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From the collection of the




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San Francisco, California



A r K i

./V 4- A. A.

WORLD WAR by Charles and Mary Beard


If war came


Gen. Peter E.







MY NOVITIATE by Florence Kelley

Books Table d'Hote by LEON WHIPPLE


Two million elephants could
not do the work now being
done by General Electric
Companymotors. Whatever
theworktobe done, whether
it needs the power of an
elephant or the force of a
man's arm, there is a Gen-
eral Electric motor that will
do it faithfully for a lifetime
at a cost of a few cents an

The elephant is man's most intelli-
gent helper. But consider this:

The elephant is huge compared
with the electric motor that runs a
logging machine. Yet that motor
has the power of twenty elephants.

Some day museums will exhibit,
along with elephants, old-fashioned
irons, wash-tubs, and all other tools
whose work can be done by motors,
so much better and at so little cost.


Magazines Cost You
Less by the Year

Not Books ?


WHEN you subscribe for
a magazine for a year,
you pay less than when you
buy a single copy. When
you subscribe in advance for
a series of concerts you get a
much lower price than for
one performance.

If you subscribe through
the Literary Guild for 12.
books a year you get your
new books for less than if
you buy each book separately
at a book store.

The Literary Guild of
America abolishes the risk
of uncertain editions and
helter-skelter distribution.
Its plan is to publish for an
organized body of subscrib-
ers in advance. They will
receive twelve books one
each month as they would
a magazine.

By adopting the magazine
idea, the Guild gives you
better contemporary books
at lower prices.

Literary Guild of America

Privileges to Members



Discrimination Your
books are selected for
you by an Editorial
Board of distinguished

Width of Choice - The
books are chosen from
original manuscripts
not from books already
published. These manu-
scripts are submitted by
any publisher or author
in America and Europe.

Special Beautiful Edition

The Literary Guild
makes a special edition
of the book. At the
same time the regular
publisher will make a
regular edition to be
sold through the book-
store. The Guild book
will always be at least
as good as the regular

Experimental Low Price

The present price holds
good to immediate sub-
scribers. It is an experi-
ment. It may prove too
low, in which case later
subscribers will have to
pay more. And you pay
in small installments if
you prefer.

Convenience Once a
month the postman will
hand you a book from
the Guild. All postage
ii'ill be prepaid. It will
reach you with as little
trouble as your maga-

Promptness You do not
receive your copy three
or four months after the
book is published. The
Guild edition will reach
you on the same day
that the book-seller re-
ceives his copy at the
regular price.

Half Price Bysubscrib-
ing for a year at a time,
the members of the Guild
get these books, postage
prepaid, at about half
the price non-members
pay for single books in
the stores.



Ttu Literary Gnild

d AHMHU /-.


Ataoci-ite Editor

Anariatr Editor

Associate Editor

Some Early

The public is enthusiastic.
We cannot give you here
a list of the names of all
the subscribers who have
joined. Here are a few
among the first.

Theodore Dreiser,

Novelist. Author "An
American Tragedy"

Louis Marshall,
Corporation Lawyer

Dean Ray of the Church of the
Transfiguration of N. Y.

George Foster Pcabody,

George Vincent,
Rockefeller Foundation

Florence C. Floore,
Retiring Treasurer, National
Federation of Women's Clubs

Mrs. Ogden Reid

Henry D. Lindsley,

Past National Commander,
American Legion; Director,
War Risk Insurance Bureau

W. E. Woodward,

Author "George Washington,
The Image and The Man"

Your name belongs next


Send for
" Wings," the
story of a new


We have made up a small
edition of a special book-
let containing short essays
by our editors with por-
traits, and cartoon by
As long as this lasts it
will be sent you without
charge. At the same time
you will get the stimulat-
ing and vivid story of the
Literary Guild and what
ii means to you.

The Literary Guild

of America, Inc.
55 Fifth Avenue, New York

Send me free of charge, without obligation
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THE SURVEY, published semi-monthly and copyright 1H-J7 liy STRVKY ASSOCIATES, Inc., 112 East 19th Street. New York. Price, this copv (April 1. 1927; Vol. LVIII,
N. II 30 cts; K a year; foreign postage, $1 extra; Canadian 60 cts. Changes of shouM he mailed to us two weeks In advance. When payment Is by c
receipt will be sent only upon request. Entered as second class matter. March ;5, 190'', at the post office. New York, N. V. under the act of March 3. IS
for mailing at a special rate of postage provided for in Sect on 1108, Act of October 3, 1917. authorize.! June 28. 1918. President. Robert W. de Forest. Secretary,
Ann Keed I'.renner Lan'^slroth. Treasurer, Arthur Kellogg.

Telltale Arteries

"I wonder how old she really is.
I don't believe she is as young
at she loofjj."

