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Examples. — 1. Night approaches.

2. Day is departing.

8. William is sleepy.

4. Socrates was a philosopher.

6. Virtue secures happiness.

6. John and George have arrived.

7. God created the heaven and the earth.

8. " The dying notes still murmur on the string.^

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Remask. — ^In a Discourse, words are used —

1. As Names of beings, places, or things ;

2. As Substitvies for names or facts ; .

3. As Qimlifiers or lAmiters of Names ;

4. To cLssert an act, being, or state ;

6. To modify an assertion or a quality ;

6. To express relations of things or of thoughts ;

7. To introduce or to connect Words and Sentences ;

8. To express a sudden or an intense emotion ; or,

9. For Rhetorical effect,
la-ence, by their uses —

Principle. — Words are distinguished as,

1. Nouns y

2. Pronouns^

3. Adjectives,

4. Verbs,

5. Adverbs,

6. Prepositions,

7. Conjunctions^

8. Mcclamations, and

9. Words of Euphony.

Def. 10. — A Word used as the name of a being, a place,
or a thing, is called

A Noun,

Examples. — Ood — man — sea — way — wonders.

Def. 11. — ^A Word used /or a Noun, is called

A Pronoun.
Examples. — I—thovr-^he — she — it — who — what — that.

Def. 12. — A Word used to qualify, or otherwisp
describe a Noun or a Pronoun, is called
An Adjective.
'EaujasjBB.'^Mytterious [way] — his [wonders]— ^A# [sm.]

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Def. 13. — A Word used to assert an act^ being, or state^
of a person or a tiling, is called
A Verb.

Examples. — [God] moves — [He] plants — ^Day [declines'],

Def. 14. — A Word used to modify the signification of
a Verb, an Adjective, or another Modifier, is called
An Adverb.

Examples. — "A mist rose slowly from the lake.**
" The task was exceedingly difficult.
" He came between us very oft."

Def, 15. — ^A Word used to express a relation of words

to each other, is called

A Preposition.

Examples. — " At midnight in his guarded tent,

The Turk was dreaming of the hour."

Def. 16. — A Word used to introduce a Sentence, or

to connect Words and Phrases, is called

A Conjunction.

Examples. — "And I am glad that he has lived thus long.**
" God created the heaten and the earth."

Def. 17. — A Word used to express a sudden or an
intense emotion,- is called

An Exclamation.
Examples. — Alas ! — oh I — shocking !

Def. 18. — A Word used chiefly for the sake of souni,
IS called ^ Word of Euphony.

Examples. — " There are no idlers here.**

** Now, then, we are prepared to define our position.*
" Even in our ashes live their wonted fires.

Obs.— For ohaarvations on " Words of Euphony,^ se« Part TL


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Rjof/BX. — Phrases are used as substitutes for Nouns, Adjectives, and
Ad 7erb8 ; or they are independent in construction. Hence, in respect
of their offices,

Pkinciple. — Phrases are distinguislied as,

1. Substantive^

2. Adjective^

3. Adverbial^

4. Independent,

Def. 19. — A Substantive Phrase is a phrase used as the
Subject or the Object of a Verb, or the Object of a Pre-

, Examples. — " To be, contents his natural desire. **>,

•. " His being a mims<«',\pre vented his rising to civil power.**

" I doubted his having been a soldier.^*
*'The crime of being a young man^ I shaU attempt iteithdt
to palliate nor deny."
What "contents his natural desire"!

" To 6tf," — i. e., mere existence.
" I doubted"— lT7ia<;

" His having been a soldier.**
** The crime of "-— What f

** Being a young man.'*
Obs. — Substantive I^rases perform offices similar to thofr« of Nouni
and Pronouns.

Def. 20. — An Adjective Phrase is a phrase* used to
qualify or limit the application of a Noun or a ? *:^<in^

Examples. — **The time of my departure is at hand."

" Fhrgetting tlie thin^ that are behind, h\)TeBBU*'^A!fi.
What "time"?— "Of my departure."

