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SURVEY



GRAPHIC

it
MAGAZINE OF SOCIAL INTERPRETATION

JANUARY

936




Keystone



New York's Fighting Mayor by John Palmer Gavit
Business Talks Back to Washington by William Hard
Autos and A F of L Meet the Co-ops U S Housing



30 CENTS A COPY



$3.00 A YEAR



A New Profession . . .



<K Ja**ut/ Tsi



By the time a Household employe
is appointed to the managership
of a local Household Finance
Corporation office, he has com-
pleted a course of study that
would be the envy of many in the
social sciences.

His text has been a procession
of faces, a living encyclopedia of
family ups and downs, an ex-
haustive search into the signifi-
cances of the living wage. This
man has learned a profession. He
is truly a "Doctor of Family
Finances."

In its modern aspect, the pro-
fession of Family Financing as
practiced by Household mana-
gers, is indeed new. To lend
money constructively, i.e. to ad-
vance funds where they will do



good, requires skill, instinct, ex-
perience, understanding, knowl-
edge.

One means that Household has
adopted to further its construc-
tive efforts in remedial financing
is the distribution of authorita-
tive pamphlets on "Money Man-
agement" and "Better Buyman-
ship." These pamphlets have been
received and are being made use
of in more than a hundred thou-
sand families. We should be glad
to send samples, if you will send
the coupon.



BURR BLACKBURN

Director of Research
BERNICE DODGE

Home Economist



HOUSEHOLD

FINANCE CORPORATION mj SubsiJltries

Headquarters: 919 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago

. . . one of the leading family finance
organizations, with 188 offices in 131 cities



The booklets thrifty Americans are using
Check and Mail
This Coupon

HOUSEHOLD FINANCE CORPORATION

Research Department,

Room 3048-A, 919 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111.

Gentlemen: Please send the literature I have checked
on this coupon.

FREE BULLETINS

Money Management f or i i Marrying on a Small Income. Fi-




Money Management for r -| Marrymft on a Small Income, tl-
Households, the budget book. I I nancial plans for the great adventure.



D



Tips for Lazy Husbands,

an amusing but convincing ar-
gument for making the wife
business manager of the home.



When Should a Family Borrow

a leaflet showing how to decide
whether a loan is advisable in a
given case.

I I The Household Loan Plan fully
I I explaining Household's loan service.

BETTER BUYMANSHIP

Any one BETTER BUYMANSHIP bulletin will be sent free to those who
wish to examine the booklets before ordering. Please check the one you pre-
fer. The titles of the series to date are listed below. The price of these book-
lets is two for 5c. (A special rate of a penny a copy will be made to study
groups ordering 25 or more to be sen tin one package, any selection of subjects.)
Shoes and Stockings Cosmetics Fruits and Vegetables

Furs Children's Playthings Fresh and Canned

and Books

Kitchen Utensils

Meat



Wool Clothing

Silk, Rayon and Other

Synthetic Fabrics
Sheets, Blankets, Table

Linen and Towels



Poultry, Eggs and Fish
Dairy Products
Floor Coverings
Electric Vacuum Cleaners
Gasoline, Oil and Tires



There will be interesting additions to this library during 1936. Watch for announcements.



NAME...



ADDRESS _

CITY STATE..





IWENTY YEARS AGO, the wise car driver
carried a nail file to clean the platinum points in the

distributor.

Today, the nail file is banished from the automobile
tool kit. Tungsten points, developed in the General
Electric Research Laboratory, in Schenectady, N. Y.,
have replaced soft and expensive platinum. There is
little need to file tungsten points. Hidden away, requir-
ing no attention, they break electric circuits half a
million times an hour and save car owners millions of
dollars a year.

Is this all G-E research has done for 24 million car
owners? No! It has given new welding methods and
a stronger and safer car at lower cost; Glyptal finishes
and the expense of repainting your car is postponed for
years; headlights and highway lighting night driving
becomes safer for motorist and pedestrian.

Every product that carries the G-E name has built into
it the results of G-E research. Other industries and
the public that buys the goods of those industries have
benefited by this research, that has saved the American
people from ten to one hundred dollars for every dollar
it has earned for General Electric.

96-186H



GENERAL ELECTRIC




A Nazi

Storm Trooper

has written a pamphlet on anti-
Semitism in Germany. He exposes
the forgeries in fascist race
"statistics," the "Protocols of the
Elders of Zion," and the charge of
"ritual murder."

q THE INTERNATIONAL
RELIEF ASSOCIATION will
issue this pamphlet for distribution
to Nazi Party members and sym-
pathizers. If one Storm Trooper
can so intelligently question false
race theories, his reactions, wide-
spread, will enlighten many others.
We can publish and distribute this
pamphlet throughout Germany if
we can raise $5,000 at once.*

q Will you help undermine
Hitler in his drive against Jews,
Catholics and Protestants by con-
tributing to make this pamphlet
possible?

