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that formerly held sway, and sound adult mental health is
in considerable measure dependent on the degree of success
one attains in this process of emancipation. Adolescent de-
fectives, like other children, experience this urge to live their
own lives unhampered by parental control. Unfortunately
they lack sufficient judgment and intelligence to permit them
the degree of personal freedom accorded to brighter youths.
The parent or teacher must attempt the delicate task of
reconciling powerful instincts to forge out an independent
career, with the practical necessity for accepting the guidance
and decisions of others. This task will be much lightened
if the adolescent defective has had the benefit of a sound
training during the early years when his personality was in
process of making. Under these circumstances he will have
learned wholesome habits of obedience and discipline and
will have acquired an undistorted concept of his personal
abilities and disabilities. With such training in childhood
the adolescent conflicts, even of defectives, may be handled
with a surprising measure of success.

What Cottage Mothers Should Know


"T T OW much of the child's family history should the
J_ cottage mother know?" is a question which points
to a weakness in the technique of child training operative
in most institutions. Recent discussion of this subject at
a round table meeting of the Eastern Regional Conference
of the Child Welfare League of America revealed that in
most institutions little family history is available. Even
though the superintendent of such an institution be favor-
ably disposed, usually he cannot give the cottage mother the
facts she needs if she is to know the child's problems. Most
cottage mothers get their information about the child from
gossips among the staff and children at the institution and
from the child and those who come to visit him. However,
an increasing number of child-caring institutions provide
careful case work on their admissions and discharges. In
these more progressive institutions we may look for an ex-
tension of children's case work in the careful use of the
child's history by those who live with him.

The transmission of social data to the cottage mother con-
fronts us primarily as a project in adult education for child
training. The cottage mother must achieve a professional
attitude toward the child. In a case such as that of a boy
whose father is a thief and in prison, the cottage mother
must realize the necessity of side-tracking her own opinion
to permit a more objective understanding of his influence
in the boy's life. She should know that the father has
some excellent traits of which the son may be proud. If
she and her executive are alert they will consider carefully
hose details of the father's influence which may point to

a need for unusually patient and thorough training in order
to give the lad a wholesome understanding of property

Those who fear the consequences of telling the cottage
mother intimate details of the child's history must consider
the alternative. Like the small boy who hears a smutty story,
she will learn far too much through the avenues of insti-
tution gossip. This gossip will provide plenty of misinfor-
mation and an utterly superficial understanding of the prob-
lems most vital to those children in need of sympathetic
understanding. An extreme case illustrating this tendency
was found in a cottage mother whose favorite punishment
for older girls consisted of unsavory references to the frail-
ties of their parents. Only when the cottage mother has an
intellectual appreciation of a child's resources and deficiencies
can she adequately guide her emotional reactions in dealing
with behavior problems.

Procedure in transmitting information to the cottage
mother must be worked out on a common sense basis with
due regard for the differences in the capacity of em-
ployes. Usually it will be best for the executive (or the
supervisor of case work in a large institution), with the
case record before him, to spend half an hour or more in
conference with the cottage mother who is to receive the
child. In the small institution this may be done on the
day the child is received. In a large institution such a con-
ference may be held before the child is transferred from the
reception cottage to the cottage in which he is to live. In
some instances it will be well to have the woman in charge

April 15, 1927


of the reception cottage also present at the conference. She
may be able to supplement the child's history with her
recent observations.

Following this initial conference it will be well to inform
the cottage mother whenever new information becomes avail-
able. Possibly it will promote efficiency if the executive
plans a monthly case conference with each cottage mother
to give her new information on each of her children. Of
course it is up to the executive to outline the educational
situations inherent in each case. Women who are incapable
of making constructive use of such material must be ac-
counted unfit for the exacting work of the cottage mother.

What information, if any, should be withheld from the
cottage mother? In view of the severe punishments society
bestows upon mother and child, the conference round table
agreed that the fact of illegitimate parentage should be
withheld unless the mother of the child wished to have the
cottage mother know this fact. Some felt that we should
withhold information pertaining to unusual sex experiences
which involve the child. However, a majority was inclined
to have such data carefully but completely presented to the
cottage mother. The lack of just such information often
leads to unsympathetic and ignorant treatment of the child
by the cottage mother. Sometimes these cases are very hard
to handle in a constructive way and often they need our
most intelligent treatment. Certainly this fact only em-
phasizes the responsibility of the institution employe for
helping the child to a more hygienic understanding of sex.

In reply to the familiar argument that family history is
so confidential that we should try to forget rather than
remember the child's past, it may be urged that the success-
ful cottage mother attempts to carry on when someone else
ceases training the child. It seems unfair to her and doubly
unfair to the child that she should be kept in the dark. In
many ways the cottage is an institution within an institu-
tion. It is important that the person in charge of each
should know the children under care as intimately as possible.