" The dishes of luxury cover his tal>le."
'tr ' TfJbrf dishes I—" Of luxury."

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Def. 21. — An Adverbial Phrase is a phrase used to
modify the signification of a Verb, an Adjective, or an

V^yAifPriefl. — •« God moYes in a mysterious way,**

" He is powerful /or evil — ^impotent /or good,**
" God moves"— -fibw /

" In a mysterious way."
** Powerful " — In what respect f
"For evil."

Def. 22. — An Independent Phrase is a phrase not
grammatically connected with any other element.

Examples. — " The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises.**
Obs. — ^An Independent Phrase perfonns an office in its sentence rather
Logical than Grammatical Thus, in the sentence, "The hour having
arrived, we commenced the exercises," the phrase "the hour having
arrived," indicates the time of commencing the exercises ; but it is not
joined to the word " commenced" by any connecting word.

Prin". — Phrases are distinguished also by their forms,

1. Prepositional^

2. Infinitive^

8. Participial^
4. Independent

Def. 23. — A Prepositional Phrase is a phrase intro-
duced by a Preposition, having a Noun or a Substitute as
its object of relation.

Examples.' — " In a mysterious way." " To me."

* A habit of moving quickly is another way of gaining

Def. 24. — An Infinitive Phrase is*a phrase introduced
by the Preposition TO, having a Verb as its object of
relation. •

fixAMPLBR.— " To Zowtf'*—" To ttudf^'' To be diligent.**

" We ought not to he satisfied with present attainmentik*' ' ^^-
** I sit me down a pensive hour to spend!*

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Def. 25. — A Participial Phrase is a phrase introduced
by a Participle^ having an Object or an Adjunct.

Examples. — " Scaling yonder peak,

I saw an eagle, wheeling near its brow.**

Def. 26. — An Independent Phrase is introduced by a
Noun or a Pronoun^ followed by a Participle depending
upon it.

Examples. — " The cars having left, we chartered a coach.**
" Thus talking, hand [being] in hand,
Alone they passed on to their blissful bower.**


Principle. — A Phrase consists of

Principal Elements, \ Adjunct Elements,

Def. 27. — The Principal Elements of a Phrase are the

words necessary to its structure.

Examples. — "Rays | of limpid light \ gleamed | round ih&i pathJ* \
" Birds sang | amid the sprouting shade/* |
" Manhood is disgraced | by the consegtiences \ ©/"neglected
youth:* I •

Def. 28. — The Adjuncts of a Phrase are the words used
to modify or limit the offices of other words in the

Examples. — "Rays | of limpid light \ gleamed | round their path.** |
" Birds Bang | amid the whispering shade.** |
"See 1 Winter comes | to rule the varied year.** |
" With what an awful, world-revolving power,

Were first the unwieldy planets lanched along

The inimitable void.**

Prin.— iThe PrinSpal Elements of a Phrase consist ol
The Leader, \ The Subsequent,

Def. 29.^-The Leader of a Phrase is the word used to
introduce the Phrase — generally connecting its Subsequent
to the word which the Phrase qualifies.

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EzAMFLEfl — ** Like a spirit | it came, | in the van | of a storm." |
"Enough remains | o/" glimmering light |
To guide the wanderer's steps aright." |
"The previous question being demanded, | the debate
Obs. — ^The Leader of a Phrase is commonly the first word in positiof^^^
but not altoaya; Adjuncts may precede. [See the last example.]

Pres". — The Leader of a Phrase may be

A Preposition^ | The Preposition TO,
A Participle^ I A Substantive,

Examples. — " I am monarch of all I survey ;

My right there is none to dispute."
** Taking a madman's sword | ^o prevent | his ci^ti^ mischief | cannot
be regarded | as robbing him | ."

"The evening star having disappeared, | we returned to the castle."

Def. 30. — ^A Participle is a word derived from a Yerb,
retaining the signification of its verb, while it also per-
forms the office of some other "part of speech."

