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in Europe is only the laboratory method carried a logical
step forward. If we are going to learn languages which
in this country are infrequently spoken, we must learn them
abroad. Thinking internationally is natural to Europe
where so many nations live side by side, but in America it
is an anachronism unless it is an outgrowth of experience
abroad. The cost of transportation from this country to
Europe is not as great as from California to Connecticut,
but those who can afford to send their children to any but
public schools are now as ready to send them to Europe
as they are from one side of America to the other. Further-
more, the fact that for the time being it is cheaper for many
Americans to live abroad has also created a greater demand
in Europe for schools that will not hinder the progress of
the American child along his way to American colleges.

This combination of circumstances has brought about the
new tendency in the education of Americans abroad. Several
schools have been started which, apart from the modern
languages, steer as far as their budget will allow entirely
away from European methods and European masters. They
surround themselves with all the appurtenances of the
Europe which the American demands. Chateaux of
mediaeval design, battle abbeys, ancestral homes of titled
people, retaining the color of European aristocracy, resound
to the otherwise harsh exactions of the American college

In the main, of course, the schools for Americans in
Europe have been essentially of the finishing school variety,
that is, with no excess educational idealism as ballast. They
served their purpose when they took the young off the hands

of traveling parents, and if
they also got him into college
they more than earned their
keep. The fly-by-night par-
ents dropped a student for a
few months and picked him
up again later. It was next
to impossible to achieve im-
pressive educational results
and the Europeans who
looked on shrugged their
shoulders and put it down to

August 15 September 15, 1927



American lack of culture. Of course those who had trav-
eled in this country balanced things a bit better, but still
there was little in Europe to recommend American scholastic
ideals to the sober, thorough and exacting semi-military edu-
cational regime of the Old World.

Since the War, however, a change has come. Not only
have some very fine old chateaux come on the market, which
make an excellent base for a school with an inexpensive
beginning, but, as has been said, the rate of exchange makes
living on the continent accessible to many people of moderate
means. As in the Far East, where Americans and Britons
reside permanently and are forced to establish their own
schools, so now in Europe. This affords a model of our
sober school ways for Europeans to observe. There is, for
instance, in Paris the American High School, which was
founded by Americans to meet their own needs, and is a
cooperative enterprise making available grammar and high
school education for people of moderate means. The prin-
cipal is a graduate of Mount Holyoke College and the
teachers come from American universities. Talking to the
principal, I learned that her methods and her control of
the pupils were a constant source of interest to the French

Miss Fontaine's school in Cannes, Miss Mcjannet's
school at St. Cloud, the American School for Boys in Paris,
are creditable enough but they have attempted nothing
unique nor advanced in educational theory.

Last year the first real adventure in the foundation of an
American school in Europe was undertaken. Prynce Hop-
kins, a man of wealth who some ten years ago established
an experimental school in California, determined to under-
take something on broader lines in Europe. After buying
an attractive chateau twenty miles from Paris he thoroughly
renovated it, added dormitories, tennis courts, baseball
diamond and also a map of the world, covering several

acres, laid out with seas, lakes and rivers as an aesthetic and
practical aid to the study of geography. He has secured a
French Directeur and an American, Thomas Burton of
Teachers' College, as his American head master. With
these two anchors to the traditional and practical educa-
tional requirement to make sure that nothing that is neces-
sary to take boys to college is neglected, he has set out to
fulfill a purpose of his own: "limiting ourselves to boys of
already promising character, to develop in them the power
to live the most usefully and happily in this world of dis-
concerting realities. It is part of our idea, too, that both
usefulness and happiness rest on the same foundation. Chief
among these are: self-understanding, not too inhibited
emotional life, a disposition to enjoy vigorous objective
living rather than pursue pleasure for itself, an intellect
disciplined to face facts in the scientific spirit and finally a
sympathetic understanding of the technical and cultural
achievements of the race."

