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the feet above the surface, sending the water hither and yon on to the
banks, into the pools, with the soil of silt or mud or fine gravel from
the bottom, polluting the stream many yards ahead, and causing every fish
to scurry to the shelter of a hole in the bank or under a shelving rock.
They intend that the rodster shall enter the water quietly, and, after a
few preliminary casts to get the water gear in good working order to
proceed down stream by sliding rather than lifting his feet from the
bottom, noiselessly and cautiously approaching the most likely pools or
eddies behind the roots in mid stream, or still stretches close to the
banks, where the quiet reaches broaden down stream, where nine chances in
ten, on a good trout water, one or more fish will be seen lazily rising
and feeding.

Again, the down-stream angler contends that when a fish is fastened on a
hook, taking the lure in a current, that he is more likely to be well
hooked, hence more certain of capture when the line is tense, than when
rising to a floating bug at the end of a looping line and leader.
Certainly it is very difficult when casting against the current to keep
the line sufficiently taut to strike quickly and effectively a rising
trout, which as a rule ejects the artificial lure the instant he feels the
gritty impact of the steel.

In fishing down stream, the advocate of the principle that the greater the
surface commotion made by the flies used, the surer the rise and catch,
has an advantage over his brother who always fishes "fine" and with flies
that do not make a ripple. Drawing the artificial bugs across and slightly
up stream over the mirrored bosom of a pool is apt to leave a wake behind
them which may not inaptly be compared with the one created by a small
stern-wheel steamer; an unnatural condition of things, but of such is a
trout's make-up.

- W.C. HARRIS: _Fishing Up or Down Stream_.


+Theme CXV.+ - _Persuade a friend, to choose some sport from one of the
following pairs:_ -

1. Canoeing or sailing.
2. Bicycling or automobiling.
3. Golf or polo.
4. Basket ball or tennis.
5. Football or baseball.


+Theme CXVI.+ - _Choose one side of a proposition. Name the probable points
on the other side and write out a refutation of them_.


+Theme CXVII.+ - _State a proposition and write the direct argument._


+Theme CXVIII.+ - _Exchange theme CXVII for one written by a classmate and
write the refutation of the arguments in the theme you receive._


(Theme CXVII and the corresponding Theme CXVIII should be read before the
class.)


SUMMARY

1. Argument is that form of discourse which attempts to prove the truth of
a proposition.

2. Inductive reasoning is that process by which from many individual cases
we establish the probable truth of a general proposition.

3. The establishing of a general truth by induction requires -
_a._ That there be a large number of facts, circumstances, or specific
instances supporting it.
_b._ That these facts be true.
_c._ That they be pertinent.
_d._ That there be no facts proving the truth of the contrary
proposition.

4. Deductive reasoning is that process which attempts to prove the truth
of a specific proposition by showing that a general theory applies to it.

5. The establishing of the truth of a specific proposition by deductive
reasoning requires -
_a._ A major premise that makes an affirmation about _all_ the members
of a class.
_b._ A minor premise that states that the individual under consideration
belongs to the class named.
_c._ A conclusion that states that the affirmation made about the class
applies to the individual. These three statements constitute a
syllogism.

6. An enthymeme is a syllogism with but one premise expressed.

7. Errors of deduction arise -
_a._ If terms are not used throughout with the same meaning.
_b._ If the major premise does not make a statement about every member
of the class denoted by the middle term.
_c._ If either premise is false.

8. Belief in a specific proposition may arise -
_a._ Because of the presentation of evidence which is true and
pertinent.
_b._ Because of a belief in some general principle or theory which
applies to it.

In arguing therefore we -
_a._ Present true and pertinent facts, or evidence; or
_b._ Appeal directly to general theories, or by means of facts, maxims,
allusions, inferences, or the quoting of authorities, seek to call
up such theories.

9. Classes of arguments: -
_a._ Arguments from cause.
_b._ Arguments from sign and attendant circumstances.
_c._ Arguments from example and analogy.