Social Work in Berkeley


recently published Study of Social Work in
Berkeley, by Margery Carpenter, Agent of the Com-
mission of Public Charities of Berkeley, Cal., is as com-
prehensive an effort as I have seen to "see social work
whole" in a single community. Each social agency which
serves Berkeley is listed, state, county, city and private, and
the character and amount of its services, the amount and
sources of its income, and the methods of its administration
are shown.

The unique contribution of this study is the completeness
with which the field has been covered. Miss Carpenter has
made a careful study of the philanthropic activities of
churches, fraternal and veterans' organizations, national
societies and men's and women's clubs. The cost of the
philanthropic activities of all these groups was $21,750 in
1925, only eight per cent of the cost in taxes and contribu-
tions of the recognized social agencies, or 2pc per capita
for the population of 74,000.

Another interesting section of the report describes the
integration of public and private agencies. The Berkeley
Welfare Society for instance, operates under a volunteer


board of fifteen Berkeley residents. It administers most of
the case work of the community and receives support from
the state, the county, the city and the Community Chest.
In a similar way a wide range of health work is centralized
in the Berkeley Health Center which is supported by and
responsible to the county, the city and the Berkeley Com-
munity Chest.

The ability to cooperate is further illustrated in the
Alameda County Welfare Council, an official board of nine
unpaid members appointed by the Board of Supervisors.
This Council supervises the administration of county relief
through the local private agencies. A similar County
Institutions Commission provides for the indigent sick
through hospitals and health centers, of which the Berkeley
Health Center is one. A central County Health Center
provides special diagnostic and treatment facilities to supple-
ment the local centers and administers the County Social
Service Exchange as well.

The study closes with an impressive record of progress
over the past ten years, and emphasizes the opportunities
for further progress indicating especially the need for the
development of social research. Miss Carpenter quotes
figures to show that California is a state in which the
population as a whole is economically favored and points
out that, "In such a state there should be a decreasing need
for relief with a corresponding increase in the amount avail-
able for social undertakings, the benefits of which are shared
by the entire population."

DURING 1926 the New York State Legislature raised the
lowest age at which a girl can be married from 12 to 14 years!
To wipe out the blot of "child marriage," the Legislature has
now been asked to raise the minimum to 16. Recently the
State Charities Aid Association and the League of Women
Voters cooperated in a study of marriages in thirteen rural
and urban counties since 1922, in which the bride was less
than 16. The results of 197 marriages, fully verified, and
tabulated by Mrs. William P. Earle, Jr., reveal three clear
conclusions: the majority were "forced" marriages, in which
pregnancy was usually claimed often falsely; the largest
percentage of these child brides were American-born daughters
of American-born parents ; and annulments and divorces are so
frequent a sequel when the bride is under age that the whole
procedure has become a sort of trial marriage. "The stigma
of pregnancy is attached to the girl often by ignorant parents,
believing this the only way to marry off a troublesome daughter.
License bureaus rarely care to risk refusal when the mother
alleges this cause for marriage, and priests and clergymen
alike have disregarded for the same reason the bride's lack
of legal age, and tied the knot." It is to meet this situation
that the present bill requires the consent of a judge, the hear-
ings to be in chambers, and the findings sealed. The men
are mostly unskilled laborers; the girls without occupation.
The wish to escape disagreeable homes plays a large part;
so also the parents' desire to put the girls to work, with the
understanding that marriage will evade the compulsory educa-
tion law. There are 343.OOO girls and women in the United
States who were married at II, 12, 13, 14 or 15 years of age,
with the consent of their parents, and since the last census, in
1920, successively larger numbers of child brides have been
added each year.


Educational Adventure

in a

Public High School



Lucy L. W. Wilson, Principal, South Phila-
delphia High School for Qirls; Ruth W anger,
History, M. Louise Nichols, Science, Olive Ely
Hart, English; Anna Besses, Rosaline Childs,
Esther Gimpel, Anne Qrolnic, Sylvia Kline,
Caroline Kramer, Pauline Mansky, Pearl Mar-
kowitz, Ida Mockrin, Sara Needleman, Helen
Smolen, Annabelle Stack, Pupils

Drawing by Rosemary Tempore of the Clan of 1927
This cooperatively written story tvon second prize in the Harmon-Survey Award in Public Education

THE educational adventure described below was
launched last June in an overcrowded, inadequately-
equipped high school. The pupils, three-fourths of
whom speak another language than English in
their own homes, vary greatly not only in back-
ground, but also in ability. Long ago, we began to group
and teach according to abilities, and we have had, probably,
more than average success with our lowest group.

