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as Pigray, du Bois, Portail, and one Siret, a surgeon
of Tours, a man well versed in surgery, who was at
this time surgeon to the King's brother. And for

I04 Ambroise Pard

the multitude of bad cases we had scarce any rest,
nor the physicians either.

M. le Comte de Mansfeld, Governor of the Duchy
of Luxembourg, Knight of the Order of the King,
was severely wounded in the battle, in the left arm,
with a pistol-shot which broke a great part of his
elbow ; and he withdrew to Borgueil near Tours.
Then he sent a gentleman to the King, to beg him
to send one of his surgeons, to help him of his wound.
So they debated which surgeon they should send.
M. le Mar^chal de Montmorency told the King and
the Queen that they ought to send him their chief
surgeon ; and urged that M. de Mansfeld had done
much toward the victory.

The King said flat, he would not have me go, and
wished me to stop with himself. Then the Queen-
mother told him I would but go and come back,
and he must remember it was a foreign lord, who
had come, at the command of the King of Spain,
to help him. Then he let me go, provided I came
back very soon. So he sent for me, and the Queen-
mother with him, and bade me go and find the
Lord de Mansfeld, wherever he should be, to do all
I could for him to heal his wound. I went to him,
with a letter from Their Majesties. When he saw
it, he received me with good-will, and forthwith
dismissed three or four surgeons who were dressing

"Journeys in Diverse Places" 105

him ; which was to my very great regret, because
his wound seemed to me incurable.

Now many gentlemen had retreated to Borgueil,
having been wounded : for they knew that M. de
Guise was there, who also had been badly wounded
with a pistol-shot through the leg, and they were
sure that he would have good surgeons to dress
him, and would help them, as he is kindly and
very generous, and would relieve their wants. This
he did with a will, both for their eating and drink-
ing, and for what else they needed : and for my
part, they had the comfort and help of my art :
some died, others recovered, according to their
wounds. M. le Comte Ringrave died, who was
shot in the shoulder, like the King of Navarre be-
fore Rouen. M. de Bassompierre, colonel of twelve
hundred horse, was wounded by a similar shot, in
the same place, as M. de Mansfeld : whom I
dressed, and God healed. God blessed my work so
well, that in three weeks I sent them back to Paris :
where I had still to make incisions in M. de Mans-
feld's arm, to remove some pieces of the bones,
which were badly splintered, broken, and carious.
He was healed by the grace of God, and made me
^ handsome present, so I was well content with
him, and he with me ; as he has shown me since.
He wrote a letter to M. le Due d' Ascot, how he was

io6 Ambroise Pare

healed of his wound, and also M, de Bassompierre of
his, and many others whom I had dressed after the
battle of Moncontour; and advised him to ask the
King of France to let me visit M. le Marquis d'Auret,
his brother: which he did.

The Journey to Flanders. 1569.

M. le Due d' Ascot did not fail to send a gentle-
man to the King, with a letter humbly asking he
would do him so much kindness and honour as to
permit and command his chief surgeon to visit M. le
Marquis d' Auret, his brother, who had received a
gunshot wound near the knee, with fracture of the
bone, about seven months ago, and the physicians
and surgeons all this time had not been able to heal
him. The King sent for me and bade me go and
see M. d' Auret, and give him all the help I could,
to heal him of his wound. I told him I would
employ all the little knowledge it had pleased God
to give me.

I went off, escorted by two gentlemen, to the
Chateau d' Auret, which is a league and a half from
Mons in Hainault, where M. le Marquis was lying.
So soon as I had come, I visited him, and told him
the King had commanded me to come and see him
and dress his wound. He said he was very glad I
had come, and was much beholden to the King,

DrtitaiifnaTevtJefi(mti^tef)t zmSrar^t

Am in. 0^o[r. im i,ir M. n.



"Journeys in Diverse Places" 107

who had done him so much honour as to send me
to him.

