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as she herself was once deprived. The supervisor appre-
ciates how the young student feels, sees that she herself may
easily appear another frugal, repressive aunt, that the stu-

dent finds herself in all her clients and meets all who
criticize or restrain her as she met those grown-ups who
felt she should be grateful for mere toleration. The super-
visor does not undertake to tell the student all this but
takes it bit by bit as it comes up. When the student tightens
her lips because a conference must end, the supervisor asks
her later if she was angry, explains that she was greatly
interested, and as the student melts, encourages a discussion
in which the student sees that she was jumping to conclu-
sions on the basis of her early experience with people who
had no time for her. Eventually she becomes aware of how
she has allowed those old family relationships to distort her
subsequent reality, of how she unconsciously thrust everyone
she met into the roles of mother, father, sisters, brothers,
uncle and aunt without seeing them as individuals in their
own right. She realizes that she need not try to punish her
family by succeeding, she gives up the desire to punish them
and begins to enjoy her success. It is a long slow process
but she is beginning to gain control and it is no longer
necessary for her to reject all authority as hostile or as
threatening her independence because she is developing in-
dependence within herself. She has had a practical demon-
stration of casework, she knows what her weaknesses are
and can exercise a new self-criticism, and though she is by
no means out of the woods, she has found a safe path along
which she can travel alone.

The supervisor as she guides the student knows that she
may not help her entirely to solve her problems, but that
all that the student learns through recognizing and handling
them is going to be applied to her casework, to her job as
a whole, and to her relationships outside her job and that
this personal experience will teach her to look for family
relationships in her cases, to refrain from hasty judgments,
to see that her clients are entangled each in his own family
patterns and that she cannot deal in wholesale approvals or
condemnations without having reason to suspect that her
own family difficulties are again affecting her vision, that
early standards of conduct and personality are still operat-
ing in her own thinking and feeling, and that she there-
fore needs to do two things: first, examine herself, and
second, investigate the case further.

THE supervisor attempts to carry the process further
though she knows she cannot complete it for the student
and that it is a progressive thing with which the student
will never be done. She helps the student to see that the
staff is just another family circle with the executives and
supervisors as parents and the colleagues as brothers and
sisters, that it is possible to resent one's superiors, because they
represent an authority or lack of love the student felt in
her own home, that it is also easy to seek their personal
approval just as a child seeks it and to work not for the
satisfactions of achievement and personal development, but
for a love without which the successful job suddenly be-
comes dust. In the same way, the student may see only
brothers and sisters in her colleagues, may want the center
of the stage because without it she feels she is not getting
her due and may unconsciously react to other visitors with
a jealousy that first belonged to the sister who cut her
out with her father, er the brother who was mother's

If the student can withdraw from her job relationships
those elements of a far past which she has been injecting
into them, she may find a new peace and harmony that will

August 15 September 15, 1927



increase her immunity to those troublesome externals which
inevitably disturb every office.

This program of supervision is ambitious and difficult,
but if the supervisor sees her own relationships as casework,
she can achieve an objectivity that will strengthen her for
those unavoidable issues which so frequently appear to run
counter to the narrower concept of supervision which she
has held. Real supervision is the backbone of casework. It

not only determines the quality of casework new workers
will achieve, but affects the satisfaction the whole staff ob-
tains from the common job. It has no limits for we have
just begun to realize what casework is and know now that
salary scales and social handicaps need not mark our
boundaries if we take casework out of its first small prov-
ince and carry it on out into our whole reality, into life

A Short Course in Child Placing

Drawings by George H. Preston, J\I.D.