Obs. — ^For observations on Participles, see Part IL

Def. 31. — The Subsequent of a Phrase is the Element
which follows the Leader as its object of auction or relation,
or which depends on it in construction.

Examples. — At parting \ , too, there was a long ceremony | in the
haJl I , buttoning up great-coats \ , tpng on woolen comforters | , fixing
silk fiandkerchiefs over the mouth and up to the ears, and grasping sturdy
wdking-canes to support unsteady feet

Prin. — The Subsequent of a Phrase may be,

A Word^ I A Phrase, \ A Sentence.

Examples. — " Sweet was the sound, when oft | at evening's close \

Up yonder hill \ the village murmur .rose."
"A habit I of moving quickly \ , is another way | of gaining time \ ,".
"The footman, in his usual phrase,
Comes up with ' Madame dinner stayt.* "


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Obs. 1. — ^The Subsequent of a Phrase is sometimes suppressed.

EzAicpLE. — " These crowd around, to ask him of his health."

Obs. 2. — When any Element of a Phrase is suppressed, that part of the
Phrase which is expressed — whether Leader, Subsequent^ or Adjunct —
IS to be regarded as the representative of the whole Phrase, and, in the
analysis of a Sentence, it should be construed as the whole Phrase would
be if fully expressed.

ExAHFLics. — 1. "These crowd around,** i. e., around him.
2. William will come home, i e., to his home,
8. Mary has come to school earli/, i, e.,at an early fumr,

** Around,** as an Element in the Phrase, is a Preposition,

"Around,** as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverb — ^for it is a
representative of an Adverbial Phrase.

** Home" as an Element in the Phrase, is a Ifoun,

** Home,** as an Element in ihe Sentence, is an Adverb — for it is a
representative of an Adverbial Phrase.

" Early ^* as an Element in the Phrase, is an Adjective,

*^ Early** as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverb — ^for it is a
representative of an Adverbial Phrase.



Remabk. — ^As a Word is a physical representative of an idea, so a
Sentence is a mechanical structure embodying a Preposition. A Sen-
tence may be resolved into its Elements.

Def. 82. — The Elements of a sentence axe the parts
which enter into its structure.

Rem. — In the structure of Sentences, certain general principles are in-
volved, which are common to all languages.

1. We have that of which something is declared. This is called the
Subject of the Sentence,

2. There must be a word or words used to declare — posi lively
negatively, or interrogatively — sometliing of the subject This is called
'^e Predicate,

These two parts are essential to the strootore of a Sent<mcew

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S. The Predicates of some Sentences assert acts which pass over to
on Object

4. There are often other Elements, used to qualify^ to limits or to
modify the various parts of Sentences. These are called Adjunct

Prin. — ITie Parts of a Sentence are distinguislied as
Principal Elements and
Adjunct Elements.

Def. 33. — T/ie Principal Elements of a Sentence are the
parts which make the unqualified assertion.

Examples. — Birds fly — ^The sun shines.

" The night passed away in song.**

"The mountains shoioed their gray heads"

" Thy bounty shines in Autumn unconfined.

And spreads a common feast for all that live.**
" The king of shadows loves a shining mark/* '.%

" In the beginning, God created the Jieaven and the earths

Def. 34. — The Adjunct Elements of a Sentence are such
a6 describe or modify other elements.

Examples. — ^" TTie \ night passed | away \ in songP

** The king | of shadows \ loves | a \ shining mark.**
** 77tere \ in his noisy mansion^ \ skilled to rtde, |

The I village j master | taught | his \ little | schooL** |
" Lend me yo7tr songs, ye nightingales.'*
" Liberty 1 I wait /or thee,"
Rem. — ^There are still other words, which are neither Principal Ele-
ments nor Adjuncts, — words which are sometimes used in connection
with the Sentence, but which do not constitute an integral part of it

Def. 35. — Words accompanying a Sentence without
entering into its structure, are called
Attendant Elements.

ExAMFun. — " Lend me your songs, ye nightingale* V
•* Liberty I I wait for thee."