INTERNATIONAL RELIEF ASSOCIATION

FREDA KIRCHWAY, Treasurer

* All surplus above the actual cost of issue
and distribution is added to the relief fund.



FREDA KIRCHWAY, Treasurer,
International Relief Association,
20 Vesey Street, New York City.

I will be glad to give $ to help spread

within Germany the pamphlets exposing the false race
theories of the Nazis.



Name

Address



Profits and False Money
Devil's Device

(A 25c pamphlet, postpaid; 2,000-word summary, 3o)



P r "'
Yale



Why Not Investigate the Press?

WHAT MORE scathing indictment could be made n" the
the fact that the late President Arthur Twining .Hadley of
versity, in a letter of March 4, 1921, as recorded in Test Dalton s book
"The Richest Man on Earth," consented to the public circulation of the
petition that follows?

"For God's Bake. President Hadley. please help u. to get the
which you suggest, but which the newspapers of *^J5
ing because they are controlled, body and soul, by the l
those who prey on the public."



*
Mr. Herbert Hoover, who was then Secretary of Commerce, to ,t wnUe

^r^. d ^% lsr<Ifil5

'



.

he assisted Mr. Hoover's Presidential



.

later if Mr. Roosevelt's policies continue?

Profit-Taking Throttles Trade




modifies fluctuated.
IF WE were all Crusoes where there was no "^J^ ^, '^""1^ gath"

labor . d If he' (MhHred 100 " day 'the^OO would be worth no more, but
would feed twice as many people.

Honest Money Wouldn't Fluctuate

FLUCTUATIONS in value are in commodities and not in '| ) '' Jj lth |j|
elbow irease or grey matter, and labor, as Adam Smith intimated 1
vearsVgo is the only true measure of value and the only true bas.s for
money as il "nay be graded in collective bargaining with 100 minutes of
unskilled labor used as the common denominator.

MONEY based on the fluctuating value of silver or gold or a f ^inatio-i
of commodities is no more a measure of value than '"
crwintfe would wet or dry, be a measure of length, bxchange is tne o
wTy to determine value and a labor dollar would be based on its value
a7 determine by exchange through collective bargaining. It could .be
neither nflated nor deflated because it would always be exactly co-extens.ve
with the earning power of the nation and the only possible constant
value in existence.

SINCE all kinds of labor, directed by an executive of great skill, can pro-
ducf more than the same amount of labor less expertly managed how
can th products of the less skillful management compete with those o
?he more skillful management without upsetting labor as a measure of
value?

THE ANSWER is that the labor of the more skillfully managed concern
will sltThe price to which * '" killlull V """""! ed con<: . n WI ". h ^ e
To accede The purchasing price of labor of each concern will , remajn the
same but at the expense of the capital invested in the less skillfully
managed concern. This is where private enterprise will *>"""">*
of abuses inherent in government-controlled concerns that harbor merh-
ciency for political purposes.

IF COST controlled prices, as it would if such money were used, all

peVsons could buy with cash .11 they produced and never owe a cent

M added incentive to private enterprise would keep people employee

to their utmost and forever speed trade, eliminating government paternal-

ism with its waste and high taxes.

THE ONLY legislation necessary to bring this about will be the honest
dollar which Mr. Roosevelt promised, but has never produced. A single
tax on land values exclusive of buildings and improvements will make
other taxes unnecessary.

Democracy a Sleeping Giant

THIS THEORY is 100 per cent perfect and a thing perfect in theory will
be perfect in practice, and now 1 swear my country shall be free
Democracy i, .'sleeping giant.. nd a li.tle , later when it awaken, ,t w,ll
make all past political campaigns look like thirty cents.

LOWE SHEARON, Publicist, 359 Front Street, New York.
(Adv't)



r>9i! t, QITRVFY ASSOCIATES Inc. Publication office, 762 E 21 St., Brooklyn.

3 1917: aUth riZed DMember " ml '









ill






IT IS easy to telephone, but there i nothing easy
about giving you good telephone service. It
takes many thousands of trained employees to
do that.

A considerable part of this work is handled by
the Central Office men. Their job is to safeguard
service to prevent trouble from getting a start.

