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LIB

U, S. PUBLIC
WASHI




TH SERVICE
N, D, C,




From the collection of the

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o Prelinger
u v e Jjibrary

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San Francisco, California
2007



LIBRARY

U, S. PU3LIC HEALTH SERVICE
WASHINGTON, D, C,



THE SURVEY



VOL. XXX
APRIL, 1913 SEPTEMBER, 1913



WITH INDEX



NEW YORK
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.

105 EAST 22o STREET



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc.



NATIONAL COUNCIL



ROBERT W. DE FOREST. Chairman

JANE ADDAMS

ERNEST P. BICKNELL - -
ROBERT S. BREWSTER - - -
CHARLES M. CABOT - - -

O.K. GUSHING

EDWARD T. DEVINE - - -
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK - -
LEEK. FRANKEL ....
JOHN M.GLENN - - -

WILLIAM GUGGENHEIM - -
WILLIAM E. HARMON - - -
WILLIAM J. KERBY - . . .



- New York JOSEPH LEE

- Chicago V. EVERITMACY - - -

- Washington JULIAN W. MACK

New York CHARLES D. NORTON - -

- Boston SIMON N. PATTEN - - -

San FranciMo JULIUS ROSENWALD - -

- New York JACOB A. RIIS ....

- Boston GRAHAM TAYLOR - - -

- New York PAUL M. WARBURG - - -
New York ALFRED T. WHITE - - -

- New York S. W. WOODWARD - - -
New York FRANK TUCKER. Traaunr - -

Washington ARTHUR P. KELLOGG. Secrttani



. Boston
. New York

Washington

- New York
Philadelphia

Chicago

New York

Chicago

New York

Brooklyn

Washington

- New York
New York



THE STAFF

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor



ASSOCIATE EDITORS

EDWARD T. DEVINE

GRAHAM TAYLOR

JANE ADDAMS



ARTHUR P. KELLOGG

GRAHAM R. TAYLOR

JAMES P. HEATON

JOHN A. FITCH

MARY BROWN SUMNER

WINTHROP D. LANE

ALICE HAMILTON

DAVID C. DAVIS

CHRISTINA C. MERRIMAN

GRACE M. JOHNSTON



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS

BERNARD FLEXNER
HENRY W. THURSTON

PHIUP JACOBS
ALEXANDER JOHNSON

FLORENCE KELLEY

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY

JOHN IHLDER

PORTER R. LEE

MARY VIDA SCUDDER

JOHN R. HOWARD. JR.

MAY LANGDON WHITE

SHELBY M. HARRISON

KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN

I. M. RUBINOW



A JOURNAL of CONSTRUCTIVE PHILANTHROPY



THE COMMON WELFARE



RESPONSE TO
FLOOD CALLS

For the first time in the history of our great
disasters, the country's machinery for relief has
been found ready to move with that precision
and efficiency which only careful previous or-
ganization could make possible. In the flood
and tornado stricken regions of the Mississippi
valley the Red Cross has given splendid evi-
dence of the effectiveness of its scheme of or-
ganization and of its methods as worked out
on the basis of experience at San Francisco,
and as tested by the Minnesota and Michigan
forest fires, the Cherry mine disaster, and the
Mississippi floods of last year.

Utilizing the largest and ablest charity or-
ganization societies which serve as "institu-
tional members," a force of executives and
trained workers was instantly deployed. With
foreknowledge of just what to do and how to
do it, and without friction, these men and
women have reinforced the spontaneous re-
sponse to emergency of citizens and officials in
the stricken communities.

Omaha's tornado had scarcely died down
when Eugene T. Lies of the Chicago United
Charities was on his way to the city. Ernest
P. Bicknell, director of the National Red Cross,
had reached Chicago, en route to Omaha, when
news of the Ohio floods turned him back. The
same news summoned Edward T. Devine from
New York. It was Mr. Devine who organ-
ized the Red Cross relief work at San Fran-
cisco, following the earthquake and fire of 1908.
Mr. Bicknell established headquarters at Colum-
bus, itself badly in the grip of the waters. At
Dayton Mr. Devine, C. M. Hubbard of the St.
Louis Provident Association and T. J. Edmonds
of the Cincinnati Associated Charities concen-
trated their services.