A searching psychological study of each boy's personality
and emotional difficulties will be made, while the free
current of the American scientific approach will be added
to all that European cultural mellowness can give. In brief,
it is Mr. Hopkins' purpose to release the vital energies of
American youth into the channels of modern life by the
application of all that modern psychology has made avail-
able, freeing at once both pupil and teacher and yet paying
all possible respect to the inevitable educational necessities.

Thus, unaffected by the usual limitations which come
from the difficulty of meeting one's bills, yet with a sober
realization that progress and evolution are patient and
sluggish forces, the Chateau de Bures, as this American
school for boys in France is called, promises to give Europe
a tangible and near-by example of what an American
application of the principles of the "new education" can

RECOGNIZING the importance of having "valuable and
absolutely impartial textbooks in use in our public schools,"
the American Federation of Labor Committee on Education
has made a study of "the method and reasons for the selection
of those textbooks now in use," a report of which has just
been published. (Who Selects Textbooks and Magazines in
the Public Schools? American Federation of Labor, Washing-
ton, D. C. ) A questionnaire was sent to the public school
authorities of 184 cities, and 150 replies were received. The
committee asked: Do you have free textbooks? Upon whose
recommendations are the textbooks selected? Who has the
final decision in the selection of the books? Is there a formal
report regarding the selection of these books? How often are
there changes in the textbooks? Is there a standing committee
of teachers appointed to keep informed on new texts and to
recommend changes and additions to the approved list? How
are any magazines on the approved list selected? Chief among
the recommendations made by the committee on the basis of
the study are: free textbooks in all public schools; selection of
texts by a joint committee of school teachers and school
administrators; a formal report as to why each text is chosen.

CHANGES in the status of military training in various
schools and colleges during the past school year are outlined
by George A. Coe, chairman of the Committee on Militarism
in Education, in a recent report: "Discontinuance of bayonet

combat in R.O.T.C. and C.M.T.C. by order of the War
Department; revision of at least two standard manuals of
military training, deleting many passages of barbarous and
objectionable character ; removal of all military training from
the Cleveland High Schools, R.O.T.C. from Hampton In-
stitute, of compulsory 4rill from Boston University and
C.C.N.Y. ; introduction of bills in both Houses of Congress
for the elimination of compulsory military training from non-
military civil educational institutions, and Committee hearings
in the house ; disapproval of compulsory drill expressed by
President Coolidge, Federal Council of Churches, American
Federation of Labor, the Presbyterian, Northern Baptist and
Disciples National Conventions, the National Council of
Jewish Women, Women's International League for Peace
and Freedom, and about fifty other church and educational
groups in various states; the formation of state citizens'
committees opposed to militarism in Nebraska and Massa-
chusetts and inauguration of a campaign in Great Britain by
the British National Council for the Prevention of War to
get the War office out of the British Schools. On the other
hand, the year saw the introduction of Naval R.O.T.C. units
in Harvard, Yale, Georgia, University of Technology, Uni-
versity of California, University of Washington and North-
western University; the initiation of the Munitions Battalion;
interference with free speech for peace in a number of


The Mental Hygiene of the Working Girl


I SUSPECT that any man with the boldness to attempt
a discussion concerning the mind of woman prepares
for himself the same confusion of mind described by
Mr. Dooley. In the confidence of young manhood
Mr. Dooley wrote a book upon the subject "woman".
In more mature years as a result of adverse criticism he
decided to revise the book. After much perplexity he finally
hit upon the happy idea of solving the whole problem by
means of certain addenda to be placed at the end of the
book. So he wrote "wherever this book reads 'is' substitute
'is not' ; and wherever it says 'is not' read 'God knows.' "

But I am not prompted by
any spirit of trifling levity in
recalling Mr. Dooley 's facetious
confession of despair. On the
contrary I am moved by a pro-
found regard for the gravity of
any attempt to apply a new
and experimental invention like
mental hygiene to an age-old
question the mind of woman.
I am not prepared to admit
that it is quite appropriate to
create a special class of women
to be named "the working
girl." Presumably the working
girl is understood to be the
girl or woman who gains her
livelihood or occupies her time
in some industrial or mercantile
pursuit. There appear no nat-
ural age limits to the group
except the legal limit which
determines for business the age
at which a child becomes girl
or young woman. The only
upper limit that can satisfy any
reasonable definition of "work-

Paul Nash in The Labour Woman

The office worker

in girl" seems to be the limit set by retirement or permanent
physical disability.