They are constantly testing lines, circuits, switch-
boards and other equipment working with out-
side repair men performing the thousand and
one tasks that keep things running right and prevent



Skilled maintenance men guard your telephone service day
and night. As a result of their vigilance, both local and long
distance calls go through more quickly and accurately.

their going wrong. This work goes on twenty-four
hours a day every day in the year.

The "trouble shooters" of the Bell System work
quickly, effectively because of careful training and
long experience. Their loyalty, skill and resource-
fulness are a priceless tradition of the telephone
business.

It is no accident that your telephone goes along
for so many months without trouble of any kind.
The Bell System gives this country the most efficient,
reliable telephone service in the world.



8ett Telephone St/tf&n




The Gist of It



SURVEY GRAPHIC enters 1936 with two
months' running start in its new for-
mat and frame of reference singling out
certain trends that reach out into the American
future. These are claimants on our work and
space, and the tensions that will envelop them
in a campaign year will try the soul of such
a disinterested scheme of inquiry and inter-
pretation as ours.

AS a newspaper man and Associated Press
executive, John Palmer Gavit long knew
men and politics at state and national capitals,
before his stay at Geneva and his editorship
for us of affairs commonly called foreign. Here,
in liis portrait of New York's La Guardia,
Mr. Gavit lays aside his monthly department,
Through Neighbors' Doorways, to spring the
wicket of a City Hall and give us a glimpse of
the sparks and color, the integrity, grit and
beguilingness of the amazing dynamo Fusion
installed there. (Page 7)

TT7HY are automobiles a good buy? To what
extent do they compete with housing:
Who "takes" ice, and for how much, now
that mechanical refrigeration is a factor in the
market? What sets the price of whiskey; so-
cial control, supply and demand, or the amount
the traffic will bear? The Consumers' Division
of NRA is releasing its comprehensive Price
Reports on commodities. Mary Ross, associate-
editor, digests three of them. (Page 13)

ASKED to give us his observations on the
present temper of the business community
as a force to be reckoned with in American
social history, William Hard, who has been
traveling round the lot, wrote Hard Heads ami
Hot Collars. (Page 16) As a veteran reporter
he was on the staff of Everybody's in its prime.
He assays the recoil against the New Deal
which came to a head at the recent meeting
of the National Association of Manufacturers.
Herbert L. Herblock, whose drawings em-
bellish Mr. Hard's article, is NEA's editorial
cartoonist. Not yet thirty, his work appears in
hundreds of newspapers. He likes to alternate
"shrewd political sketches with human interest
stuff."

ATT HEN Lillian Perrine Davis, a southerner
born and bred, became FERA adminis-
trator in Henderson County, Tennessee, she
met for the first time her humble neighbors,
the sharecroppers. The result (page 21) was
an appreciation of their quality, which shows
through her vivid sketch of what federal re-
lief has meant in a region where for genera-
tions a new bucket at the well has been a
symbol of luxury.

"TRUSTEE of the Rosenwald Fund since
* 1925, Alfred K. Stern has carried forward
special studies of housing problems and work-
able solutions for them in this country and
abroad. He is chairman of the Illinois State
Housing Board, and consultant on housing ad-
ministration of the PWA. (Page 23)



VOL. XXV NO. 1



CONTENTS



JANUARY 1936



Among Ourselves .- 3

Frontispiece Manhattan Silhouette 6

La Guardia Portrait of a Mayor JOHN PALMER GAVIT 7

Price Parade MARY ROSS 13

Hard Heads and Hot Collars WILLIAM HARD 16

Relief and the Sharecropper LILLIAN PERRINE DAVIS 21

Housing: A Ten- Year Program ALFRED K. STERN 23

Meet the Co-Ops BERTRAM B. FOWLER 27

Mural Panels for the Post Office Building 32

Our Town, M.D. PAUL WARREN KNISKERN 34

Little Americas JANE PERRY CLARK 36

The Clash over Industrial Unions

Exhibit A The Automobile Industry
Letters and Life

Seeing America in Mirrors

S.R.O. for Tommy



JOHN A. FITCH 39

43

R. L. DUFFUS 43

FLORENCE LOEB KELLOGG 52



THE first journalist to make himself a
spokesman for consumer cooperation, Ber-
tram B. Fowler introduces us to the extraor-
dinary recent spread of the movement in the
United States. (Page 27) He left the Chris-
tian Science Monitor to survey the co-ops, and
is now at work on a book about them which
Vanguard will publish in the spring.