You can't fit a round child
in a square hole

You can't cut
the child to fit the hole

In a hole that he fits
he is happy

TO THE growing library of explicit material on the care of
dependent children have recently been added two bulletins
published by the federal Children's Bureau, The Work of
Child-Placing Agencies (Publication No. 171, Government
Printing Office, price 35 cents) and Child Welfare Conditions
in Seven Pennsylvania Counties (Publication No. 176, Govern-
ment Printing Office, price 40 cents). The former study is
divided into sections, the first of which, by Katharine P.
Hewins and L. Josephine Webster, details a social study of
ten child-placing agencies in almost as many states, while the
second, by Dr. Mary L. Evans, covers health supervision of
children in foster homes. In each instance details of organi-
zation, procedure, cost, records, and the like combine to give
a working guide for other agencies by showing what actually
is 'being done, and how. The second report, written by Neva
R. Deardorff, former secretary of thePennsylvania Children's
Commission, emphasizes the finding that neither orphanage
nor illegitimacy can be regarded as the chief explanation for
the care of children by agencies and in institutions. In the
seven counties in the year of the study half of the children
with known histories accepted for care by the agencies, and 62
per cent of those taken by the institutions came directly from
a home in which at least one parent was living, or from
relatives. Although forty years have elapsed since the decision
to keep children out of the almshouses of Pennsylvania, 93
children were almshouse inmates in six counties during the year,
often in clear violation of both the spirit and letter of the law.
The report lists as outstanding needs for the care of de-
pendent children in Pennsylvania: adequate funds for mothers'
assistance, high standards of administration of poor relief, a
community plan or program on a country-wide basis to fuse
available resources, the coordinated use of institutions and
agencies, better control of public funds now disbursed for the
care of children away from home, and the strengthening of

the powers of the state department of welfare in the super-
vision of child-caring agencies.

FROM the Fourth Biennial Report of the State Child Wel-
fare Commission of Oregon comes the encouraging news that
the last three years show a steady decrease in the average
daily census of the four private institutions in that state which
care for delinquent girls and unmarried mothers. In 1923
this average was 217; by 1926 it had dropped to 186, or only
about two-thirds of the capacity of the institutions. During
the same period there has been a gradual increase in the age
level of the girls who are admitted. In 1923-1924 the entrants
over 18 years comprised 37 per cent of the whole group; in
1925-1926, 47 per cent; and in the single year ending Sep-
tember 30, 1926, 51 per cent. "This fact is not in harmony,"
the Commission comments, "with some of the reports which
are heard from time to time to the effect that the age of
delinquent girls is getting lower. It would be very difficult to
analyze all the factors that are probably responsible for the
decreasing number of minor girls who are admitted to our
private institutions for delinquents. No doubt probation work
is entitled to much of the credit. Furthermore the large
number of character-building organizations in existence are
making their contribution as a great preventive force in the
battle against delinquency." The Commission suggests that
eventually one of these institutions may have to be diverted
to some field of work not so well covered, and approve the
increasing interest of these organizations to provide after-
care, and their recognition of the need of specialization, by
separate institutions, or separate buildings in the same institu-
tion, to meet the separate needs of the unmarried mother, the
delinquent girl, and cases which require treatment for venereal
disease. These last are now handled adequately by the hospital
established by one institution during the past biennium.

Books In Our Alcove


1 ;

Tvio drawings by Jeanne de Lanux from Adventuring With Twelve Year
Olds, by Leila Stott, Adelphi publications

The Painless Learning

by Caroline Pratt. Greenberg. 193 pp. Price $2.00 postpaid of The

Meanwhile a dozen other adventures were going for-
ward. At the children's request the elective lessons in
French and German were increased from two a week to
one a day. Stories of early explorers and Indians were
being read from the original sources, Champlain's Diary
and Marquette's Journal, as well as the accounts of his-
torians like Fiske and Parkman. Individual laboratory
experiments were being made in physics, chemistry, and
mechanics, and there were exercises in music and rhythms.

One cannot but feel that Miss Pratt's experiment is
justified: that here at least were a dozen children who
were learning to understand living.