I found him in a high fever, his eyes deep sunken,
with a moribund and yellowish face, his tongue dry
and parched, and the whole body much wasted and
lean, the voice low as of a man very near death : and
I found his thigh much inflamed, suppurating, and
ulcerated, discharging a greenish and very offensive
sanies. I probed it with a silver probe, wherewith I
found a large cavity in the middle of the thigh, and
others round the knee, sanious and cuniculate : also
several scales of bone, some loose, others not. The
leg was greatly swelled, and imbued with a pituitous
humor . . . and bent and drawn back. There was
a large bedsore ; he could rest neither day nor night ;
and had no appetite to eat, but very thirsty. I was
told he often fell into a faintness of the heart, and
sometimes as in epilepsy : and often he felt sick, with
such trembling he could not carry his hands to his
mouth. Seeing and considering all these great com-
plications, and the vital powers thus broken down,
truly I was very sorry I had come to him, because it
seemed to me there was little hope he would escape
death. All the same, to give him courage and good
hope, I told him I would soon set him on his legs,
by the grace of God, and the help of his physicians
and surgeons.

io8 Ambroise Pare

Having seen him, I went a walk in a garden, and
prayed God He would show me this grace, that he
should recover ; and that He would bless our hands

and our medicaments, to fight such a complication of
diseases. I discussed in my mind the means I must
take to do this. They called me to dinner. I came
into the kitchen, and there I saw, taken out of a
great pot, half a sheep, a quarter of veal, three great
pieces of beef, two fowls, and a very big piece of
bacon, with abundance of good herbs : then I said
to myself that the broth of the pot would be full
of juices, and very nourishing.

After dinner, we began our consultation, all the
physicians and surgeons together, in the presence
of M, le Due d Ascot and some gentlemen who were
with him. I began to say to the surgeons that I
was astonished they had not made incisions in
M. le Marquis' thigh, seeing that it was all sup-
purating, and the thick matter in it very foetid and
offensive, showing it had long been pent up there;
and that I had found with the probe caries of the
bone, and scales of bone, which were already loose.
They answered me : " Never would he consent to
it " ; indeed, it was near two months since they
had been able to get leave to put clean sheets on
his bed ; and one scarce dared touch the coverlet, so
great was his pain. Then I said, " To heal him, we

"Journeys in Diverse Places" 109

must touch something else than the coverlet of his
bed." Each said what he thought of the malady of
the patient, and in conclusion they all held it hope-
less. I told them there was still some hope, because
he was young, and God and Nature sometimes do
things which seem to physicians and surgeons im-
possible.* . . .

To restore the warmth and nourishment of the
body, general frictions must be made with hot cloths,
above, below, to right, to left, and around, to draw
the blood and the vital spirits from within outward.
. . . For the bedsore, he must be put in a fresh,
soft bed, with clean shirt and sheets. . . . Hav-
ing discoursed of the causes and complications of
his malady, I said we must cure them by their con-
traries ; and must first ease the pain, making open-
ings in the thigh to let out the matter. . , .
Secondly, having regard to the great swelling and
coldness of the limb, we must apply hot bricks round
it, and sprinkle them with a decoction of nerval herbs
in wine and vinegar, and wrap them in napkins ; and
to his feet, an earthenware bottle filled with the decoc-
tion, corked, and wrapped in cloths. Then the thigh,
and the whole of the leg, must be fomented with a
decoction made of sage, rosemary, thyme, lavender,
flowers of chamomile and melilot, red roses boiled in
* A long discourse on the case is here omitted.

no Ambroise Pare

white wine, with a drying powder made of oak-ashes
and a little vinegar and half a handful of salt. . . .
Thirdly, we must apply to the bedsore a large plas-
ter made of the desiccative red ointment and of
Unguentum Comitissce, equal parts, mixed together,
to ease his pain and dry the ulcer; and he must have
a little pillow of down, to keep all pressure ofT it.
. . . And for the strengthening of his heart, we
must apply over it a refrigerant of oil of water-
lilies, ointment of roses, and a little saffron, dis-
solved in rose-vinegar and treacle, spread on a piece
of red cloth. For the syncope, from exhaustion of
the natural forces, troubling the brain, he must have
good nourishment full of juices, as raw eggs, plums
stewed in wine and sugar, broth of the meat of the
great pot, whereof I have already spoken ; the white
meat of fowls, partridges' wings minced small, and
other roast meats easy to digest, as veal, kid, pi-
geons, partridges, thrushes, and the like, with sauce
of orange, verjuice, sorrel, sharp pomegranates ; or
he may have them boiled with good herbs, as let-
tuce, purslain, chicory, bugloss, marigold, and the
like. At night he can take barley-water, with juice
of sorrel and of water-lilies, of each two ounces, with
four or five grains * of opium, and the four cold
seeds crushed, of each half an ounce ; which is a good

* See page 211.

