Stephen Tillinghast Hammond.

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(Sift of

iOnitrutimt Club

5 PI DEpjg




A Treatise on the care of Dogs in Health
and Disease


Author of Training vs. Breaking, etc.



< « «

Copyright, 1897, by the
Forest and Stream Publishing Company.




Introduction, 9


Importance of Nursing — Cleanliness — Out of
Sorts, 13

Dam and Puppies, 32

Diet, 43

Other Foods, 51

Kennel and Exercise, - - - 60


Common Ailments — Teething — Diarrhoea —
Convulsions — Epilepsy — Distemper — Eczema
— Need of Proper Care — Sour Stomach — Ver-
min — Canker of the Ear — Mange — The Nerv-
ous System — Abscesses — Colic — Worms, - 62



Abscesses, ^39

Affections, Nervous, - ^^

Acid, Carbolic, io5, 122

Acid, Sulphurous, 122

Air, Pure, ^^

Areca Nut, - 149- I50

Bathing, - - 26

Beginners, 10. 19

Biscuits, Dog, 5°

Bittersweet, 37

Bones, 55, 63, 65, 157

Box, Lying-in, - - - - 35

Broth, Mutton, . 67

Brushing, - - - - - 25

Buckthorn, Syrup of, ■ y^, I49

Canker, -' - - - 49- ^6, no, 114

Charcoal, - - 50

Chorea, ..-. - - - 128

Cleanliness, ^5

Colds, - - - 7S, 81, 85

Colic, ^44

Conditioning, ^9

Constipation, 89, 90, 126

Contagion, - - ^32

Convalescence, '9

Convulsions, "9

Cautery, -^53

Dam, 33, 34

Deafness, - ' " -ii7

Debility, Sy, 94

Dentrifice, ^5

6 Index.


Diagnosis, ^9

Diarrhcea, ^^

Diet, Vegetable, 59

Digestion, 27

Dirt, - - - - 25

Dislocations, - - - - - - - - -I59

Distemper, 47. 73

Distemper, Diet, 77

Distemper, Relapse, 82

Distemper, Symptoms of, 7^, 83, 84

Dogs, Care of, - - 92

Dogs, Mad, - - - - 135

Dogs, Pet, - - - - 99

Dogs, Sensitive- - - ^7

Dosing, .. - - - - 47

Dysentery -07

Eczema, - - - - - 00

Eggs, 68

Epilepsy, 70, 136

Exercise, 27, 28, 30, 60. 127

Fat, Antidote, 22

Fish, 55

Flour, Beef, 55

Flour, Wheat, 57

Food, 24, 30, 32, 33, 49, 51

Gums, Softening of, 66

Hair, 26

Indigestion, 39

Insecticides, 103

Iodine, - - 16, 141

Kennel, 60. 105

Ligature, ^53

Liver, Ra\T, - 80

Mange, 91. ii7. "9




Mad Dog, - 135

Meal, Bone, - - - 50

Meal, Corn, - - - - - - - - 54, 56

Meal, Oat, - - - - - 57

Meal, Rye, - - - - - 57

Meals, Regular, - - - - 96

Meat, Tainted, - - - - 49

Medicine, 14. 22, log, 149

Mercury, - - - - 105, 117

Milk, - - - - - - - 22, 40, 41, 43, 45, 67

Milk Glands, - - - - 37

Milk, Lapping, - - - - 44

Milk, Sour, - - - - - - - - 46, 151

Morphine, - - - - - 107

Mutton, - - - - - 53

Naphtha, - - - - - 104

Nursing, - - - 15. i7, 19. 75. 129

Nursing Bollle, - ■• - - -43

Oil, Castor, - - 67, 80

Oil, Cod Liver, - - - - 79, 82

Oil, Sweet, - - - - - - - - 76, 80, 149

Oi! of Fern, - - - - 76, 149, 150

Opium, - - - - - 106

Paralysis, - - - - 79, 125, 138

Parasites, - iiS, 123

Perspiration, - - - - - - - -25

Pet, Pampered, - - - - 97

Physic, - 13

Plethora, - - - - - 71

Poisoning, Ivy, - - - - - - -77

Pork, - - 54

Pregnancy, - - - - -34

Puppies, - - - - - - - - 34, 3S, 43

Quacks, -. - .18

8 Index.


Quinine, _-.- 6S

Rabies, - - - - - - - - - - I33

Remedies, Variability of, - - - - 130

Sage, 37

Salt, 99

Salts, Epsom, - - - - - - - 88, 90, 98, 143

Scraps, Beef, 54

Soapsuds,- - - - - - - - -II 3> 142

Soda, Bicarbonate, loi

Stitching, - - - - - - - - -156

Stomach, Dog's, -. - - - 53

Stomach, Sour, .._. - - 100

Sugar, - 99

Sulphur, - - 40, 89

Sunlight, 61

Surfeit, - - - - 40, 90

Sweetmeats, 9^

Symptoms, -19

System, Nervous, - 124

Tartar, 65

Teeth, Permanent, - 63

Teething, .-. - - - 62, 69

Tongue, Medical, - 13

Tripe, Beef, 54

Undershot, - 64

Vaccination, 84

Vegetables, - 57

Vermin, - - - - - - loi

Vermin, Eggs of, ....... 104

Warts, - - - 153

Water, Lime, ..-.-. - 38

Whelping, - - - - 36

Wine, Blackberry, . - -. - 69

Worms, - - - 41, 47, 49. 7o. 126, 147 151, 152. 156