10. Arrangement.
_a._ Arguments from cause should precede arguments from sign, and
arguments from sign should precede arguments from example.
_b._ Inductive arguments usually precede deductive arguments.
_c._ Arguments should be arranged with reference to climax.
_d._ Arguments should be arranged, when possible, in a coherent order.

11. In making a brief the above principles of arrangement should be
observed. Attention should be given to unity so that the trivial and false
may be excluded.

12. Persuasion is argument that aims to establish the wisdom of a course
of action.

13. Persuasion appeals largely to the feelings.
_a._ Those feelings of satisfaction resulting from approval,
commendation, or praise, or the desire to avoid blame, disaster,
or loss of self-esteem.
_b._ Those feelings resulting from the proper and legitimate use of
one's powers.
_c._ Those feelings which arise from possession, either actual or
anticipated.

14. Persuasion is concerned with -
_a._ Questions of right.
_b._ Questions of expediency.




APPENDIX


I. ELEMENTS OF FORM

+1. Importance of Form.+ - The suggestions which have been made for the
correction of the Themes have laid emphasis upon the thought. Though the
thought side is the more important, yet careful attention must also be
given to the form in which it is stated. If we wish to express our
thoughts so that they will be understood by others, we shall be surer to
succeed if we use the forms to which our hearers are accustomed. The great
purpose of composition is the clear expression of thought, and this is
aided by the use of the forms which are conventional and customary.

Wrong habits of speech indicate looseness and carelessness of thought, and
if not corrected show a lack of training. In speaking, our language goes
directly to the listener without revision. It is, therefore, essential
that we pay much attention to the form of the expression so that it may be
correct when we use it. Our aim should be to avoid an error rather than to
correct it.

Similarly in writing, your effort should be given to avoiding errors
rather than to correcting those already made. A misspelled word or an
incorrect grammatical form in the letter that you send to a business man
may show you to be so careless and inaccurate that he will not wish to
have you in his employ. In such a case it is only the avoidance of the
error that is of value. You must determine for yourself that the letter is
correct before you send it. This same condition should prevail with
reference to your school themes. The teacher may return these for
correction, but you must not forget that the purpose of this correction is
merely to emphasize the correct form so that you will use it in your next
theme. It will be helpful to have some one point out your individual
mistakes, but it is only by attention to them on your own part and by a
definite and long-continued effort to avoid them that you will really
accomplish much toward the establishing of correct language habits. In
this, as in other things, the most rapid progress will be made by doing
but one thing at a time.

Many matters of form are already familiar to you. A brief statement of
these is made in order to serve as a review and to secure uniformity in
class work.


1. _Neatness._ - All papers should be free from blots and finger marks.
Corrections should be neatly done. Care in correcting or interlining will
often render copying unnecessary.

2. _Legibility._ - Excellence of thought is not dependent upon penmanship,
and the best composition may be the most difficult to read. A poorly
written composition is, however, more likely to be considered bad than one
that is well written. A plain, legible, and rapid handwriting is so
valuable an accomplishment that it is well worth acquiring.

3. _Paper._ - White, unruled paper, about 8-1/2 by 11 inches, is best for
composition purposes. The ability to write straight across the page
without the aid of lines can be acquired by practice. It is customary to
write on only one side of the paper.

4. _Margins._ - Leave a margin of about one inch at the left of the sheet.
Except in formal notes and special forms there will be no margin at the
right. Care should be taken to begin the lines at the left exactly under
each other, but the varying length of words makes it impossible to end the
lines at the right at exactly the same place. A word should not be crowded
into a space too small for it, nor should part of it be put on the next
line, as is customary in printing, unless it is a compound one, such as
steam-boat. Spaces of too great length at the end of a line may be avoided
by slightly lengthening the preceding words or the spaces between them.

5. _Spacing._ - Each theme should have a title. It should be placed in the
center of the line above the composition, and should have all important
words capitalized. Titles too long for a single line may be written as
follows: -


MY TRIP TO CHICAGO
ON A BICYCLE


With unruled paper some care must be taken to keep the lines the same
distance apart. The spaces between sentences should be somewhat greater
than those between words. Paragraphs are indicated by indentations.