"Journeys in Diverse Places" iii

nourishing remedy and will make him sleep. His
bread to be farm-house bread, neither too stale nor
too fresh. For the great pain in his head, his hair
must be cut, and his head rubbed with rose-vinegar
just Avarm, and a double cloth steeped in it and put
there ; also a forehead-cloth, of oil of roses and
water-lilies and poppies, and a little opium and rose-
vinegar, with a little camphor, and changed from
time to time. Moreover, we must allow him to smell
flowers of henbane and water-lilies, bruised with
vinegar and rose-water, \\'ith a little camphor, all
wrapped in a handkerchief, to be held some time to
his nose. . . . And we must make artificial
rain, pouring Avater from some high place into a
cauldron, that he may hear the sound of it ; by
which means sleep shall be provoked on him. As
for the contraction of his leg, there is hope of
righting it when we have let out the pus and other
humors pent up in the thigh, and have rubbed the
whole knee with ointm.ent of mallows, and oil of
lilies, and a little eaii-de-vie, and wrapped it in black
wool with the grease left in it ; and if we put under
the knee a feather pillow doubled, little by little we
shall straighten the leg.

This my discourse was well approved by the phy-
sicians and surgeons.

The consultation ended, we went back to the

112 Ambroise Pare

patient, and I made three openings in his thigh. . . .
Two or three hours later, I got a bed made near his
old one, with fair white sheets on it ; then a strong
man put him in it, and he was thankful to be taken
out of his foul stinking bed. Soon after, he asked to
sleep ; which he did for near four hours : and every-
body in the house began to feel happy, and espec-
ially M. le Due d' Ascot, his brother.

The following days, I made injections, into the
depth and cavities of the ulcers, of .^gyptiacum dis-
solved sometimes in eau-de-vie, other times in wine.
I applied compresses to the bottom of the sinuous
tracks, to cleanse and dry the soft spongy flesh, and
hollow leaden tents, that the sanies might always
have a way out ; and above them a large plaster of
Diacalcitheos dissolved in wine. And I bandaged
him so skilfully that he had no pain ; and when
the pain was gone, the fever began at once to abate.
Then I gave him wine to drink moderately tempered
with water, knowing it would restore and quicken
the vital forces. And all that we agreed in consul-
tation was done in due time and order ; and so soon
as his pains and fever ceased, he began steadily to
amend. He dismissed two of his surgeons, and one
of his physicians, so that we were but three with

Now I stopped there about two months, not with-

"Journeys in Diverse Places" 113

out seeing many patients, both rich and poor, who
came to me from three or four leagues round. He
gave food and drink to the needy, and commended
them all to me, asking me to help them for his
sake. I protest I refused not one, and did for them
all I could, to his great pleasure. Then, when I saw
him beginning to be well, I told him he must have
viols and violins, and a buffoon to make him laugh :
which he did. In one month, we got him into a
chair, and he had himself carried about in his garden
and at the door of his chateau, to see everybody
passing by.

The villagers of two or three leagues round, now
they could have sight of him, came on holidays to
sing and dance, men and women, pell-mell for a
frolic, rejoiced at his good convalescence, all glad to
see him, not without plenty of laughter and plenty
to drink. He always gave them a hogshead of beer ;
and they all drank merrily to his health. And the
citizens of Mons in Hainault, and other gentlemen,
his neighbours, came to see him for the wonder of
it, as a man come out of the grave ; and from the
time he was well, he was never without company.
When one went out, another came in to visit him;
his table was always well covered. He was dearly
loved both by the nobility and by the common
people ; as for his generosity, so for his handsome

114 Ambrolse Pare

face and his courtesy : with a kind look and a gracious
word for everybody, so that all who saw him had
perforce to love him.

The chief citizens of Mons came one Saturday, to
beg him let me go to Mons, where they wished
to entertain me with a banquet, for their love
of him. He told them he would urge me to go,
which he did ; but I said such great honour was not
forme, moreover they could not feast me better than
he did. Again he urged me, with much affection,
to go there, to please him : and I agreed. The next
day, they came to fetch me with two carriages: and
when we got to Mons, we found the dinner ready,
and the chief men of the town, with their ladies,
who attended me with great devotion. We sat
down to dinner, and they put me at the top of the
table, and all drank to me, and to the health of M.
le Marquis d'Auret: saying he was happy, and they
with him, to have had me to put him on his legs
again ; and truly the whole company were full of
honour and love for him. After dinner, they
brought me back to the Chateau d'Auret, where
M. le Marquis was awaiting me ; who affectionately
welcomed me, and would hear what we had done at
our banquet ; and I told him all the company had
drunk many times to his health.