! e o 3 J


More than half a century has passed
since I gave the first dose of medicine to
my dog. Since that time, I regret to say,
deep under the sod Hes many a victim of
mistake — not willful, nor repeated when
the truth was learned, but still mistake
that cost me dear, as I ever deeply loved
my pets. In the course of time I learned
by sad experience that many of the books
that I looked to for light were but ignis
fatiius that led me on to the destruction
of my pets and the ruin of my hopes.

After discovering that something was
radically wrong, I earnestly set out to
learn the why and the wherefore, mean-
time refraining from administerinp- any

lO Introduction.

powerful drug or medicine of any kind to
my dogs. During this period, although I
may not have learned much from lectures
.or. books, I did learn from my dogs that
nature was so far superior to me in bring-
ing .them through Jtheir ailments all right,
that it was better for me, and very much
better for them, to follow in her footsteps.
This little work, however, makes no pre-
tensions to anything of a scientific nature,
but simply — as its title indicates — shows
the unscientific reader just how to take
care of his dog by a humane and rational
method of treatment that will very often
keep him free from the ills that are com-
mon to dog life. No claim is to be found
in these pages that there is an infallible
panacea for all or any of the diseases to
which dogs are subject ; but the claim is
made that a careful study of Nursing vs.
Dosing, and an intelligent application of the
principles and rules laid down, will prove to
be of inestimable value to the dog owner

Introduction, 1 1

by assisting him to preserve the health of
his pet. Since the time when my dogs
taught me my lesson, whenever they
have been ailing I go very slowly toward
the medicine chest, and when I do open it I
am very chary about using its contents.

Careful nursing, with simple, harmless
remedies, for the ordinary ailments that
dogs are subject to, is all that is required to
bring them safely through in a very large
majority of cases. I have always believed
in and practiced careful nursing for my
dogs when they were ailing. Knowledge
of the simple remedies used, for the greater
part at least, has been gleaned from others
throuorhout the length and breadth of the
land, together with lots of knowledge of
what not to do ; indeed, the latter I believe
to have been of greater benefit to my dogs
than the former. How often have I been
assured that a certain medicine or course
of treatment was an infallible specific in
certain cases, when I knew, or soon learned,

1 2 Introduction.

that It was the very worst thing or treat-
ment that could possibly be resorted to.
Occasionally, however, I have stumbled
upon something that has proven to be of
great value — simple perhaps, but effica-

The results of more than fifty years of
experience are here given, and I assure
the reader that no course of conduct is ad-
vised, no treatment recommended, no rem-
edy prescribed, that has not been thor-
oughly tried and tested by the writer, and
is believed to be entirely trustworthy in
every respect.

I sincerely trust that a perusal of these
pages will induce a trial of the methods
described, and that the result will be less-
ened pain and added comfort and happi-
ness for man's best friend.


Importance of Nursing*

''"T^HROW physic to the dogs" is an old
-■■ saying that appears to be a prime
favorite with many owners of dogs, who,
upon the sHghtest Indication of anything
belne amiss with the animals under their
care, literally drench and purge the unfor-
tunate creatures by cramming down their
throats pernicious drugs that, nine times
out of ten, do more harm than good.