Definition should be particularly helpful in a discussion of
such uncertain ideas as "mental health" and "mental
hygiene." But I do not venture to propose a definition of
either of these ideas. I can however with assurance call
attention to the fact that "mental health" refers to a 'state
or condition, and "mental hygiene" to the ways and means
of securing or preserving that condition. Mental health is
the desired end ; mental hygiene the means to that end.

Furthermore there is a very real difference between prac-
tical mental hygiene and ideal mental hygiene. Practical
mental hygiene has little to do with a science of mental
health : some of its accepted devices may even do violence

to the principles of sound mental health. Practical mental
hygiene is mostly concerned with expedients and arts for
handling social and business troubles arising from the queer
and disturbed minds found in business or elsewhere. One
modern authority upon industrial hygiene states that "the
principle function of the psychiatrist in industry is to apply
ordinary common sense to the mental problems of the

We are prone to desire not vigorous mental health but
rather mental sedatives. Practical mental hygiene can often
provide this type of relief by its ingenious readjustments of

unpleasant relations. But there
can be no doubt that a more
ideal and fundamental hygiene
of the mind is to be desired
a hygiene that in the sphere of
the mind deals with factors of
mental health as elemental as
good food and air and sunshine
in bodily hygiene. Perhaps, in-
deed, mental hygiene is mostly
physical after all ; and as with
physical health, the desire for
sound, vigorous mental health
may point us back to a more
intelligent hygiene of childhood
and infancy or even beyond.

Common sense expedients,
however, that can bring out of
bad situations more tolerable
adjustments are not to be de-
spised even though practical
mental hygiene often appears
less concerned for the victim
and more concerned for others
affected by the victim's difficul-

One girl about eighteen, a

store worker, has not been endowed with nature's common
defenses against the ordinary mental and nervous shocks of
the day's routine. She is found frequently in the health
department upset and in tears over some trivial disappoint-
ment. She grows pale and thin and uncertain of herself,
and comes to depend upon the emotional support of some
stronger personality. It becomes evident that she was not
built to stand the strain of business: accordingly in cooper-
ation with her parents arrangements are made for her to
go as a nurse girl with a family in the country. A few
months later she visits her former work associates apparently
in perfect physical health and for the first time merely talk-
ing with her does not bring a deluge of tears.

Another girl of about 2O loses many months away from


August 15 September 15, 1927



work because of disability which several physicians believe
actual mental disease that may prevent her from ever re-
turning to store work. This girl is much depressed and her
mind plays her strange tricks, but talking with her reveals
one cherished desire: to have again her job and to work
and "be like other girls." Permission is finally secured from
the president of the business allowing her to come back to
her old work for a few hours a day merely as one more
experiment in treatment after physicians and hospitals have
mostly failed. Within three or four months this girl is
doing full time work and today, after nearly five years, she
is a successful, cheerful worker.

Another girl of twenty-five to thirty years was reported
by an employment department as being nervous and hyster-
ical. To the physician she did appear intense and irritable
but her behavior was not hysterical; on the contrary she
was able to make an unusually well-poised estimate of her
own nervous condition. She firmly believed that for her
health she needed a change from certain unpleasant job sur-
roundings. It was evident that her claim was made in good
faith and not as an excuse. Apparently the remedy for her
nervous condition was the change of work she desired. Of
course it is not always possible to adjust the affairs of a
business to the peculiar needs of one individual and in this
instance the proposed transfer could not be granted. The
girl accordingly quietly withdrew from the organization to
seek more satisfying work elsewhere.