A NOTED physician said recently,
"The woman who conceals her
age is a public benefactor.
Through her determination to stay
young even to the point of denying the
calendar she has set up higher health
standards. Age is not a matter of years
but of tissue changes. While she keeps
her body and spirit young, she is young."

If you have associated with persons past
50 or 60, you may have listened to much
solemn talk about arteries well intend-
ed, but mostly untrue. For example,
"old as your arteries," "old as you look,"

"old as you feel," being part'truths are
swallowed whole or rejected entirely,
depending upon casual experience or

That arteries which become thick and
brittle may bring an abrupt ending to
life through ruptured blood vessels is
generally known. But it is not generally
known that either defective arteries or
high blood pressure may be directly
responsible for serious changes which
occur in heart, kidneys and brain.

High blood pressure is not a disease. It
is a definite indication that something is
wrong somewhere in the body. What

causes the trouble can oftentimes be im-
mediately discovered by a competent
doctor. Again, the cause can be deter-
mined only by patient, intelligent study
and observation.

Here is the message to everybody, old or
young, sick or well : Your doctor can find
out in a few minutes whether or not
your blood pressure is normal for your
age whether or not your arteries are
healthy. There is no way for you to
judge your condition. At the beginning
of trouble there is seldom pain or warn-
ing of any kind. The fact that one's
blood pressure shows fluctuation or
is temporarily high is no proof that
anything is radically wrong.

Thanks to sound advice of physicians,
thousands and thousands of men and
women have been saved from acute or
chronic trouble by removing the cause.
Others, who have found the cause past
correction as it sometimes is have
lived to old age with hardened arteries,
high blood pressure, or both, because
they learned how to live eating, work-
ing, exercising wisely and in moderation.

Sometimes high blood pressure and
diseased arteries are caused by focal in-
fection in head or body; sometimes by
poisons the left-overs of previous in-
fectious disease which
were neglected and never
completely eliminated;
sometimes by overweight
or overwork or unhappy
mental conditions -
worry, fear, anger, hate,

Above all, know the
truth. Have your blood
pressure read once a year
at least. Keep well, keep
happy, keep young.

Among 16,700 Metropolitan policyholders recently examined,
2,150 were found to be more than 20 per cent overweight;
6.90O had defective teeth with suspected focal infection; 4,370
had enlarged, septic or buried tonsils; 1.19O had high blood
pressure which might have been attributed to one or more of
the above, or to other causes.

It was found that the number of overweight persons who
showed a blood pressure above normal was more than twice

that of persons of approximately average weight.

The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company will gladly mail
you, without cost, its booklets "Overweight" which tells how
to reduce weight safely, and "Blood Pressure" which gives in-
teresting information regarding the simplicity and meaning of
a blood pressure test. Send for them.

HALEY FISKE, President.

Published by


Biggest in the World, More Assets. More Policyholders, More Insurance in force, More new Insurance eachyear

(In answering advertisements please mention THE SURVEY. // helps us, it identifies you.)

Graphic Number

Vol. LVIII, No. 1

April 1, 1927

COVER DESIGN ........... Oscar Cesare

FRONTISPIECE: "Patriotism" ...... Robert Aitkin 4

TEN YEARS BACK: The American People and the World

War ......... Charles and Mary Beard 5


............ H. Van Buren Magonigle 8


.............. A. Hamilton Gibbi 10

IF WAR CAME TOMORROW .... Peter E. Traub 14

THE NEW BALANCE OF JUSTICE . Joseph P. Chamberlain 17
MURALS OF THE BEATITUDES . . . Eugene Savage 19

............. Parker Thomas Moon 22


............ Herbert Adolphus Miller 25

THREE WARS ........... Charles Nagel 30

MY NOVITIATE .......... Florence Kelley 31

SCISSORS PICTURES VII. The Seventh Inning ....

............. Martha Bensley Bruere 36

CAN MOTHER COME BACK? ...... Mary Ross

FOOT HILLS ........... Beulah W eldon

LETTERS & LIFE .......... Leon W hippie

EDITORIALS .................



/^IHARLES A. BEARD, since he resigned from the Columbia
\^ University faculty in 1917 as a pro-war liberal's protest
against war-time treatment of his pacifistic colleagues, has been
director of the Training School of Public Service in New York
and of the Institute of Municipal Research in Tokio. Mary Beard
is the author of A Short History of the American Labor Move-
ment and A History of the United States.

A. HAMILTON GIBBS went into the war as a Tommy and came
out four and a half years later as a major. His latest book,
Soundings, was a best seller last year. He is a brother of Sir
Philip Gibbs.