One of the ancient Roman writers of re-
nown claimed, among other attributes be-
longing to the dog, that he Is possessed of
a "medical tongue" — ''hi cants bis bena et
lingua medicinaj^ etc. Thus we see that In
the olden time, dogs and medicine were not

14 Nursing vs. Dosing.

unacquainted. It Is to me a question
whether the desire to administer medicine
to the unfortunate dog, that seems to be
implanted In every human heart, Is a nat-
ural Instinct, Inherent In the human race
from Adam down, or something for which
we are Indebted to the old Romans, along
with many other bits of civilization which
we pride ourselves In possessing.

I believe It to be Incontrovertlbly true
that more dogs are actually killed by so-
called medicine administered to them by
inexperienced owners than are benefited
thereby. Indeed, It is rare that any dog is
benefited by the remedies prescribed by a
person unpractlced in medical science. In
a letter received some years ago from the
late Mr. Ethan Allln he says : *'I believe
many more dogs are killed by dosing than
would die if left to themselves without any
medicine whatever."

A dog doctor in New York, who claims
to be a veterinarian in good standing, and

hnportance of Nursing. 15

who has had for years an extensive prac-
tice, once told me that when he had a case
that he did not quite understand — which
occurred very often — his only treatment
was careful nursing, with no medicine what-
ever, except when the patient was outside,
to satisfy the owner, he gave a small bottle
of water, colored with some harmless sub-
stance, with directions to give two or three
drops three times daily, with no other
medicine whatever, at the same time in-
sisting upon proper nursing, diet, fresh
air, etc. This treatment, he claimed, had
broueht him more dollars and fame than
all the druofs he had ever used, and, added
he, apparently with heartfelt conviction :
"I honestly believe that, in a very large
majority of cases, careful and intelligent
nursing, without a particle of medicine, will
prolong the lives as well as preserve the
health of twice the number of animals that
will survive the common system of treat-

1 6 Nursing vs. Dosing.

For the medical profession I entertain
the most profound respect, and nothing In
these pages can be construed to reflect In
the least upon the practice of the "healing
art" by the duly qualified practitioner.
Neither will anything be found in dispar-
agement of any drug found In the pharma-
copoeia, nor of Its use, with few exceptions,
in canine practice when It is prescribed by
one who is qualified to judge from the
symptoms just what is required. But what
I do most emphatically condemn is the ad-
ministering of any drug to canine or human
sufferer by anyone not thoroughly qualified
to know from the nature of the disease the
proper remedy to apply.

There is nothing that is more fascinating
to the average owner of dogs — especially if
a beginner — than the practice of the heal-
ing art upon the helpless and often unfor-
tunate animals that are under his care.
While It Is true that the feelings which
prompt the fancier to try to minister to the

Importance of Nursing, 1 7

apparent or imaginary ills of his charge are
most creditable to his heart, it is, alas!
also true that the result of the anxious,
owner's efforts, in very many instances, end
most disastrously for the object of his
solicitude, whose life or health is destroyed
by the very means that are used to accom-
plish directly opposite results.

Nursing, instead of dosing the human
patient who is a little under the weather,
will very often bring one through threat-
ened trouble all right. That the same is
strikingly true regarding the canine patient
I have for many years been thoroughly
convinced. Dogs, whether of high or low
deo-ree, with very rarely an exception, are
wonderfully sensitive to the treatment they
receive from those who have the care of
them. A kind or a reproachful word will
raise them to the heaven of delight or sink
them in the slough of despondency. How
all-important is it then that we should treat
them at all times, but more especially when

1 8 Nursing vs. Dosing.

they are ailing, with the greatest care and
consideration, in order that their minds
may be free from care and worry, that they
may be in the best possible condition to
assist nature in withstanding and throwing
off threatened ills. How often is the mind
of the human patient won back to peace-
ful calm from its state of brooding despond-
ency by endearing words of affection and
gentle touch of loving hands, as disturbing
wrinkles are deftly smoothed from aching
brow and comfortless pillow ! A loving
word and gentle touch are often of greater
benefit to the suffering patient than the
most potent drug that can be administered.
Think of this when your dog is ailing, and
leave nothing undone that will tend to
soothe his mind or minister to his bodily

There is nothing more destructive to the
life and health of man or beast than the
administering of drugs and medicines by
practitioners who are not only ignorant of

Importance of Nursing, 1 9

the effect produced by their so-called reme-
dies, but are also incapable of determining,
from the symptoms shown by the patient,
the proper remedy to prescribe. As a
rule, the published description of the
symptoms shown by the victim of almost
any ill that flesh is heir to is most mislead-
ing to anyone not qualified by thoughtful
study and large experience to understand
the often very nice distinctions which are
almost invariably necessary to determine,
in diagnosing, even the simplest case.