When Cincinnati and its vicinity needed help,
Mr. Edmonds returned to his home city. The
Omaha situation by this time could spare Mr.
Lies for Dayton. To Piqua, Sidney and other
Ohio and Indiana flood points went James F.
Jackson of the Cleveland Associated Charities
and other workers from various organizations.
The news from the Ohio and other floods
almost swamped that of an isolated disaster in
Alabama where a tornado devastated the town
of Lower Peachtree. To handle the relief at
this point, the Red Cross dispatched William M.
McGrath of the Birmingham Associated Char-
April 5, 1913.

The Surz>ey, Volume XXX, No. I.



ities, who had seen service a year ago in the
Mississippi floods.

To work under the direction of these execu-
tives, agents have been drafted from the staffs
of charitable organizations scattered through-
out the entire middle West, and even as far east
as New York. Close co-operation was at once
established between this force, hastily organ-
ized local committees and various branches of
federal and state government service. In Ohio
the resources, equipment and staffs of the army,
the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service,
the life-saving service, the militia, the naval
militia, and state departments of public health,
have all been applied promptly to the problem
of emergency relief. Governor Cox of Ohio, as
ex-officio chairman of the Ohio Red Cross State
Commission, did much to assure this early co-
operation.

Following the first work of rescue and relief,
sanitation looms up as one of the gravest prob-
lems of the Indiana and Ohio valleys. Imme-
diately upon the arrival of the secretary of war
at Dayton a sanitary officer was appointed, who
divided the city into sixteen districts, each in
charge of a district sanitary officer. Each of
these selected his own staff from among local
physicians and volunteer physicians from other
cities. Red Cross nurses in considerable num-
bers were early supplied. Instructions in brief
form have been sent broadcast over the city
giving definite directions to the inhabitants for
the safeguarding of health. The sewer and
water systems are being reopened as rapidly as
possible.

Early this week the expectation was that, al-
though the dead in the city would not total 200,
it would be necessary to feed many thousands
of people for a week and several thousand for
several weeks. The Dayton situation, though
more severe, was typical of what was to be
found in other stricken towns.

The extent of the Omaha disaster is already
reported in statistics which are said to be com-
plete and accurate. The summary includes: 115
lives lost; 322 seriously injured: at least 1,000
slightly injured; 822 houses destroyed; 2,100
houses partially wrecked ; property loss estimat-
ed at $7,500,000; 733 families being- fed in relief
stations (March 30); 59 dead; 150 injured and
$1,000,000 property loss in surrounding towns.
Efforts are being made by the real estate ex-
change to prevent the raising of rents. The



THE SURVEY



April 5



plans suggested for rebuilding include a county
bond issue of $1,000,000 and the securing of
other money from the packing and railroad com-
panies to be loaned without interest.

President Wilson's call to the nation for re-
lief, and the quick action of governors and
mayors in rallying their states and cities, started
emergency supplies and funds for supplement-
ing the tents, blankets and rations which the
army and militia had rushed into the field. The
Xational Cash Register Company, whose un-
damaged factories in Dayton were of great
value in providing shelter and -space for relief
administration, secured through its officers in
other cities supplies and money which were
promptly forwarded. The company officials did
much to systematize the local relief, and depart-
ment heads assumed charge of different divi-
sions of the work. Organization charts and di-
agrams were printed at the factory so that the
people of the city could act intelligently.

Early this week the relief funds were report-
ed to have reached $408,000 in New York, $300,-

000 in Chicago, $105.000 in Boston, and vary-
ing sums in other cities. Most of the money
was contributed through the Red Cross. Con-
tributions received at its Washington head-
quarters totalled $816,000, with New York first,
Massachusetts second and Illinois third in size
of contributions.

Some small gifts were as significant as the
larger ones. A young man who appeared to be
a poorly paid clerk came to the Red Cross office
in New York at the noon hour last Friday and
pulled from his pocket a five dollar and a one
dollar bill. The person in charge asked him if
he was not giving more than his share, and sug-
gested that he keep the one dollar bill. "No,"
said he, "I've kept some small change for car-
fare and lunch, and tomorrow's pay day." One
letter accompanying a small contribution read:

"Just one short year ago, when the ill-fated
Titanic deprived me of mine all, the Red Cross
Society lost not a moment in coming to my aid.
Through you I now wish to give my 'widow's
mite' to help the stricken ones in the West, and

1 only wish I could make it a thousand times
as much."