PETER E. TRAUB, U. S. Military Academy '86, is a colonel of
cavalry, U. S. Army, now stationed in New York City. He served
in the Crow and Sioux campaigns, the Cuban and Philippine
Wars, and as major-general in command of the 35th Division
in the World War.

JOSEPH P. CHAMBERLAIN is professor of public law at Columbia
University and an authority on international law.

PARKER THOMAS MOON is assistant professor of international
relations at Columbia University, author of Imperialism and
World Politics (Macmillan) 1926.

CHARLES NAGEL, lawyer and good-citizen-at-large of St. Louis,
was secretary of commerce and labor in President Taft's Cabinet.

HERBERT ADOLPHUS MILLER, professor of sociology at Ohio State
University, has for many years been a student of eastern Europe
and western Asia. He organized and was director of the Mid-
European Union of which President Masaryk of Czechoslovakia
was chairman.

FLORENCE KELLEY has been general secretary of the National
Consumers' League for more than a quarter century.

MARY Ross is an associate editor of The Survey.

BEULAH WELDON is a free-lance teacher and social worker, at
present in New York City.

EON WHIPPLE is an associate editor of The Survey and asso-
ate professor of journalism at New York University.




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(In answering advertisements please mention THE SURVEY. It helps us, it identifies you.)



One 0} Robert Aitkin's winged figures for the im-
pressive Liberty Memorial in Kansas City. The
others symbolize Courage, Sacrifice and Honor



Volume LVIII
No. 1

Ten Years Back

The American People and the World War


EVERBERATIONS of the desperate con-
flict in Europe, the constant thrumming of
propaganda, fears of investors who had
bought Anglo-French bonds and of manu-
facturers who had sold enormous quantities
of supplies to the Entente Powers,

the continuous insistence
of citizens who genuinely
feared the menace of a
German victory, and the
strained tension of diplo-
matic relations had all
combined to beat the do-
mestic politics of the United
States into a boisterous storm
in the months preceding
America's entry into the
World War on April 6, 1917.
Taking the mandate of
the fall elections as a verdict
in support of conciliatory
policies, President Wilson
soon thereafter had addressed
open notes to the belligerent
powers proposing a nego-
tiated settlement and asking
them to state the terms upon
which the war might be
brought to an end an action
in keeping with the negotia-
tions which he had long been
carrying on with the bellig-
erents through the agency of
Colonel House. In reply to
his manifesto the Central
Powers, then enjoying the
better of the fight, stated

that they were ready' for a conference, while the Entente
Allies laid down drastic conditions as the price of their
acceptance, bringing to naught the effort at mediation.
Wilson returned to the theme on January 22, 1917,
declaring in a speech before the Senate that it was the duty
of the United States to take part in restoring international

harmony on the basis of cer-
tain principles. These he
enumerated in a short form:
"peace without victory," the
right of nationalities to
liberty and self-government,
independence of Poland,
freedom of the seas, reduc-
tion of armaments, and
abolition of entangling alli-
ances. If no new factors had
entered the contest, the pro-
gram suggested by Wilson
might have provided the
only solution of the peace
problem for, while his terms
were abhorrent to the war
party in each belligerent
country, the long conflict
now promised a stalemate,
causing the peoples of Europe
to be sick at heart and
augmenting social unrest in
every quarter. But events
decreed another fate, making
a break in the long monody
with startling suddenness on
January 31, when the Ger-
man ambassador at Wash-
von Bern-
storff, announced the purpose

A HUNDRED years is a short span to get
perspective on a great epoch and see its
ribs through the clothes of circumstance.
But history itself has changed as its focus shifts
from dynasties and musty documents to democ-
racy and the forces at work among the people.

Its most prescient stuff becomes the living
past and present.

Can the new history within so short a span
as a decade help a generation which has met
the brunt of supreme events, gauge their
meaning and rechart its course before it passes
off the stage?

Charles and Mary Beard have pioneered
with the new technique of history in their
forthcoming work, The Rise of American
Civilization (Macmillan). They show the
genesis of social and psychological forces, eco-
nomic, political, cultural; more, they attempt
their synthesis. In doing so, they telescope
American history into two volumes. Here, we
have in turn telescoped their searching treat-
ment of the war epoch, condensing paragraphs,
sections, chapters, into the space of a single
magazine article, in the thought that this may
prove our most distinctive contribution to the ington, Count
anniversary of America's entry into the War. -


of his government to renew the submarine campaign. With-
in three months after that the United States was involved
with the Entente Allies in the war on the German Empire.