HEY asked to learn something about grammar,"
red-cheeked, normal twelve-year-old boys and
girls. Yet that apparently is only one of the
miracles that happen when children are learn-
ing by choice rather than compulsion, at least in
the City and Country School in New York. One class is
described in this book by their teacher.

The children asked about grammar because they found
they needed it. Suppose one is engaged in such thrilling
literary composition as Ellen's: "Montezuma had just fin-
ished his meal of human flesh and stewed ants with Chili
sauce and pepper and pulque wine, when his tax-gatherer
entered." One can see for oneself that it becomes neces-
sary to have the technique of expression at the pencil tip.

Then, too, there was the class play, showing coal miners Individualism OT

unionizing, striking, starving, and finally winning their de-
mands from the obdurate operators all composed, acted,
costumed and set by the children themselves. Much knowl-
edge besides grammar was required here. One must know
something about the different kinds of coal and ways of
mining them, of "collective bargaining and union organi-
zation, competition between union mines and non-union
mines, company houses and stores, labor spies and evictions
in time of strike." And all this too from first-hand sources,
men who had been in mines, books by such men, data and
pictuies in the United States Coal Commission report, and
models in the Museum of Natural History.

As for the class business enterprise, the Toy Company
made and painted in the school shop wooden trucks, horses,
policemen, and workmen. In one sale it cleared twenty
dollars, and in another enough to pay for a class picnic and
a theatre party, with ten dollars left over to start the next
year's work. Incidentally the toy-making stimulated an in-
terest in arithmetic. With this as a starting point, one
boy, measured by the Stanford test, actually made in three
months a gain of two years in mathematical ability.

LAISSEZ-FAIRE AND COMMUNISM, by John Maynard Keynes. New
Republic Press. 144 pp. Price $1 postpaid of The Survey.

AMERICAN COMMUNISM, by James Oneal. Rand School Press.
256 pp. Price $1.50 postpaid of The Survey.

THE first of these books consists of articles appearing
serially during 1925 in the New Republic. Part I takes

us easily and elegantly through the rise and decline of the
Laissez-faire doctrine. Bolstered up by the "natural law"
of the theists, the "utility" of the atheists, and the "natural
selection" of the Darwinians, everything played into the
hands of the individualists of the nineteenth century. Even
its opponents the protectionists and the Marxian Socialists
reenforced it by their logical fallacies. "Both are examples,"
says our author, "of poor thinking, of the inability to analyse
a process and follow it out to its conclusions."

And as one would expect from the distinguished publicist
upon money and finance, Mr. Keynes finds his chief criticism
of modern society in its exclusive dependence upon the
money motive. The decline of laissez-faire dates from the
recognition that enlightened self-interest may not coincide
with the public interest. It becomes the function therefore
of the economist to decide in the particular cases of conflict


dugust 15 September 15, 1927



just which matters are to be dealt with by common action,
which matters are to be left to private initiative. He looks
for solution in the various forms of government-owned cor-
porations, co-operative societies, co-partnership enterprises.
And in a very short but significant passage points to three
of the leading problems of the future the insecurity of
employment ; government control of investment abroad ;
and the size and type of a state's population.

Turning then to Russia in Part II he comes to the con-
clusion that at present Russia has nothing to teach us in
economics or politics; and he sees it chiefly as an experi-
ment to produce a generation knowing money not as an end
but as a means to a better society.

The significance of this suggestive little book lies there-
fore in the deliberate and candid rejection by another of
the younger English economists of the very foundations of
what Tawney has called the Acquisitive Society: a renun-
ciation of its principle, not accompanied by a rabid accep-
tance of communism, but a thoughtful refutation of its
motivating force and of its ability to guide man to the
Good Life.

