example CCVI. The reader
will have observed that the dominant or fifth of the origmal mode has been very conspicuous thus far. The first
performance of the first period closed in A, the dominant mode of D. The second period was entirely constructed
of two forms of A scales : The Pure Chromatic Mode, transposed ; and a plagal form of the favourite " Minor Mode,"
or Eyper Chromatic Hypodorian. The present third period takes up the harmonic parable with a dominant seventh
of the original mode, and that harmony prevails over rather more than one half of the remaining 42 bar measures.
This is not at all in the old manner, but reminds one of the satirical remark of the great Handel applied by him to
the popular music of his day, in which tonal and dominant harmonies chiefly prevailed : — " Now Dees are trumps,
gentlemen ; now Ayes." The old musicians preferred, as may be seen in nearly every instance of the chromatic genus
quoted by us, to pass into the subdominant : so extensively, indeed, that many persons think the subdominant to be
the real fundamental tonic. The contrary preference for the dominant in the present March shows the strong
influence of modern ideas in the composer's mind ; which ideas are, however, found to consist with a considerable and
hearty appreciation of the chromatic genus. For we see the subdominant manner happily preserved in the final eight
bars of the present and next following periods. And there are no external euphonic notes to take our attention in
this third and double period of sixteen bars.

351. The chief noticeable feature in the fourth period is that it consists of fourteen bar measures. It is thus a
double period, but divides unequally, into six and eight bars respectively. The first portion, of six bars, consists of
two contracted sections of three bars each, which are evidently a variant of the similarly situated sections in the
previous period. They commence in the same manner, and abound in the same dominant harmony, but are scarcely
so pleasing, the mind being conscious of the doubly occurring rhythmical deficiency. The second portion, of eight
bars, with the subdominant tendency, is identical with that in the previous period, to which we have already alluded
in paragraph 350. This present double period, unlike the previous one, is repeated in performance ; but like it,
possesses no euphonic notes.

352. The modem character to which we have already directed attention by means of two particulars, is
confirmed beyond possibility of cavil by the fifth or Codetta period of twelve bars, at which we now arrive. The
opeuing four bars, with their Western chromatic semitonal rise, involving the euphonic d-sharp and f-sharp, familiar
though they seem to us, must have startled Eastern ears when first presented to them. But the eight bars which
follow those four, excepting that the dominant harmony proclaims their modern construction, are suflficiently
Oriental in character, and tended, we may hope, to restore the Oriental equanimity. That the whole piece is now of
universal acceptance with all Ottoman subjects is due to the fact of its general excellence, and to the further fact that
use reconciles all of us. Easterns and Westerns, to many inconsistencies. In the two final bars the shake on the
augmented second, b-flat and c-sharp, is sufficiently noteworthy to justify the attention of the reader.

353. In the edition followed in preparation of the present copy of this March, we are directed after the Codetta



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160



BYZANTINE MUSIC.



to begin again, and proceed until we reach the word Fine immediately previous to the Codetta, This is to play the
whole piece, excepting the Codetta, twice over, which makes a total (including repeats) of 176 bars. But our own
experience of the piece, in which we are borne out by the approval of many friends of Turkish allegiance, has
suggested that it is better, rather than stop at the word Fine, to proceed again to the Codetta, and then return to
the first or leading period, finishing thereat and therewith. This addition of 28 bars in performance will raise the
number from 176 to 20 J:; a small increase of labour and time for which the increase of effect far more than
compensates.



POSTSCRIPT.

354. Our work was brought to a close by the above Turkish Imperial March of the Osmani^. But a friend,
whose advice is highly valued, subsequently called attention to the fact that the Anaphoral " Amens " in the twice
quoted Coptic Liturgy of St. Basil are very characteristic, and suggested their insertion. In complying with this
suggestion, we feel that we are not only furnishing a small addition of considerable practical value, but are also
making the best possible conclusion to our treatise. For every action of our lives, whether secular or religious,
ought to permit of the postulate or desire — Tivoiro, Be it so, Am6n.

355. In the first Coptic expression below, uttered by the Priest, we find a "ph" as well as an **f." But thoy
must not be assimilated in pronunciation. The " ph " must be treated as two distinct letters, as they are in the
word shepherd ; not as an " f," as twice in j?Ailosoj?/ier. Also we call attention to the fact that the word " Am^n " is,
in all Eastern languages, pronounced with the long sound of //, as in " Ameen," which is the form of transliteration
adopted by Mr. Lane and other writers.

356. Of the three following instances, we have, in the first, the fivefold leading measure, of the rhythm l\ 2 :
1, 2, 3, of Examples CXLV. and CLIV., very pleasingly imitated by the Alto answer in the fifth below of the
Soprano subject : which subject and answer joined together, being each a diatonic tetrachord, form a diatonic octave
scale, No. 9, the scale of the 3rd Tone, or The Lydian Mode (Paragraphs 22 and 73).



EXAMPLE CCVIL



Soprano subject.



Alto answer.


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Online LibraryStephen Georgeson HatherlyA treatise on Byzantine music → online text (page 14 of 15)