In six weeks he began to stand a little on crutches,

"Journeys in Diverse Places" 115

and to put on fat and get a good natural colour.
He would go to Beaumont, his brother's place ; and
was taken there in a carrying-chair, by eight men at
a time. And the peasants in the villages through
which we passed, knowing it was M. le Marquis,
fought who should carry him, and would have us
drink with them; but it was only beer. Yet I be-
lieve if they had possessed wine, even hippocras, they
would have given it to us with a will. And all were
right glad to see him, and all prayed God for him.

When we came to Beaumont, everybody came
out to meet us and pay their respects to him, and
prayed God bless him and keep him in good health.
We came to the chateau, and found there more than
fifty gentlemen whom M. le Due d'Ascot had invited
to come and be happy with his brother ; and he
kept open house three whole days. After dinner,
the gentlemen used to tilt at the ring and play with
the foils, and were full of joy at the sight of M.
d'Auret, for they had heard he would never leave
his bed or be healed of his wound, I was always
at the upper end of the table, and everybody drank
to him and to me, thinking to make me drunk,
which they could not ; for I drank only as I
always do.

A few days later, we went back ; and I took my leave
of Mdme. la Duchesse d'Ascot, who drew a diamond

1 1 6 Ambroise Pare

from her finger, and gave it me in gratitude for my
good care of her brother : and the diamond was
worth more than fifty crowns. M.*d' Auret was ever
getting better, and was walking all alone on crutches
round his garden. Many times I asked him to let
me go back to Paris, telling him his physician and
his surgeon could do all that was now wanted for
his wound : and to make a beginning to get away
from him, I asked him to let me go and see the town
of Antwerp. To this he agreed at once, and told his
steward to escort me there, with two pages. We
passed through Malines and Brussels, where the
chief citizens of the town begged us to let them
know of it when we returned ; for they too wished,
like those of Mons, to have a festival for me. I gave
them very humble thanks, saying I did not deserve
such honour. I was two days and a half seeing the
town of Antwerp, where certain merchants, know-
ing the steward, prayed he would let them have the
honour of giving us a dinner or a supper: it was
who should have us, and they were all truly glad to
hear how well M. d' Auret was doing, and made
more of me then I asked.

On my return, I found M. le Marquis enjoying
himself : and five or six days later I asked his leave
to go, which he gave, said he, with great regret.
And he made me a handsome present of great

" Journeys in Diverse Places " 117

value, and sent me back, with the steward, and two
pages, to my house in Paris.

I forgot to say that the Spaniards have since ruined
and demolished his Chateau d' Auret, sacked, pil-
laged, and burned all the houses and villages belong-
ing to him : because he would not be of their wicked
party in their assassinations and ruin of the Nether-

I have published this Apologia, that all men may
know on what footing I have always gone : and sure
there is no man so touchy not to take in good part
what I have said. For I have but told the truth ;
and the purport of my discourse is plain for all men
to see, and the facts themselves are my guarantee
against all calumnies.



( The historical part of these notes is taken from Michelet, Guizot,
Duruy, Malgaigne, and L'Estoile : the notes on the names mentioned
by Pare are mostly taken from Le Paulmierand L'Estoile.)

I. The Journey to Turin. 1537.

THE peace of Cambrai, signed in 1529, lasted till
1536. During these years, Francois I. strength-
ened his army, allied himself with England, and
sought to regain hold on Italy by the betrothal of
the Dauphin, afterward Henri II., with Catherine de
Medici, niece of Pope Clement VII. In 1535,
the Emperor, Charles V., being now free from war
with France, and seeing his power in Europe threat-
.ened by the Turks, sent a fleet of 500 ships and
30,000 men against the Turkish pirates in the Medi-
terranean, captured Tunis, and set at liberty 20,000
Christian slaves. The King of France had already,
in 1534, made alliance with the Sultan, Suleiman II.,


Notes to Journeys 119

against the Emperor ; saying that when the wolves
were worrying his sheep, he had a right to set the
dogs on them. In 1536, one of the King's secret
agents at MiJan was put to death, at the instance of
the Emperor, by Francois Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Soon afterward, Sforza died ; and the King, hoping
to recover his lost possessions in Italy, advanced
against Piedmont and Savoy.