Emergency supplies and funds have been
prompt and abundant, but the extensive work
ahead of lifting household and community life
out of desolation justifies and requires a very
large fund. For, as Mr. Devine, with the San
Francisco catastrophe in the background of his
experience, telegraphed after reaching Dayton :
"The disaster is appalling even if the loss of
life is less than it was feared."

Spontaneous contributions through a variety
of channels are usually sufficient for immediate
needs, and the Red Cross is, following its cus-
tomary policy of reserving as much of its funds



as possible for permanent rehabilitation. When
a disaster comes in any part of the country the
nearest "institutional members" of the Red
Cross at once dispatch trained members of their
staffs to the scene. Each organization has an
"emergency box" containing, convenient for
carrying, an equipment including detailed print-
ed instructions, record cards, Red Cross flag,
expense sheets, vouchers, etc. The use of this
equipment, especially the uniform record cards,
which have been carefully prepared on the basis
of the San Francisco experience, means that
help is not lost or wasted, but gets to the people
who need it most. Even more important, it
means that help is given not merely to keep
victims of the disaster from starvation and ex-
posure during the weeks immediately following,
but to afford a reasonable lift on the road to
the recovery of the standard of living main-
tained before the disaster.

A RELIEF SURVEY BY
THE SAGE FOUNDATION

This emphasis on rehabilitation is the message
of a report 1 which, by a coincidence, was on the
press for the Russell Sage Foundation when
news of tornado and flood came from the
middle West. It is the first comprehensive re-
view of emergent relief work following great
disasters. It is based on the San Francisco ex-
perience and put forth as a "book of ready
reference for use on occasions of special emer-
gency."

The volume presents a study of the organiza-
tion and methods of relief following the San
Francisco earthquake and fire, made for the
Foundation by a group of people who held re-
sponsible positions in connection with the relief
work. It is to appear on April 18, the seventh
anniversary of the disaster.

For the assistance of those in the middle
West upon whom heavy responsibilities came
so suddenly, the Sage Foundation sent out post
haste advance copies of the first two sections
of the report as a practical handbook to charity
organizations in and near the stricken regions.

The Relief Survey is divided into six parts:
Organization and Emergency Period; Rehabil-
itation; Business Rehabilitation; Housing Re-
habilitation; After Care; The Aged and Infirm.
Some of the prime points emphasized for the
"Organization and Emergency Period" are the
following :

1. The recognition of the American National
Red Cross, with its permanent organization, its
governmental status, and its direct accountabil-

'San Francisco Relief Survey. By Charles J. O'Con-
nor, Francis H. McLean and others. Survey Associates,
Inc.. for the Russoll Sapre Founda .jn. To be published
April IS the seventh anniversary of the San Francisco
earthquake. Price postpaid ?3.50. Orders for delivery
on publication day may be sent to THE SDBVBY.



1913



THE COMMON WELFARE



ity to Congress for all expenditures, as the
proper national agency through which relief
funds for great disasters should be collected and
administered ; thus securing unity of effort, cer-
tainty of policy, and a center about which all
local relief agencies may rally.

2. The importance of postponing the ap-
pointment of sub-committees until a strong cen-
tral committee has been able to determine gen-
eral policies and methods of procedure. The
hasty organization of sub-committees at San
Francisco resulted in much unnecessary over-
lapping effort and some friction when commit-
tees got in each other's way. The relief forces
were not united until a whole week after the
disaster, and after unfortunate difficulty and
bitterness.

3. The desirability of contributions, especial-
ly those in kind, being sent without restrictions,
as only the local organization is able to meas-
ure relative needs at different periods of the
work. At San Francisco much pitifully need-
less suffering was caused through the unwise
restrictions imposed by those who sent funds
or supplies from distant states. The delays in
securing authority for the wise use of these con-
tributions were well nigh intolerable. The only
safe course lies in placing implicit trust in an
efficient and recognized director of relief such
as the Red Cross is in a position to furnish.

4. The value of utilizing for emergency ad-
ministration a body so highly organized and so
efficient as the United States Army, to take
charge of camps, and to bring to points of dis-
tribution the supplies required for those in need
of food and clothing.

5. The wisdom of reducing the bread line
and the camp population as quickly as possible
after the disaster so that the relief resources
may be conserved to meet the primary need of
rehabilitation. The care used in emergency ex-
penditures means much in husbanding resources
so that permanent rehabilitation may be effi-
cient and thorough.

6. The need of establishing a central bureau
of information to serve from the beginning of
the relief work as a clearing house, to prevent
confusion and waste through duplication of ef-
fort.