6. _Corrections._ - These are best made by using a sharp knife or an ink
eraser. Sometimes, if neatly done, a line may be drawn through an
incorrect word and the correct one written above it. Omitted words may be
written between the lines and the place where they belong indicated by a
caret. If a page contains many corrections, it should be copied.

7. _Inscription and Folding._ - The teacher will give directions as to
inscription and folding. He will indicate what information he wishes, such
as name, class, date, etc., and where it is to be written. Each page
should be numbered. If the paper is folded, it should be done with
neatness and precision.


+2. Capitals.+ - The use of capitals will serve to illustrate the value of
using conventional forms. We are so accustomed to seeing a proper name,
such as Mr. Brown, written with capitals that we should be puzzled if we
should find it written without capitals. The sentence, Ben-Hur was written
by Lew Wallace, would look unfamiliar if written without capitals. We are
so used to our present forms that beginning sentences with small letters
would hinder the ready comprehension of the thought. Everybody agrees that
capitals should be used to begin sentences, direct questions, names of
deity, days of the week, the months, each line of poetry, the pronoun I,
the interjection O, etc., and no good writer will fail to use them. Usage
varies somewhat in regard to capitals in some other places. Such
expressions as Ohio river, Lincoln school, Jackson county, state of
Illinois, once had both names capitalized. The present tendency is to
write them as above. Even titles of honor are not capitalized unless they
are used with a proper name; for example, He introduced General Grant The
general then spoke.


+3. Rules of Capitalization.+ - 1. Every sentence and every line of poetry
begin with capitals.

2. Every direct quotation, except brief phrases and subordinate parts of
sentences, begins with a capital.

3. Proper nouns and adjectives derived from proper nouns begin with
capitals. Some adjectives, though derived from proper nouns, are no longer
capitalized; _e.g._ voltaic.

4. Titles of honor when used with the name of a person begin with
capitals.

5. The first word and every important word in the titles of books, etc.,
begin with capitals.

6. The pronoun I and the interjection O are always capitalized.

7. Names applied to the Deity are capitalized and pronouns referring
thereto, especially if personal, are usually capitalized.

8. Important words are often capitalized for emphasis, especially words in
text-books indicating topics.


+4. Punctuation.+ - The meaning of a sentence depends largely on the
grouping of words that are related in sense to each other. When we are
reading aloud we make the sense clear by bringing out to the hearer this
grouping. This is accomplished by the use of pauses and by emphasis and
inflection. In writing we must do for the eye what inflection and pauses
do for the ear. We therefore use punctuation marks to indicate inflection
and emphasis, and especially to show word grouping. Punctuation marks are
important because their purpose is to assist in making the sense clear.
There are many special rules more or less familiar to you, but they may
all be included under the one general statement: Use such marks and only
such marks as will assist the reader in getting the sense.

What marks we shall use and how we shall use them will be determined by
custom. In order to benefit a reader, marks must be used in ways with
which he is familiar. Punctuation changes from time to time. The present
tendency is to omit all marks not absolutely necessary to the clear
understanding of the sentence.

There are some very definite rules, but there are others that cannot be
made so definite, and the application of them requires care and
judgment on the part of the writer. Improvement will come only by
practice. Sentences should not be written for the purpose of illustrating
punctuation. The meaning of what you are writing ought to be clear to you,
and the punctuation marks should be put in _as you write_, not inserted
afterward.


+5. Rules for the Use of the Comma.+ - 1. The comma is used to separate
words or phrases having the same construction, used in a series.

Judges, senators, and representatives were imprisoned.

The country is a good place to be born in, a good place to die in, a
good place to live in at least part of the year.


If any conjunctions are used to connect the last two members, the comma
may or may not be used in connection with the conjunction.


The cabbage palmetto affords shade, kindling, bed, and food.