Very different is Mr. Oneal's painstaking account of the
rise and decline of the Communist party in America. Little
concerned with theories except as they came under the ban
of the government or were in agreement with the Third
International, he traces the post-war split in the socialist
ranks to its source in the Russian Revolution and the prop-
aganda for world revolution. Then with the panicky raids
by the Federal government on Nov. 7, 1919, and the
deportations of the following December he shows the in-
numerable sects into which the underground organizations
were divided in the time of their illegal existence. Of
especial interest are his figures for the movement's member-
ship in those days. Never were there more than thirty-five
or forty thousand members; just before the raids there
were but twenty-six thousand, a number which fell im-
mediately to some twelve thousand. All but two or three
thousand of these were of Slavic origin. The failure was
so great that in 1922 an attempt was made to come into
the open and to forsake their terrorist non-political methods
and to capture the Conference for Progressive Political
Action, and even to encourage Communists to deny mem-
bership in the U. C. P. or the Workers Party in seeking
admission into the trade unions. The failure of this move

-the refusal of the Lafollette group to take them into its
folds and the continuing ejection of the communists from
the unions are matters of common knowledge. Mr. Oneal
is to be commended for the careful and detailed history he
has written of this dark side of American labor history.


Fire: A Negro Magazine

FIRE; A Quarterly Devoted to Younger Negro Artists. Published 267
West 136th St., New York City. December, 1926. $1.00.

IN Fire, a new quarterly "devoted to younger Negro
artists," the youth section of the New Negro movement
has marched off in a gay and self-confident manoeuver of
artistic secession. The bold, arresting red and black of its
jacket is not accidental this is left-wing literary modernism
with deliberate intent: the Little Review, This Quarter,
and The Quill are obvious artistic cousins. Indeed one's
first impression is that Fire is more characteristic as an ex-
hibit of unifying affinities in the psychology of contemporary

youth than of any differentiating traits of a new Negro
literary school. A good deal of it is reflected Sherwood
Anderson, Sinclair Lewis, Dreiser, Joyce and Cummings,
re-cast in the context of Negro life and experience. This
alone would be significant as an opening up of the sluice-
gates of the closed and long stagnant channels of Negro
thought; but there is back of this obvious rush toward
modernism also a driving push toward racial expression.
The churning eddies of the young Negro mind in the revolt
from conservatism and convention have not permitted this
to come clearly and smoothly to the surface; one can only
glimpse it in spots and feel it in the undercurrents. For the
present, the racialism of this interesting young group is more
of a drive than an arrival, more of an experiment than a

The list of editors and contributors presents an interest-
ing roll-call: of names already well-known like Langston
Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Aaron Douglas, the brilliant
young artist whose work is really the outstanding feature
of the issue; of names rapidly forging to the front, Zora
Hurston, Gwendolyn Bennett, Arthur Fauset, Arna Bon-
temps; and significant newcomers, Helene Johnson, John
Davis, Waring Cuney, Edward Silvera, Lewis Alexander
and Richard Bruce. Wallace Thurman, as editor of the
initial number, has marshalled them into a charging brigade

of literary revolt, especially against the bulwarks of Puritan-
ism. The strong sex radicalism of many of the contributions
will shock many well-wishers and elate some of our ad-
versaries; but the young Negro evidently repudiates any
special moral burden of proof along with any of the other
social disabilities that public opinion saddled upon his
fathers. Like the past generation that found a short-cut to
emancipation in fighting for freedom, these ardent young-
sters hurdle the non-combatant positions of respectability to
the firing line of moral challenge and reform. But if Negro
life is to provide a healthy antidote to Puritanism, and to
become one of the effective instruments of sound artistic
progress, its flesh values must more and more be expressed
in the clean, original, primitive but fundamental terms of
the senses and not, as too often in this particular issue of
Fire, in hectic imitation of the "naughty nineties" and effete
echoes of contemporary decadence. Back to Whitman would
have been a better point of support than a left-wing pivot-
ing on Wilde and Beardsley. However, we hope and ex-
pect that in subsequent issues, the younger Negro literary
movement will establish its own base and with time gain
a really distinctive and representative alignment.