There seems to be a persistent doubt about the "morals"
of the working girl. Naturally an interest in morals is not
irrelevant, but with the viewpoint and perspective given me
by the experiences of my work such a question immediately
recalls a picture published in Life some years ago. A city
girl stands on the slope of a hill looking off toward the
western horizon ; behind her in the picture is a sty with pigs
wallowing in the mud and a farmer leaning over the fence
gazing intently at his favorite animals. The girl standing
erect, her face alight with the vision of the setting sun, is
saying, "Isn't it a beautiful sight !" The farmer, never lift-
ing his eyes, replies, "They be purty, ain't they?" The
"morals" of the working girl is a matter in which perhaps
the chief concern should be the right viewpoint and per-

Those of us who know something of the stories of thou-
sands of working girls and women are quite keenly aware
of the mental and nervous instabilities that sometimes in-
volve them in unfortunate work conflicts or distressing social
tangles. But quite beyond the scope or even the need of
any of the practical devices of mental hygiene there is a
great host of workers, younger and older, whose essential
woman instincts are safeguard of the integrity of the woman

mind in business. Indeed when we physicians and social
readjusters have made our best contribution we must realize
that our labors are but patchwork concerned mostly with
adding a few clumsy repairs or removing a few trivial
blemishes from a great fabric essentially intact and beautiful
in the pattern of its original design.

I am convinced that in the main the working girl is her
own mental hygiene and that she is using well her job, with
all its limitations, as a mental hygiene aid. The instincts
and desires and purposes that go to make up the woman
mind are insistent forces demanding healthful expression.
It seems to me not an unwarranted flight of fancy to see
expression of the same creative and fostering instinct in the
intent play of the baby girl with her Christmas doll and
toy furniture and cook stove ; in the concentration of the
four-year-old in nursery school deftly using hammer and saw
in constructing her own house from a small packing box;
in the chatter and the flutter of flapper age romance; in
the dreams and plans and activities that are specifically home
interests ; and also transformed into the energy and organ-
ized work of industry.

The essential qualities that determine the character of the
woman mind not only survive but are even glorified in new
and unexpected revelations by the complex, sometimes
sordid, conditions of business.

Only a few days ago I sat in a men's smoking room. It
was after the luncheon hour and the room was almost empty
of its habitual loungers. After a time I was aroused from
my reading by a scraping and jostling of chairs moved about
the floor, and I became aware of the sweeping woman
busy at her afternoon task of cleaning up ashes and the
remains of cigars, cigarettes, matches, soiled and rumpled
newspapers and other unattractive refuse. With manifest
industry she pursued the work created for her by the habits
of the male frequenters of the smoking room business men,
and even hygienists concerned for the mental health of work-
ing girls. She was a little woman with stooping shoulders and
an impassive face that suggested actual mental depression. As
she worked nearer my seat I spoke to her and asked, "How
many times a day do you clean this room?" With little sign of
interest she said, "Twice." I then asked, "How many hours a
day do you work he*e?" With the same dull face she an-
swered "Eight." Then she brushed away diligently with her
broom. Again I tried, "Well, do you have any work to
do at home?" The little stooping woman stood erect! Her
face lighted up and with a smile that encouraged me to
think I was being especially honored with a rare glimpse
into a great secret she replied, "Ah yes, and there's no end
to that !"

The People's College in Cassel


A the youngsters of the continuation school physiol-
ogy class clattered down the stairs, they met an
older group of men and women, wearily toiling
upward for a lecture on the same subject, after
their hard day's work. These were apprentices
and day-laborers, housemaids and housewives, factory-girls
and clerks, who were coming together week after week to
learn of the construction of their own bodies.

In a near-by building, a group of twelve or fifteen young


clerks and bank-workers struggled with the eccentricities of
English conversation, led by an American boy in his twenties.
For this People's College of Cassel, Germany, tries to give
the courses that its students need and ask for, whether in
foreign languages, in popular science, or in home-making.
English, of course, is the most desired foreign language, and
this was the most advanced of several groups. A series of
conversations about the United States had brought them to
the subject of the Negro and his place in American society.