^/TEXT a physician looks at the medical sct-
^ up of his home town. (Page 34) Dr.
Kniskern, who has been an administrative head
in medical relief work, writes from first hand
experience in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

T T NDER a grant from the Council for Re-
search on the Social Sciences given through
Columbia University, Jane Perry Clark has
carried on the work she began as a member
of the technical staff of the President's Com-
mittee on Economic Security, surveying the
field of federal-state cooperation. On page 36,
Dr. Clark assesses interstate compacts, their
use and misuse.

pORMER industrial editor for Survey Asso-
ciatcs, and now director of industrial courses
at the New York School of Social Work, John
Fitch was in Detroit for the automobile work-
ers' Labor Day meetings, a curtain raiser to
the newest and most significant post-NRA
development in the American labor movement
the split between industrial and craft union-
ism. (Page 39)



THE New York stage success, Dead End,
seems written for social-minded playgoers.
So Florence Loeb Kellogg, associate editor,
called on Sidney Kingsley (page 52) in order
to find out how it came about. She found that
Mr. Kingsley hit upon his theme through no
chance but because he is social-minded.

Among Ourselves

The Year's Honor List

pVERY month ten outstanding articles pub-
^ lishcd in leading American magazines arc
selected by a council of librarians for the
Franklin Square Subscription Agency, a sub-
sidiary of Harpers, and recommended to schools
and libraries on a large poster which the or-
ganization distributes. Each month each edi-
torial office selects its own candidates, usually
three, and submits advance proofs. The judges
do the rest. Tallying up for 1935, we find thir-
teen citations of articles carried by Survey
Graphic in the course of the year. Three times
we made a double score. Our honor list
follows:

Thou Shalt Not Kill, by Louis I. Dublin and
Bessie Bunzel, March;

What Is Vital in Democracy? by Harold J.
Laski, April;

The Tenant Farmer Turns, by Cecil Hol-
land. The Price of Poor Teaching, by Wil-
liam C. Bagley, May;

Twenty Years of Grace, by Morris L. Cooke,
June;



NRA A Trial Balance, by Merle D. Vin-
cent and Beulah Amidon, July;

Julia Lathrop at Hull-House, by Jane Ad-
dams; Ethiopia, Still Proud and Free, by Em-
ory Ross, August;

A Unified Fisc, by Simeon Leland, Sep-
tember;

Revenue and Progress, by A. A. Berle, Jr.,
October;

Saving and Spending, by Stuart Chase, No-
vember;

The Strange Case of Tom Mooney, by John
A. Fitch; The Promised Land 1935, by Loula
D. Lasker, December.

In five instances, the articles were written or
collaborated in by Survey editors. New pieces
of inquiry will carry out Survey procedure in
early issues first hand gathering of facts, sub-
mission of first drafts to the parties at interest
for advance criticism, etc. These will have to
do with a black chapter in public health the
closing down of clinics in a Middle Western
city; the issue of academic freedom on three
American campuses; and the surprising be-
havior of company unions in the steel industry.

Machine Age

encountered last week a footnote to
Stuart Chase, commentator on the Ma-
chine Age. [Survey Graphic for November.]
Crossing Union Square, the mechanization of
industry fairly leaped out of the December twi-
light. For there stood Tony, smiling and bow-
ing with outstretched cap, and beside him, a
baby carriage chassis on which he had mount-
ed a small radio. A ground wire trailed to the
sidewalk. An aerial was attached to the pusher.
Tony, elevated from hand-organ grinder to
entrepreneur, was distributing the seductive
jazz of a midtown hotel orchestra.

Medals

A MEDAL for distinguished and courageous
journalism is awarded annually by the
Evening Post Alumni Association, made up of
men and women who were identified with
that extraordinary newspaper before it changed
hands in 1924. This year, the award came
to the editor of The Survey and of Survey
Graphic. It is pictured here, a charming nu-
mismatic trophy, bearing the likeness of Alex-
ander Hamilton who founded The Evening
Post and whose great-grandson of the same
name took part in the event. So, too, did Rob-
ert Bridges, dean of the alumni and long time
editor of Scribners. Two years ago the award
was made to Oswald Garrison Villard, himself
the publisher throughout the period when
most of those present were staff members and
when The Evening Post matched, in modern
terms, the great epochs in its hundred and
thirty-five years of journalism.

In a sense, it was a family party, for John
Palmer Gavit, erstwhile managing editor of
The Evening Post, presided, but in making the
presentation, Charles McD. Puckette, now an
executive of the New York Times, stressed the
kinship in ideas and performance which made
it appropriate for the alumni to go outside
their own coterie. Survey Associates, he assev-
erated (nostalgically using an obsolete verb; sec
ancient Evening Post editorials) represents one
of the few disinterested editorial set-ups which
are carrying out the sort of inquiry and inter-
pretation that distinguished The Evening Post.
He recalled his first acquaintance with the
Pittsburgh Survey, through which we dug into
and dramatized the life and labor of the steel



district as a cross section of American indus-
trialism; and from the angle of the Fourth
Estate he emphasized those qualities in our
going work which have their roots in the city
room and cut through to truth.