When we take into consideration the fact
that eminent specialists, who have many
advantages that laymen cannot secure and
who are peculiarly fitted for their calling,
are often at fault in diagnosing a case, we
should be absolutely sure that the case is
perfectly understood before attempting to
prescribe for it.

How often does the man who is ailing
take down the family doctor's book, and
after reading the description of some oc-

20 Nursing vs. Dosing,

cult disease, that perhaps our largest hos-
pitals very rarely see — the description
couched In language that he cannot under-
stand — imagine that this just fits his case ;
and between the remedies advised and the
fright he receives he becomes seriously ill
and perhaps comes to an untimely end. If
these results happen In his own case, how
much more likely is he to err in the case of
his dog, when, of course, his deductions are
drawn from observation, frequently de-
lusive, and from symptoms that he does
not understand.

Therefore, when your dog is ailing, and
proper care and nursing seem to be un-
availing to relieve him, instead of pouring
down his throat drugs that may prove to
be just what he should not have, it is much
the better plan to call in the services of an
experienced veterinarian; or, if one in whom
you have confidence is not available, con-
sult your family physician, who will In most
cases know what to do, or, at all events,

Importance of Nursing, 2 1

he will know what not to do, which will
answer nearly as well.

Although I have the greatest respect for
our medical institutions, and the utmost
confidence in the skill of their graduates,
there is one very serious charge that I
must bring against the students of every
veterinary institute of which I have any
knowledge, and I very much fear that the
charge will hold against a large majority of
those who attend such institutions through-
out the world. The complaint I have to
make is that too scant attention is paid to
minor details, small matters perhaps, .ap-
parently not of much importance in them-
selves ; yet a knowledge of these is of the
greatest importance when diagnosing and
prescribing for a difficult case. I do not
wish to intimate that from a medical stand-
point any mistake will be made in deter-
mining from the symptoms just what the
ailment is, or in the remedy to be pre-
scribed ; but this is very far from being all

2 2 Nursing vs. Dosing,

that is necessary for the practitioner to do
for his patient. In many cases it is of the
greatest importance, indeed it is often an
absolute necessity, that food or drink that
will neutralize the medicine prescribed
should be forbidden. Milk and fatty sub-
stances are well-known antidotes to many
drugs in constant use, but the average dog
owner is, nine times out of ten, ignorant or
forgetful of this, even if he has knowledge
of the medicine administered. Many prac-
titioners, I regret to say, have not the
knowledge necessary to impart these very
important particulars, owing to the fact that
the above charge against them is true.
They did not, in their studies, pay proper
attention to the minor details they thought
unimportant, and are all at sea on many
points with which they should be entirely
familiar. The student is not, however,
always to blame in the matter, for many
of our best known veterinary as well as
medical institutions, I regret to say, are

Importance of Nursing, 2.3

lamentably deficient in Imparting what we
may call the A B C of medical instruction.
In fact, so far as my knowledge extends, I
am forced to believe that the higher the
attainments of the professor, the less in-
clined is he to dwell on the minor details,
knowledge of which is all-important to the
student when he comes to practice his pro-

Any physician of large experience will
tell you that good nursing, in a very large
proportion of cases, is of greater value than
proper medicine ; yet how few of the
younger portion of the fraternity will have
a single Idea to suggest in this direction.
It Is true, with regard to the human patient
In a large majority of cases, loving hands
need no instruction or prompting to smooth
the sufferer's pillow, but in canine practice
the case Is different. ''It is only a dog"
often excuses neglect of the most impor-
tant matters that, If properly attended to,
might save the life of the animal. How

"24 Nursing vs. Dosmg.

necessary then that the veterinarian should
be thoroughly acquainted with all the little
matters so necessary to the comfort and
welfare of his patients, and that he should
see to it that nothing is left undone that
may prove to be of benefit in arresting dis
ease or alleviating pain and distress.