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•* TTiere are no idlers here.**

"I sit mc down, a pensive hour to spend."

** Even in our ashes live their wonted fires."

** Friends^ Romans^ Countrymen 1 lend me youp ^arii*



Fein. — ^The Principal Elements of a Sentence, *uc,
The Subject, \ The Predicate, \ The Object.

Obs. — ^Every Sentence must have, at leasts one Subject and one Fredu
caUf expressed or imderstood.

Def. 36.- The Subject of a Sentence is that of which

something y* asserted.

Obs. — ^The Su^ *ect of a Sentence ib a Nbufit or a Word, a Phrate, or a
Sentence used for i Noun.


1. A Noun, — Bifda fly — ** Knowledge is power.**

** ThUh crushed to earth, will rise again.*

2. A Pronoun, — We come — TViei/ are satisfied.

** 2'%<y tlicU seek me earl}', shall find me."
8. A Phrase. — To do good, is the duty of all men.

**Hi8 being a minister, prevented his rising to civil pvmrer. •
4. A Sentence. — ** At what time he took orders, doth not appear.**

** That all *jien are created equal, is a self-evident truth.*

Def. 37. — The Predicate of a Sentence is the Word or
VVords that express what is asserted of the subject .

Obs. — ^The Predicate consists of a Verb, with or without anothei Verhf
ik Participle, an Adjective, a Noun, a Pronoun, or a Preposition,


1. A Verb only. — Birds fly — Quadrupeds run,

"Here sleeps he now alone.*
& Tuo Verbs, — "We shall go — I do remember,
** Ye shall not in the lofty piife
Disturb the sparrow's neat"

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8. A Verb and a Participle.-^ohn was tn/2*rei— "Willie is readUtg,

"Thou art perched aloft on the beetling crag."
4 A Verb and an Adjective, — James became poor — ^Warner is deepy

" And the waves are white below."
& A Verb and a Nowi. — God is love — We ate fitendt.

The proper stvdy of mankind is man.
t. A Verb and a Pronoun, — It is I— 'Who ate you I

" Thine is the kingdom.**

9. A Verb and a Preposition. — Its idle hopes are o*er.

That business has been attended to.
Remarks — ^The Predicate is yaried not only in form, but also in itn

1. It may assert an act — as, "William vfalks

2. It may assert being — as, God exists,

8. It may assert guaiUy — as, Sugar is sweet,
4. It may assert ponsesxion — as, ** Thine is the kingdouL**
6. It may assert identity — as. It is I.
6. It may assert condition — as, Its idle hopes are o*er,
*I, It may assert change of condition — as, " His palsied hand
waxed strong.^
Obs* 1. — ^The term " Predicate " has two applications — a Logical and a
OrammcttieaL The Logical Predicate includes the Grammatical Predi4,ule
and its Object. Thus, in the sentence,

" The king of shadows loves a shining mark,"

• Loves a shining mark" is the Logical Predicate ;
** Loves** is the Grammatical Predicate.

Obs. 2. — In Sentences that have no Objects, the Logical and the Gram'
wuUieal Predicates are identicaL Thus, in the sentence,

" The oaks of the mountains fall,"
^FaU^, 18 both the Logical and the Grammatical Predicate.

Obs. 8. — The Modified Predicate includes the Grammatical Predtea^
ijid. itaAifjuncts, Thus, in the sentence,

" Hollow winds are in the pines,"

* Are in the pines " is the Modified Predicate of "winds."
** Are" is the Grammatical Predicate.

Rem. — ^The Object of a Sentence, being distinct from the Grammatical
Predicate, is properly regarded as a distinct Element in the structure of
vuoh Sentences as contain Olyecis, Heno^

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Def. 38.— The Object of a Sentence is the Word or
Words on which the act, expressed by the Predicate,

Obs. — ^Tlie Object of a Sentence ia a i\rm*n, or a Word^ a Phraae, or a
Sentence used for a Noun.