7. The necessity of utilizing the centers of
emergency distribution for the later rehabilita-
tion work of district communities and corps of
visitors.

8. The necessity of incorporation for any
relief organization that has to deal with so
large a disaster.

9. The possibility of a strict audit of all re-
lief in cash sent to a relief organization. The
impossibility of an equally strict accounting for
relief in kind, because of the many leaks and
the difficulties attendant upon hurried distribu-
tion. Care in this direction is assured if the
Red Cross is fully utilized.

Nothing can take the place, the editors of
the Relief Survpv testify, of the spirit and de-
votion of the local committees. At San Fran-
cisco the citizens showed splendid self-reliance



and faith in the future, which enabled them to
rebound from fortune's sudden blow, and show
what sustained and co-operative effort can
achieve. But the most important factor, espe-
cially for permanent rehabilitation, in so great
and complex a relief problem is a trained staff.
This the American Red Cross, through the co-
operation of charity organization societies
throughout the country, is constantly prepared
to bring together on short notice. Mr. Bicknell
represented the Red Cross at San Francisco
after Mr. Devine's departure, and was thus un-
usually well equipped to plan the methods which
the Red Cross has devised for emergency use.

SOCIAL LEGISLATION
AND THE EXTRA SESSION

An open letter was sent to President Wilson
this week over forty-five signatures, urging
the importance of a group of social meas-
ures which were neither voted down nor passed
at the last session of Congress. In the opinion
of the signers, among whom are included some
of the Democratic leaders who have been fore-
most in social reform, this overhanging social
legislation should be definitely acted upon at
the extra session. The movement to this end
was encouraged by the positions taken by Presi-
dent Wilson in his inaugural address.

The letter is the outgrowth of a meeting of
men and women interested in social legislation
held last week in New York at the call of Ed-
ward T. Devine as associate editor of THE SUR-
VEY. The signatures to the document are those
of individuals solely. The particular measures
will be urged at the forthcoming Congress by such
national organizations as the American Associa-
tion for Labor Legislation, National Consumers
League, National Committee for Mental Hy-
giene, National Child Labor Committee, the
American Prison Labor Association and the
Gloucester Fisherman's Institute. While each
organization is committed only to the measures
in its own field, all of them have a common in-
terest in seeing that the extra session takes up
social legislation in addition to the tariff and
currency. The letter follows:

THE PRESIDENT,

The White House,

Washington, D. C.
Dear Mr. President:

On the eve of the convening of -the Sixty-
Third Congress in special session, the under-
signed desire to bring to your attention certain
bills of importance which have received the fa-
vorable consideration of the last Congress, but
which, owing to various reasons, failed of af-
firmative action.

Nothing could set more vividly before the
country the urgency of such measures than the
words of your inaugural address, in which you
pointed out the need for perfecting the means by



THE SURVEY



April 5



which the government may be put at the service
of humanity in safeguarding the health of the
nation, the health of its men and its women and
its children, as well as their rights in the strug-
gle for existence. The country has been stirred
by your declaration :

"This is no sentimental duty. The firm
basis of government is justice, not pity.
These are matters of justice. There can
be no equality of opportunity, the first es-
sential of justice in the body politic, if men
and women and children be not shielded in
their lives, their very vitality, from the con-
sequences of great industrial and social
processes which they cannot alter, control,
or singly cope with. Society must see to
it that it does not itself crush or weaken or
damage its own constituent parts."

The undersigned are aware that the time and
energy of Congress will be largely expended
upon the revision of the revenue and currency
statutes. Without in any way meaning to min-
imize the importance of these subjects, we wish
to lay emphasis upon what we believe to be the
necessity for the passage of certain other meas-
ures directly affecting the health and happiness
of hundreds of thousands of citizens. The leg-
islative proposals which we present to you are
not new; several of them have met with little
open opposition ; some have been passed by one
house of Congress ; others by both ; all have
been prepared by experts and are based upon
tried principles already embodied either in the
federal laws, in the laws of the various states,
or in the laws of other nations. An example is
the bill which aims to compensate workingmen
employed in interstate commerce for accidents
to life and limb. Another is the eight-hour bill
for women in the District of Columbia, which
was lost through an accident in the closing
hours of the last Congress.