Many practitioners are undoubtedly pos-
sessed of the necessary knowledge, but un-
thinkingly withhold it, perhaps in the belief
that the owner may know just what to do;
but this is generally an erroneous con-
clusion, and It is always best to determine
this point satisfactorily before leaving the


Many diseases that affect Qogs, and cause
their owners no end of worry and trouble,
can be almost entirely prevented by taking
proper care of the animal, and seeing that
Its quarters are at all times cleanly and well
ventilated, and that the food given is per-
fectly sweet and fresh, and of the best qual-

IniJ>orta7ice of JVursing, 25

Ity. ''Cleanliness is next to Godliness";
this maxim applies to the canine as well
as the human race, and absolute freedom
from filth is as necessary to the well-being
of your puppy as it is to your child. It
must not be understood, however, that all
dirt is filth, as there is nothing more con-
ducive to the health of child or dog- than


plenty of soil or sand for them to play in
and eat if they wish ; but you must see that
the ground is kept perfectly free from ex-
crement and other filth. The dirt will do
""hem no harm, and on no account should a
ouppy ever be bathed except it be abso-
lutely necessary to free him from filth.
Even grown dogs, when in health, can be
kept perfectly clean without resorting to
the constant washinor and scrubbine that
some owners think so necessary. A stiff
brush in the hands of one who will use it
thoroughly is often much better than a bath,
especially in cold weather, or even in warm
weather if the dog is heated by exercise.

26 Nicrsing vs. Dosing,

Dogs do not perspire through the pores
of the skin, and for this reason are much
more easily kept sweet and clean. More-
over, their hair is so constituted that it
performs a very important part in keeping
them free from filth. Each hair is armed
with minute scales or teeth, all pointing
outward, and with each motion of the dog
each individual hair, rubbing against its
neighbors, may be said to make an effort
to expel all dust and dirt from the skin to
the surface of the coat. I by no means
wish to be understood as deprecating the
use of the bath at proper times, but am
merely trying to show that in case of ne-
cessity your dog can be kept perfectly
clean without it. A plunge into water is
greatly enjoyed by most dogs, and is of
benefit to them when they are not too
much heated by exercise ; but should they
from any cause get wet while heated, no
bad results are apt to follow if they be
given a good run after their bath

Importance of Nursing. 27

Exercise is one of the most important
subjects which we are called upon to con-
sider. So much has been written and said
about the value of exercise that I will take
it for granted that no one is ignorant of its
necessity for the prolonging of life and the
enjoyment of health. Although in a gen-
eral way the average dog owner is aware of
this, he is not always aware just how much
his dog really needs, nor of the proper
time when he should take it.

The stomach of the dog appears to be
so constituted that absolute rest is required
after eating, in order that the food that has
been taken may be properly digested.
Exercise should therefore be very mod-
erate just after meals, and no work should
be allowed until at least three hours have
elapsed. It has been proven by experi-
ment that, when a dog was full fed and at
once put to work, at the end of several
hours the food remained in the stomach in
an undigested state — the only change being

28 Nursing vs. Dosmg.

that there was fermentation, which in itself
would cause no little distress, if not a com-
plete disarrangement of the entire system.

There is no animal that requires more
exercise than the dog, and it is cruelty to
them to confine them for weeks at a time,
as is too often done, with scarcely an op-
portunity to stretch thei-r legs or breathe a
bit of fresh air. A person who cannot take
proper care of his dog is unfit to own one,
and it is far from proper care to debar
your dog from the exercise so necessary to
keep him in health. If you are obliged to
keep him on chain, he should be allowed
his liberty for a good run at least twice
every day — once in the morning and again
at night before he is fed.

The very best plan to adopt, both for
dog and master, is to get up in the morn-
inof an hour before the usual time and de-
vote this hour to a ramble in the fields with
your dog, or, if the fields are too far away,
the streets may be substituted. If this is

hnportance of Nursing. 29

tried for a month, It will be found to be so
beneficial to both that it will be very bad
weather or uncommon press of business
that will cause the morning ramble to be
omitted. I have often advised this course,
and invariably with the most gratifying
results both to dog and master.

In this connection, it will perhaps not be
out of place to say that this course is the
very best one to fit your pointer or setter
for his season's work on game, to say
nothing of hardening your own thews and
sinews, and getting into condition for
tramping through wood and field.

Out of Sorts.

There Is an undefined but well-known
disease, or perhaps I should say complaint,
that Is not at all dangerous in itself If prop-
erly treated. This in human subjects Is
known as being ''out of sorts." In a very
large majority of cases this condition is In-
duced by the long-continued monotony of

30 Nursing vs. Dosing.

their surroundings. That dogs often suf-
fer from this complaint no one of experi-
ence will deny. Neither can it be gainsaid
that this condition is often the cause — not
the symptom — of serious illness, that might
have been avoided by proper attention
when the victim first showed signs of being
out of sorts. In the kennel this complaint
is quite often induced by a long-continued
use of some article of food — perhaps nutri-
tious, healthful, and everything that could
be desired as food, but its long-continued

1 3 4 5 6 7

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