Group Insurance for Social Workers


Asocial agencies as mindful of their workers as
they are of their clients? Welfare work for
employes is just as good policy in social service
as in business, and protection should be as cheap
in one as in the other. A business man would
not dream of being without insurance himself and is com-
monly glad to extend to his employes the opportunity for
the low rates for such protection on the group plan. Super-
intendents of welfare institutions would never forget to pay
the fire insurance premiums on their buildings but not many
think of equal protection for their staffs.

Any concern with fifty or more employes may take out
group life insurance for its workers but very few welfare
agencies have so large a staff and hence social workers as a
general rule have been deprived of this cheap protection and
are at a disadvantage in this respect compared with workers
in large shops, mills, and stores. The Pittsburgh Federa-
tion of Social Agencies has taken steps to overcome this
handicap and is seeking to place social workers upon the
same plane with the workers in other fields for the purposes
Df life insurance, however small the number of employes of
individual agencies may be.

It holds that the association of welfare agencies in some
central body such as a federation, creates a group of workers
in one general field more than large enough to entitle all to
this privilege, and that by virtue of its membership in such
a central body any welfare agency regardless of how large
or how small its staff, is eligible for group insurance. An
agreement on this basis has been entered into by the Pitts-
burgh Federation with one of the insurance companies and
group insurance will be written for the employes of all
agency members desiring it provided seventy-five percent of
them enter into the plan. The proposition was placed before
them and their boards have it under consideration.

THE advantage for the employe appears from the facts
that group life insurance is written without medical
examination, entitles the insured to his own individual
policy, permits him to name his own beneficiary, and costs
him as a rule only $7.20 a year per one thousand dollars.
The actual premium rate varies according to age, of course,
but payments by employes are equalized on the basis of
sixty cents per month per one thousand dollars, the employer
paying the net difference, if any, between the premiums for
younger and older employes.

From the point of view of the employer, the writing of
such insurance tends to reduce the turnover, as it may be
assumed that an employe will remain longer with an agency
that offers him this advantage, other conditions being equal.
Moreover, an agency may be named as beneficiary by
a devoted employe and thus receive support ultimately
from a source from which a substantial contribution

would not otherwise, in all probability, be forthcoming
A question may arise as to the propriety of i
social agency's using for the insurance of its workers
lives, any part of the funds contributed to promote th<
welfare of others, on the ground that the money is given ir
trust and that its use for any purpose other than social worl
is a violation of that trust. However, social work could
not be done if it were not for the workers; they are entitled
not only to compensation for their services but also to pro-
tection, especially if their only means of protection i<
through their association with the agency employing them;
and as that protection and its consequent peace of mind car
be purchased by an employer for a forty-year-old workei
for only $7.80 a year per one thousand dollars, provided the
worker pays $7.20 himself, it is hard to conceive of any
reasonable objection to agencies' showing the same considera-
tion to their social workers as business men show to their

Life insurance may also be obtained independently by
agencies with from only fifteen to fifty employes at whole-
sale rates which are a little higher than those for group
insurance, other conditions being the same; or even in con-
nection with banks or companies on some salary saving plan.

Is Vacation Enough?

IN The Survey of June 15 (p. 342), Wendell F. Johnson
describes a plan which is being tried out by the Social
Service Federation of Toledo. The workers of that or-
ganization will be permitted to "exchange a week of sick
leave for an extra week of vacation." This will be done in
order "to provide an incentive to the worker to keep well."

Amelia Sears, assistant general superintendent of the
Uniced Charities of Chicago, takes issue with Mr. Johnson
in a letter to The Survey which reads as follows. The
editors of The Survey will welcome further discussion :

Do you recall in the June issue a discussion on the subject of
sick pay? I haven't it before me, but as I remember it, some
executive told that the allotted sick pay which had been unused
during the year was given as a reward to the staff members
at the end of the year.

This, I must confess, did not commend itself to me. It
seemed to me, in the first place, rather confused thinking and

Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 58) → online text (page 126 of 130)