A Noun. — John saws loood — Birds build nents.
" Shall joy light the face of the Indian ?**
"The king of shadows loves a shining mark.**

2. A Pronoun. — I have, seen him — Wliom seekest thou f
" Oft the shepherd called thee to his flock."
" Wo buried him darkly, at dead of night.**

8. A Phrase. — **I regret hi& being absent J*

"His being a minister, prevented his rising to civil power!*

4. A Sentence. — " The fool hath said in his hearty Tli^e is no Oo<V*
"And God said, Let there be light**
" God never meant that Toan should scale the Iieavens
By strides of human wisdom.**


"Riaf. — ^If I say, Students deserve approbation, I make an " unqualified
assertion,** applicable to all " students," and to the " approbation** of all
persons. But^ if I say DUigent Students deserve the approbation of their
Teacher, I speak of only a particular class of Students, — and of approba-
tion as limited to a particular source ; for the Word " Strident,** is limited
by the word ** diligent;^* and the Word '* approbation^" is limited by the
Word " the,** and by the Phrase " of tlieir Teacher^ These limiting Word*,
and Phrases are necessary, not to make the Sentence, but to perf'^n t?t»
tense; they are joined to other words, and are therefore called ^ajumdg,

Prin. — An Adjunct Element may be

A Word^ I A Phrase, \ A Sentence.


(a) A Word. — 1. "We were walking homeivard
2. "We shall arrive soon.
8. " Brilliantly

The glassy waters mirror back His smilea."

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4. " Darkly waves each giant bough.**
6. " A purple robe hh dyirvg frame shall fold*
(6) X Phrase. — 1. We were walking toioards home.
2. We shall arrive i7i a short tbne.
8. Sons of sorrow echoed notes of sadness,
4» I camera bury Ccesar.
6« " Scaling yonder peak,

I saw an eagle wheeling near its brow.**
(c) A Sentence.— I, Students, who st-udy, will improve.

2. Students will improve, if they study,
8. They kneeled bef(yre tliey fought,
4. " The sweet remembrance of the just,
Shall flourish wlien he sleeps in dmt,**

''How I dear \ to my heart \ are | the | scenes ( of my childhood, \
I When \fond \ recollection | presents | them | to mew.**

" ^^ " li^te « dear,** Hence, an Adjunct Word.

''Tomyh^artr " "are dear,** Hence, an Adjunct Phrase.

""^y"^ " "heart,** Hence, an Adjunct Word.

" ^'*^''' " " scenes,** Hence, an Adjunct Word.

''OfmychiWioodT " "scenes,** Hence, an Adjunct Phraae.

"^V " "childhood,** Hence, an Adjunct Word.

** When fond recollection ) i« <« j » -rr

presents tliem to view" J ^^^ ^"^» Hence, an Adjunct Sentence.

" ^^^^" " " recollection,** Hence, an Adjunct Word.

** To view;* « "presents,** Hence, an Adjunct Phrase.

Rem. —Adjuncts are used to limit or describe things, or to modify acU
or qtuzlities. Hence,

Prin. — Adjuncts are distinguislied as
-Adjectives or Adverbs.

Obs. l.-^Adjective Adjuncts, whether Words, Phrases, ,^r Sentences,
•re such as answer to the questions, TFAa^/ What kind? Whose f How
wianyf &c. They are attached, in construction, to N^ouns and Pronou7is.

Obs. 2.— Adverbial A(ijuncts— Words, Phrases, or Sentences— are such
as answer to the questions, How? Whyf Where? Wfiencef Whether f
Ac. They are attached to Verb^, to A^^eciives, and to Adverbs,

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Obs. 3 — Words, Phrases, and Sentences, having no Grammatical can-
nectiop. with otlier Elements in a Sentence, often pei-form Adjunct offices^
by Ihmting or modifying the application of other Elemente. Such are
prope»*ly called Logical Adjuncts.