2. Words or expressions in apposition should be separated by a comma.


The native Indian dress is an evolution, a survival from long years of
wild life.


3. Commas are used to separate words in direct address from the rest of
the sentence.


Bow down, dear Land, for thou hast found release.
O, Sohrab, an unquiet heart is thine!


4. Introductory and parenthetical words or expressions are
set off by commas.


However, the current is narrow and very shallow here.

This, in a general way, describes the scope of the small parks or
playgrounds.


If the parenthetical expression is long and not very closely related to
the rest of the sentence, dashes or marks of parenthesis are frequently
used. Some writers use them even when the connection is somewhat close.


5. The comma is frequently used to separate the parts of a long compound
predicate.


Pine torches have no glass to break, and are within the reach of any man
who can wield an ax.


6. A comma is often used to separate a subject with several modifiers, or
with a long modifier, from the predicate verb.


One of the mistakes often made in beginning the study of birds with
small children, is in placing stress upon learning by sight and name
as many species of birds as possible.


7. Participial and adjective phrases and adverb phrases out of their
natural order should be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.


A knight, clad in armor, was the most conspicuous figure of all.

To the mind of the writer, this explanation has much to commend it.


8. When negative expressions are used in order to show a contrast, they
are set off by commas.


They believed in men, not in mere workers in the great human workshop.


9. Commas are used in complex sentences to separate the dependent clause
from the rest of the sentence.


The great majority of people would be better off, if they had more money
and spent it.

While the flour is being made, samples are sent every hour to the
testing department.


If the connection is close, the comma is usually omitted, especially when
the dependent clause comes last.


I will be there when the train arrives.


10. When a relative clause furnishes an additional thought, it should be
separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.


Hiram Watts, who has been living in New York for six years, has just
returned to England.


If the relative clause is restrictive, that is, if it restricts or
limits the meaning of the antecedent, the comma is unnecessary.


This is the best article that he ever wrote.



11. Commas are used to separate the members of a compound sentence when
they are short or closely connected.


Ireland is rich in minerals, yet there is but little mining done there.

Breathe it, exult in it,
All the day long,
Glide in it, leap in it,
Thrill it with song.


12. Short quotations should be separated from the rest of the sentence by
a comma.


"There must be a beaver dam here," he called.


13. The omissions of important words in a sentence should be indicated by
commas.


If you can, come to-morrow; if not, come next week.


+6. Rules for the Use of the Semicolon.+ - 1. When the members of a
compound sentence are long or are not closely connected, semicolons should
be used to separate them.


Webster could address a bench of judges; Everett could charm a
college; Choate could delude a jury; Clay could magnetize a senate,
and Tom Corwin could hold the mob in his right hand; but no one
of these men could do more than this one thing.

- Wendell Phillips.

We might as well decide the question now; for we shall surely be
obliged to soon.


2. When the members of a compound sentence themselves contain commas, they
should be separated from one another by semicolons.


As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at
it; as he was valiant, I honor him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew
him.

- Shakespeare.


3. The semicolon should be used to precede _as, namely, i.e., e.g., viz_.


Some adjectives are compared irregularly; as, good, bad, and little.


4. When a series of distinct statements all have a common dependence on
what precedes or follows them, they may be separated from each other by
semicolons.


When subject to the influence of cold we eat more; we choose more
heat-producing foods, as fatty foodstuffs; we take more vigorous
exercise; we put on more clothing, especially of the non-conducting
kinds - woolens.


+7. Rules for the Use of the Colon.+ - 1. The colon is used
before long or formal quotations, before enumerations, and before
the conclusion of a previous statement.


Old Sir Thomas Browne shrewdly observes: "Every man is not only
himself. There have been many Diogeneses and many Timons
though but few of the name. Men are lived over again. The world
is now as it was in ages past. There were none then, but there has
been one since, that parallels him, and is, as it were, revived self."

- George Dana Boardman.

Adjectives are divided into two general classes: descriptive and
definitive adjectives.