WHAT was running through Wilson's mind in those
harrowing times when he was engrossed in "waging
neutrality" how did he view the conflict that was shaking
the world ? Obviously the answer to this question is not
to be found in biographies and eulogies written after Wilson
carried the United States into the war. Neither can it be
discovered from his own writings, for his intimate papers
revealing the trend of his thinking during the first years of
the struggle in Europe have not yet been laid before the
country. Nevertheless the mystery is not completely sealed ;
for in the correspondence of Walter Hines Page, American
ambassador in London, in the papers of Franklin K. Lane,
secretary of the interior, written between 1914 and 1917,
fortunately, if indiscreetly, made public, and in the letters
of Colonel House, can be caught illuminating glimpses of
the President's thought as it developed before the measures
of the German Imperial Government, coupled with the
pitiless beat of propaganda and the ceaseless din of war
voices, bore him into the fray.

In these records it seems to be made plain that, until the
United States entered the war, Wilson, in spite of fluc-
tuations in his temper, looked rather coldly on the preten-
sions of both the embattled forces, being inclined to regard
the conflict as a war of commercial powers over the spoils
of empire. "The President," complained Page, "started out
with the idea that it was a war brought on by many obscure
causes economic and the like. . . . Thus we have failed to
render help to the side of Liberalism and Democracy which
are at stake in the world."

In the letters of Lane, the opinion expressed by Page is
amply confirmed. As late as February 2, 1917, even after
news had come that Germany would renew her submarine
warfare, Wilson was asked at a Cabinet meeting which
side he wished to see victorious in the European conflict.
Without equivocation, he replied that "he didn't wish to
see either side win for both had been equally indifferent
to the rights of neutrals though Germany had been brutal
in taking life and England only in taking property."

What then eventually turned the scale in Wilson's mind
and within two months changed him from a man who
"didn't wish either side to win" into an ardent advocate
of war "without stint" against Germany? No easy answer
is forthcoming, if indeed the psychological process of human
decision is fathomable at all ; but many of the factors that
profoundly influenced him were patent to every one. First
among them certainly was Germany's announcement of a
general submarine campaign practically without let or hin-
drance, followed shortly by the destruction of six American
vessels, in a majority of cases without warning, three of
them carrying American citizens to death. Unless the
President was to repudiate his previous position on that
issue and now accept submarine warfare with all its conse-
quences as approved by the new laws of combat, there was
no other choice than an appeal to arms. In any event, this
was the official thesis for, when Wilson called upon Con-
gress for the fateful war resolution, he declared that the
German Imperial Government had in fact driven the
United States into the position of a belligerent. Such even
was the verdict of the German ambassador in Washington,

for he attributed to the action of his own government the
rupture of relations, adding that, in his opinion, affairs were
not only distinctly favorable to Germany at the moment
but moving, under the President's policy, in the direction
of a fair peace.

There were, of course, other forces that helped to form
the President's fateful decision. It was clear by the spring
of 1917 that without American aid the Entente Allies could
hardly hope for anything more than a stalemate, if indeed
they could escape defeat. American investors, who had
staked money on the Anglo-French side, munition makers
who had accepted the paper of London and Paris in return
for supplies, merchants and manufacturers who had huge
Entente credits on their books were in danger of immense
losses unless the United States government came to their
rescue. Xo doubt the war dirge raised by these selfish factions
was adequately financed and astutely managed. Further-
more, there was the large body of Americans of English
stock who felt bound to England by ties of blood and
affection and who urged upon Wilson a war in the name
of kinship. Finally a considerable number of people, who
looked upon the intrinsic merits of the European quarrel
with relative indifference, believed that the United States
had a genuine reason to fear the triumph of the German
military caste in the Old World.

And yet when the evolution of Wilson's opinion
respecting the war in Europe is traced according to the
above design from the letters and papers of his contempo-
raries, it cannot be denied that there is authentic evidence
for another view of the case, namely, that the President
reached the conviction in 1915 or early in 1916 that he
could play a masterful role on the international stage by
taking the United States into the war on the side of the
Entente allies, irrespective of German submarine tactics.
While "waging peace," Wilson was revolving in his mind
the question of his leadership and mission in world affairs,
and kept revolving it until he finally broke with the German

WHEN hostilities were once declared, gigantic eco-
nomic and military tasks had to be undertaken.
Before the war was over, more than 3,700,000 American
soldiers, including the marines, were under arms, while not
less than ten million adults were engaged in sustaining them
on the firing line. "It is not an army that we must shape
and train for war," said the President ; "it is a nation."

And Congress gave Wilson power with a lavish hand. In
a series of the most remarkable laws ever enacted in Wash-
ington the whole economic system of the country was placed
at his command.

The dictatorial powers thus conferred on the President
were extensively employed. Railway, telegraph, telephone,
and cable lines, express companies, and coastwise and high-
seas shipping were taken over by the government, and an
Emergency Fleet Corporation was created to mobilize the
ship-building forces of the country the stock of common

Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 58) → online text (page 1 of 130)