(a) Words. — 1. Webster, the Statestnany is remotely related to Webster,
the Lexicographer,
2. Clay — Cassius M. — ^had more honorable benevolence
than political sagacity.
(6) Phrases. — 1. *^ Napoleon having fallen, there is no more cauue for
2. " Thus talking, hand in hand, alone they passed on
to their blissful bower.**
(c) S&ntenees. — " I solemnly declare — and I do not speak unadvisedly —
that the measures adopted by the passage of those resolutions
will hasten the dissolution of the Union.**
Rem. — ^The words " Statestnan" and " Lexicogi-apher'* are used to dis-
tinguish the two " Websters ;** " Cassius M.^ to determine which " Clay**
is spoken of: — the Phrase " Napoleon having fallen,^* to tell why there is
no more cause for alarm; and "/(2t> not speak unadvisedly^* is a Sentence
thrown in to add force to the Principal Sentence. Hence, we have
Orammatical Adjuncts and Logical Adjuncts,



Birds fly,

C Birds X fly J


Quest Of what is something here said f
Ans, Something is said of " Birds J^
TTAaMssaidof "Birds'*?

A. They/y.

These two Words thus placed, form what!
A, A Sentence^ for they constitute " an assemblage of
words, so arranged as to assert an entire proposition."

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Birds fly.
Quest In this Sentence, /or wliat is the Word "Birds'* used I

Ans. To tdl what ''&y:'

Far wJuU is the Word " fly** used f

A. To teU what "Birds" do.

Birds fly,

" Every Sentence must have a Subject and a Predicate '*

Qitest. In this Sentence, what is the Subject f

Ans. ^^Birds'' — for it " is that of which something is

Wliat is the Predicate f

A, " Fly'*^ — for " it is the word that expresses what is
asserted of the Subject."

" Thus, analyze the following additional


1. Fishes swim.

7. Waters are running.

2. Horses gallop.

8. Mary id reading.

8. Lightnings flash.

9. Winter has come.

4. Thunders roll

10. Resources are developed.

5. Girls sing.

11. Wheat has been sown.

6. Boys play.

12. Mountains have been elevated.

13. Lessons should have been studied.

14. Recitations could have been omitted.

1 5. He might have been respected.

Rem. — ^In the last example, the four words "might have been re-
•pected," constitute the Predicate of " he.**

Rem. 2. — ^The Pupil will notice that, when the Predicate consisi<i of
more than one word, the la-^ word makes the Principal Assertion; the
)thof words perform subordinate offices. Thus, in Example 13, " Should"
ienotes obligation ; " Should have" denote obligation and time ; ** Shojld
•lave been** denote obligation, time, and voice. These are subordinate to
tiie principal assertion expressed by the word " Studied.**

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John is sleepy,

Q John "X la sleepy ^

A Sentence — because it is " an assemblage of Words,
so arranged as to assert an entire proposition."


"eToAn" is tbe Subject — ^for it is the name of the per-
son "concerning whom something is asserted."

"ii sleepy ^^^ is the Predicate — ^for these two words
" express what is affirmed of the Subject."

Rem. — ^In a limited sense, a Verb may be said to qualify or describa
its subject

Examples. — John sleeps.

Here, ** sleeps'* describes a condition of "John."
John is sleeping.

Here, ^is sleeping asserts a condition of "John."
John is sleepy.

In this Sentence, " is sleepy^ asserts a condition as definitely as do the
"Words, " is sleepi7ig" ; and the genius of the language requires the "Word
"sleeping" to be added to the Verb "is," in order to express the fact
intended; so the other fact concerning "John" requires the "Word
" sleepy" to be added to the Verb " is." The Sentence is not, sleeping
John is — e. «., exists ; nor is the other, sleepy John is — L ft, exists ; but
•* John is sleeping" and " John is sleepy." "Sleeping" is a Participle, in
predication with " is" "Sleepy" is an Adjective, in predication with "m."

^^g' Let the Pupil, in like manner, construe and place in Diagrams
the following additional


1 William is diligent
2. James was weary.
8 Flowers are beautiful
4, Mountains are elevated.

9. " His palsied hand wax*d strong." — Wilson,

2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

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