The following members sent in their resignations: Mrs. William M.
Murphy, Mrs. Ralph B. Wiltsie, and Mrs. John C. Clark.


2. The colon is used to separate the different members of a compound
sentence, when they themselves are divided by semicolons.


It is too warm to-day; the sunshine is too bright; the shade, too
pleasant: we will wait until to-morrow or we will have some one else
do it when the busy time is over.


+8. Rules for the Use of the Period.+ - 1. The period is used at the close
of imperative and declarative sentences.

2. All abbreviations should be followed by a period.


+9. Rule for the Use of the Interrogation Mark.+ - The interrogation mark
should be used after all direct questions.


+10. Rule for the Use of the Exclamation Mark.+ - Interjections and
exclamatory words and expressions should be followed by the exclamation
mark. Sometimes the exclamatory word is only a part of the whole
exclamation. In this case, the exclamatory word should be followed by a
comma, and the entire exclamation by an exclamation mark.


See, how the lightning flashes!


+11. Rules for the Use of the Dash.+ - 1. The dash is used to show sudden
changes in thought or breaks in speech.


I can speak of this better when temptation comes my way - if it ever does.


2. The dash is often used in the place of commas or marks of parenthesis
to set off parenthetical expressions.


In the mountains of New York State this most valuable tree - the spruce -
abounds.


3. The dash, either alone or in connection with the comma, is used to
point out that part of a sentence on which special stress is to be placed.


I saw unpruned fruit trees, broken fences, and farm implements, rusting in
the rain - all evidences of wasted time.


4. The dash is sometimes used with the colon before long quotations,
before an enumeration of things, or before a formally introduced
statement.


+12. Rules for the Use of Quotation Marks.+ - 1. Quotation marks are used
to inclose direct quotations.


"In all the great affairs of life one must run some risk," she remarked.


2. A quotation within a quotation is usually indicated by single quotation
marks.


"Can you tell me where I can find 'Rienzi's Address'?" asked a young lady
of a clerk in Brooklyn.


3. When a quotation is interrupted by parenthetical expressions, the
different parts of the quotation should be inclosed in quotation marks.


"Bring forth," cried the monarch, "the vessels of gold."

4. When the quotation consists of several paragraphs, the quotation marks
are placed at the beginning of each paragraph and at the close of the last
one.


+13. Rule for the Use of the Apostrophe.+ - The apostrophe is used to
denote the possessive case, to indicate the omission of letters, and to
form the plural of signs, figures, and letters.


In the teacher's copy book you will find several fancy A's and 3's which
can't be distinguished from engravings.



II. REVIEW OF GRAMMAR


THE SENTENCE


+14. English grammar+ is the study of the forms of English words and their
relationship to one another as they appear in sentences. A _sentence_ is a
group of words that expresses a complete thought.


+15. Elements of a Sentence.+ - The elements of a sentence, as regards the
office that they perform, are the _subject_ and the _predicate_. The
_subject_ is that about which something is asserted, and the _predicate_
is that which asserts something about the subject.

Some predicates may consist of a single word or word-group, able in itself
to complete a sentence: [The thrush _sings_. The thrush _has been
singing_]. Some require a following word or words: [William struck
_John_ (object complement, or object). Edward became _king_ (attribute
complement). The people made Edward _king_ (objective complement)].

The necessary parts of a sentence are: some name for the object of thought
(to which the general term _substantive_ may be given); some word or group
of words to make assertion concerning the substantive (general term,
_assertive_); and, in case of an incomplete assertive, one of the above
given completions of its meaning (object complement, attribute complement,
objective complement).

In addition to these necessary elements of the sentence, words or groups
of words may be added to make the meaning of any one of the elements more
exact. Such additions are known as _modifiers_. The word-groups which are
used as modifiers are the _phrase_ and the _clause_.

[The thrush, sings _in the pine woods_ (phrase). The wayfarer _who hears
the thrush_ is indeed fortunate (clause).]



Online LibraryStratton D. BrooksComposition-Rhetoric → online text (page 27 of 32)