The measures which had not passed when
Congress adjourned and which are herewith ad-
vocated are as follows. It is the principles un-
derlying these several bills rather than the spe-
cific provisions of any measure that we wish to
be understood as urging upon the attention of
the President and Congress :

Providing compensation for federal em-
ployes suffering injury or occupational dis-
eases in the course of their employment.

Providing compensation for employes in
interstate commerce suffering injury in the
course of their employment.

Harmonizing conflicting court decisions
in different states by giving the state itself
the right of appeal to the Supreme Court
of the United States.

Establishing the eight-hour day for
women employed in certain occupations in
the District of Columbia.

Co-ordinating the federal health activities
and strengthening the public health service.

Providing in the immigration act for
mental examination of immigrants by alien-
ists; safeguarding the welfare of immi-



grants at sea by detailing American med-
ical officers and matrons to immigrant-car-
rying ships.

Providing a hospital ship for American
deep-sea fishermen.

Providing for the betterment of the
conditions of American seamen.

Establishing a commission to investigate
jails and the correction of first offenders.

Abolishing the contract convict labor sys-
tem by restricting interstate commerce in
prison-made goods.

Legislation giving effect to the principles un-
derlying such proposals as these would consti-
tute, we believe, an important step in the ac-
complishment of the forward-looking purposes
which you have placed before the American
people.

Caroline B. Alexander Paul U. Kellogg

Frederic Almy John A. Kingsbury
Louise de Koven Bowen Constance D. Leupp

Louis D. Brandeis Samuel McCune Lindsay

Howard S. Braucher Charles S. Macfarland

Allen T. Burns W. N. McNair
Charles C. Burlingham Charles E. Merriam

Richard C. Cabot Adelbert Moot

Richard S. Childs Henry Morgenthau

John R. Commons Frances Perkins

Charles R. Crane Charles R. Richards

Edward T. Devine Margaret Drier Robins

Abram I. Elkus W. L. Russell

H. D. W. English Thomas W. Salmon

Livingston Farrand Henry R. Seager

Homer Folks Thomas A. Storey

Ernst Freund Graham Taylor

John M. Glenn Graham Romeyn Taylor

Josephine Goldmark Lillian D. Wald

T. J. Keenan James R. West

Florence Kelley W. F. Willoughby

Howard A. Kelly Stephen S. Wise

Arthur P. Kellogg Robert A. Woods

COMPULSORY MINIMUM
WAGE LAW IN OREGON

Oregon's minimum wage law, 1 which was re-
cently signed by Governor West, is the first
one in America to have a compulsory clause.
Failure to pay the rate of wages fixed and in
the method provided by the law is punishable
by fine or imprisonment or both. In Massa-
chusetts, the first state to establish minimum
wage boards, the only penalty is the publication
of the names of offending employers in four
newspapers in the county where their indus-
tries are located.

The Oregon law applies only to women and
children. It prohibits their employment in any
occupation in which the sanitary or other con-
ditions are detrimental to health or morals, or
for wages "which are inadequate to supply the
necessary cost of living and maintain them in
health." It likewise forbids the employment of

1 See Minimum Wage Legislation by Florence Kelley, on
page 9 of this issue.



1913



THE COMMON WELFARE



minors "for unreasonable low wages." An In-
dustrial Welfare Commission is created to de-
termine minimum wages, maximum hours and
standard conditions of labor.

The commission is authorized to call a con-
ference of representatives of the employers, the
employes and the general public to investigate
and make recommendations as to the minimum
wage to be paid in a given industry. If the
commission approves these recommendations
they become obligatory. The powers of the
Oregon commission to determine hours and con-
ditions of health and morals are more extensive
than those delegated to an industrial commis-
sion by the legislature of any other state. The
members of the commission are to be appointed
by the governor.

The successful campaign for this law and the
drafting of the bill itself, was based upon an
extensive investigation conducted by the Social
Survey Committee of the Oregon Consumers'
League. Wages, work conditions, and cost of
living, were studied in Portland and elsewhere
throughout the state. The inquiry was directed
by a trained investigator, Caroline J. Gleason
of Minneapolis, formerly a student of the Chi-
cago School of Civics and Philanthropy. The
work was started in August 1912 and the infor-
mation covered 7603 women wage earners in
Portland and 1133 throughout the rest of the
state. Wage statistics were tabulated for 4523,
and are particularly valuable in the case of the
department stores which placed their pay rolls
at the disposal of the survey committee. Gen-
erous co-operation from committees in twenty-



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