War being declared, the Emperor sent against
Marseilles the fleet which had returned from Tunis,
and entered Provence in July, 1536, with an army of
50,000 men. The French army laid waste their own
country, that he might find no foothold in it. The
troops were ordered to demolish the villas and mills,
burn the grain and fodder, stave in the wine-casks,
and pollute the wells. Marseilles and Aries were to
be held ; the rest of the towns were to be left, with
their fortifications broken down, abandoned to the
enemy. In two months' time, the Emperor was
forced to retreat from a country so desolate that his
men were dying of hunger and dysentery. " From
Aix to Frejus, the roads along which he retreated
were blocked with dying and dead soldiers, with
harness, lances, pikes, arquebuses, and other equip-
ment of men and horses, piled in heaps."

The expedition to Turin was made next year, 1537,
and not, as Pare says, in 1536. The fighting at the

I20 Ambrolse Pare

Pass of Suze, close to Mont Cenis, was in October,
1537 ; this same pass had been crossed by the French
army, without opposition, in March 1536.

The Mont Cenis pass was the highroad from Paris
to Venice and to the East. There is in the British
Museum a little hand-book, 1480, for pilgrims from
Paris to Jerusalem ; " Le Voyage de la Saincte Cit6
de Hierusalem Avec la description des lieux ports
villes cites et autres passaiges. Faict I'an mille
quatre cents quatre vingtz. On les vend a Paris, en
la rue neufve nostre Dame a I'enseigne sainct Nicolas
par Pierre Sergent." It says of Mont Cenis :

" Cy apres s'ensuyt le commecement de la montaigne
du mont Senis qui dure a monter une lieue, et deux
lieues de Icing : qui souvent est enclose et couverte de
moult grat habondance de neiges qui par temps venteux
cheent et descendet impetueusemet sur les chemins, et
apres que les neiges sent cosommes par pluye ou chaleur
on trouve les mors et les portes-on en la logete qon apelle
la chappelle des trassis du mont Senys, Et la Descend
jusques a Suze bonne Ville cinq lieues. Suze est le
commencement de pimont la ot. on commence a comp-
ter les chemins par milles. Aussi les Orloges commen-
cent a sonner autremet que en france, car ils sonnent
pour midy xxiiii heures : et aussi, le diet lieu passe, les
femmes ne portent pas de chaperons, mais seulement
coiffes et couvrechefz."

It was at Turin that Par6 first practised amputa-
tion at the elbow-joint ; it was here also, always

Notes to Journeys 121

ready to note small things, that he observed an old
woman's treatment of burns by application of raw

M. the Constable : Anne de Montmorency, born
1492, died at the battle of Saint Denis, 1567. After
twenty years in the King's service, he fell into dis-
grace at Court, in 1541, through the hostility of the
King's mistress, M. la Duchesse d'Etampes, but
was recalled by Henri II. He was the uncle of
Coligny. He received the ofifice of High Constable
in 1538.

M. de Montejan : R6ne de Montejan, Seigneur de
Montejan en Anjou, de Sille, et de Beaupreau. He
was taken prisoner at the battle of Brignoles in 1536.
He was made Governor of Piedmont in 1537, and a
Marshal of France in 1538. He died that same
year. His wife was Philippes de Montespedon ; after
his death, she married Charles de Bourbon, Prince de
La Roche-sur-Yon ; she was godmother to Pare's
child Ambroise (born May, 1576, died January,

M. d'Annebaut : Claude d'Annebaut, Chamberlain

of the King, Knight of the Order of Saint Michel,

was taken prisoner at the battle of Pavia, Feb. 25,

1525 ; made a Marshal of France in 1538, Governor

of Piedmont, 1538, Ambassador at Venice, 1539,

Admiral of France, 1544; died 1552.


Ambroise Pare

2. The Journey to Marolles and Low Brit-
tany. The Journeys to Land regies,
Perpignan, and Boulogne, i 543-1 545.

Pare returned from Turin to Paris early in 1539.
and was there till 1543. Between these years, he
qualified as a master barber-surgeon, settled dov/n,
married Jehanne ]\Iazelin, worked under Sylvius, and
began writing his book on Gunshot Wounds.

After the retreat of the Emperor from Provence,
the treaty of Nice was signed : " A truce to last for
ten years, signed more from weariness of fruitless
war than from any real desire of peace." The power
of the Sultan again disturbed the peace of Europe :
the Turks invaded Hungary, which was part of the
Empire, and the Emperor, in the late autumn of
1541, sent a huge fleet against the Algerian pirates.
It was caught in a storm, and the greater part of it
was destroyed. " The sea was free of the Emperor
now; the fleur-de-lis and the crescent sailed side by
side." In 1543, a Franco-Turkish squadron bom-
barded Nice, and the Turkish soldiers ravaged the

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