<:> T H E S U R r E Y August ISSeptembtr 15, 1927

"Did you ever see a Negro lynched?" asks a yuungsua, lieved this particular people's college, because of its leadcr-
; dtt general European idea ( fostered by the American ship, to be of especial value in building up ideals of

on that continent) that your true democracy among the people.

i gets a divorce after breakfast, and a new hniband To reach the school, the aspirant for knowledge seeks
or wife far raarh. whne a litde ryndung-bee serves as a Mauer (Wall) Street (so called, evidently, because of the
The American shakes his head in high stone waH which runs along one side). The other side
tries to explain that lynching is, after all, far of the way b devoted to business in its less attractive phases
from being a popular Jinan ini ia. in the States. warehouses and wholesalers, with heavy trucks pulling

The Cassd r*rsa*rajrcfc People's College is one of jerkily over the uneven cobbles. A more unlikely street for
the SUMCS of mail i Btmrjons which have sprung up in an educational institution could not be imagined ; and the
in the last few years. Before the Revolution, a college is in the least likely building on the street. There

for is a great arched entrance, big enough for a wagon to
the education of adnhs whose irhnoling had ended at four- drive in, and with always a cart horse or hand unloading
teen. In these places, nminmn and women studied what the bales and boxes for the wholesale dry-goods establishment

be good far them to know, on the second floor. Within one finds a cavernous interior,
the way in which they nnghl to know it. Since with piles of merchandise in unexpected places and, in the
people s colleges hate appeared like weens midst of the OIHIH and nnl^* t a massive wooden stair-case
uuy nhciL. Xobody knows how many there are. {MMHTJ winding upwards.

; a little Guided by faith alone, the would-be student begins to
ascend. Then to his joy he sees painted on the irregularly
plastered wall the word, "Volkshochschule". with an arrow
poiniine upward. At every curve there is die encouraging
sign and die student, thus stimulated, arrives at his goal
hardly knowing whether be has climbed three flights or five.
But here, at last, are die two offices of die school and die

that other 5^nmr, lectuieifc and H-iTflT wfll he three other litde rooms where the director and his wife
their hopes are justified; make dieir borne. Scant space for an organization which is
de school falls to nieces umaajhL. Nevertheless, duecting die education of a thousand students.

to fully The work is divided into several sections, the first being
justify dhe won! I World Survey, Religion. Education ; and the next Poetry,

The ihiaViij. "limit in das '"'"' npuhlk are Art, Music. Under Industry, Society, History come die
anxious to take a real part ia their j,Hiiiaaniil It did ermiomk and sociological studies of die school. Nature
not natter who was elected to dK Reichstag before." they speaks far itself; so also Mathematics and Languages,
say. The mcmum often tatted very loudly, and argued There is a section for domestic science, child training, and
a great deal, hut they were never allowed to do anything the like, for women and girls.

hat talk.'' But k does natter now; or k can be node to An mingling feature under An is the system of per-
And so, courses ia r~~-irf j tffqffiffey. aad die sonaDy conducted visits to quaint Old Cassd, to the won-
of industry, are among the most IT" 1 """ in dbe derfnl picture gallery, and die fine museum. Thirty or

lwij persons attended each of two such tours which were
die eight or held in dbe nvaauai at die saaae hour on one of die weekly
large ^fc to Sunday afternoon vsfts.
t>.rr w-Jll

Of these eight f^\~*^' ^ diese giunui was lifntiing to a lecture on relig-

The Surrey, Oct. V_x ions sutnaiy of the Middle Ages, with a group of

i> 1926, P- 83), widt ks 2,500 pupOs, is the largest. Next statues of that period as fflnstrarions mostly madonnas, with

in size are piahahlf those at Jena and CasseL a few bishops and a St. Sduuiin or two. It was startling to

A Ac V^AHSti fOpUC% \*sQUttf~ lOHlOOd KB IQIQ* hatd aLDOVt t&C UQSOpaaVbCattCd ObVCTYCT tO DB0 UWIl uJCSC StXtUCS WCfC

taking nnre don one of dv once-a-week courses. The charge die wall, and as thin and light as poaable. Even an ap-

far each lesson ntiiiid rangrs from about 5 to 10 "*i parendy solid stone figare was hollowed out to die utmost-

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