There were other expressions of a more
personal sort, which any editor would take
home and cherish, but in essence the recogni-
tion was broad enough to accept in the name,
also, of Arthur Kellogg, who for thirty years
put distinguished gifts and courage into the
upbuilding of Survey Associates and of all
those, now and in the past, who as contribu-
tors of time, writings, ideas and means have
made this cooperative publishing society of
ours a living force. Especially, there in that
company of editors and advertising men, cor-
respondents, publishers, printers and foremen,
it brought back the days when two young re-
porters learned about type-lice and the game
of getting to the bottom of things.

CPEAKING of medals, there was a thrill of
** family pride around the shop when the
Sedgwick Memorial Medal for distinguished
service in public health was conferred on our
contributing editor, Dr. Haven Emerson, at the
annual meeting of the American Public Health
Association. Getting a medal wasn't a novelty
for Dr. Emerson who already has, among
others, the Distinguished Service Medal, the
Medaille des Epidemies and the Chevalier
Legion d'Honneur of France. Even a Dr.
Emerson, however, may well be proud to be
one of the line of distinguished Americans
who hold the Sedgwick Medal. It was bestowed
upon him with a deservedly glowing tribute
by Dr. William H. Park, himself the recipient
in 1932.

Mooney

"THE Strange Case of Tom Mooney, rc-
viewed by John A. Fitch in the December
Survey Graphic, continued with testimony more
startling than any that had preceded it when
the hearings in San Francisco reconvened after
a three weeks' recess. Two witnesses testified
that throughout the Mooney trial in 1917
Cunha, the assistant district attorney in charge
of the case and a name in all the headlines
twenty years ago was in communication with
McNevin, foreman of the jury. One of the wit-
nesses was an acquaintance of McNevin, the
other a brother-in-law. The latter testified that
McNevin had predicted, before the trial, that
he would be drawn on the jury and that he
would be rewarded for his services

Edwin V. McKenzie, a lawyer who was con-
nected with the Mooney defense in 1917,



charged that "the answer of the State to the
petition [of Mooncy's lawyers] is itself per-
jury." McKenzie testified that he had several
conferences with Cunha after the publication
of the famous Oxman letters and that Cunha
was "scared." The witness quoted Cunha as
saying that he had suspected that Oxman was
a perjurer all along, and that the publication
of the letters would put him [Cunha] "in the
ash can for life." McKenzie's testimony wns
that Cunha promised to get the district at-
torney to confess error and get a new trial for
Mooney, but broke his promise.

On December 4 Mooney's attorneys with-
drew temporarily in order to give their client
an opportunity to take charge of his own case
and introduce testimony about which they had
differed. "Mooney may be right," said Frank
Walsh, "I would not want it to happen that
he lost his cause on account of my opinion
which might be wrong. After all, he is the one
who has to stay in prison if this effort fails."
The three attorneys will be back representing
Mooney when the State begins the presentation
of its case on January 20.

Correction

"TURN to page 603, line 35, second column,
of the December Graphic, and you will
read that a Moshav is "a palatial cooperative."
That's what thtf type tells you, but we tell you
now it's a partial cooperative with apologies
and the facts on our side. But maybe you
don't even know what a Moshav is. Anyway
if you want to know, and haven't yet read
The Promised Land -1935, we hope you will.
After all, perhaps the compositor was psychic.
Palestine's cooperative settlements are building
a better day even if their lot is still a long
hard way from Solomon in all his glory.

Sharecroppers

C HARECROPPERS and tenant farmers, kin
to those of whom Mrs. Davis writes [page
21] step out of the second report on Cotton-
Growing Communities, just published by the
Department of Race Relations of the Federal
Council of Churches (105 East 22 Street, New
York. Price, 15 cents). The booklet gives the
results of a preliminary study of housing, and
working conditions, families and communities
made by Benson Y. Landis and George Ed-
mund Haynes with the cooperation of both
white and Negro leaders.

Consumers Kitchen Cabinet

V ITCHEN cabinets went out with the Horse
* and Buggy Age. It is now a "Consumers'
Cabinet" which will help guide the new fed-
eral Consumers' Division whose aims and plans
were described by its director, Walton H.
Hamilton in the November Survey Graphic
and whose price studies arc reported in this



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