The project that we are now reporting, however, is the
result of our strong desire to offer at least equal opportunity
to our Upper Group.

The Plan: The Teacher of History

A classic example of the project method is that of the
boy and the boat. Given the opportunity to build a boat,
the child will gladly learn to handle figures, measure ac-
curately, carpenter correctly. An arithmetic text, a drawing
course, and a term of manual training which to the boy's
mind would be dull and unprofitable on their merits, be-
come endowed with all the virtues, as instruments of his
desire to build the boat. The theory seems watertight,
although it is not so easy to apply it to less concrete
materials. A knowledge of history is a basis for under-
standing the present. And the present is undoubtedly that
with which youth is concerned. It is the history teacher's
"boat." The instruments in building of this boat are not
so evident. Our laboratory plan had shown new possibilities
of more organic cooperation among academic subjects. The
time was ripe, therefore, for a cooperative assignment for
our superior group of seniors. The topic which at once came
to my mind, and, having come, refused to admit any other,
was World Peace. What subject could there be in which all
were more deeply interested, in which many lines of thought
must take their place for consummation of the ideal?

Because we were afraid of losing the essence of our

program by distributing it too widely, we decided to initiate
our study through but three departments, English, science
and history. A brief tentative outline was drafted as follows:


The meaning of war

Causes and results of conflict

The great gifts of civilization in relation to war and peace

The basis of peace in mutual understanding

Mutual aid in the past

Elements of understanding and misunderstanding in the


The international point of view (two sides to a story)

Increase of understanding through information

Increase of understanding through international organiza-

Before school closed in June, the honor girls were offered
the opportunity to develop the project. They were told
that it would be heavy work, even though it might be
offered as a major in history and a minor in English and
science. There would be no extra credit, and no grades
would be given.

When school opened this autumn, the group again were
summoned. Fourteen seniors (two have since dropped out)
elected to try the project. Half of them took advantage
of the opportunity to drop a history course, while the rest
decided to pursue it in addition to all their other work.

We began with a study of the major wars of the past
hundred years, our aim being to discover in each case
whether causes justified the war, and if the terms of the
treaty of peace were such as would be likely to lead to
peace, or to further warfare. Of the fourteen wars studied,
the group was unanimous in feeling that the Russian
Revolution was justifiable as a necessary revolt against op-
pression. In the same way the Boxers and the Boers were


April 15, 1927



exonerated from blame. The feeling on the Civil War
was not quite unanimous, several girls thinking that secession
would have been better than the four years of bloodshed.
All other wars were held unjustifiable. An attempted study
of the relation between war and the great gifts of civiliza-
tion of all times has led us to consideration of William
James' Moral Equivalent for War.

When the group had been working long enough to get
their bearings and to acquire a feeling of homogeneity, they
set themselves the problem of working out their own course
of study, using the meagre outline given them at the begin-
ning as a basis for discussion. The result was the following
outline which they are now following in their reading and
discussions :

Meaning of war
Causes and results of conflict

The great gifts of civilization in relation to war and peace
Study great gifts
Review results of wars

See what historians, psychologists, philosophers, sociol-
ogists, and biologists say

(Review the theory of biological necessity of war)
Can there be understanding between nations?
Causes of misunderstandings
National characteristics
Racial characteristics
Color problem
Attempts at understanding
Gestures of friendliness, such as the United States

and the indemnity of the Boxer Rebellion
Are there common interests that can be developed to

better understanding?
Economic Interests
Money system
Government loans
Private loans
Tariffs and free trade
Raw materials

League of Nations
World Court
International law
Similarities in government
Text books

Exchange of professors

International Organizations
Newspapers, and current events periodicals

Government suppression
Peace Movements
Scout movement
Red Cross
Friends Association
Cultural Interests

Scientific interests
International conferences

Our bibliography is cumulative and is acquiring a cosmo-
politan aspect. To date it includes such texts as: Bassett's
Short History of the United States, Breasted's Ancient
History, Elson's History of the United States, Gibbons'

Europe since 1918, Gooch's History of Modern Europe,
Hayes* A Political and Social History of Modern Europe,
Hayes and Moon's Modern History, Hazen's Europe Since
1815, Paxson's Recent History of the United States, Robin-
son's Development of Modern Europe, Schapiro's Modern
and Contemporary European History, Wells' Outline of
History; such special books on the subject as Howe's Why
War, James' Moral Equivalent for War, Bertrand Russell's
Why Men Fight; and for the various topics of our outline
a miscellaneous collection including Baker-Crothers and
Hudnut's Problems of Citizenship (chapter on news-
papers), Scott's The Menace of Nationalism in Education,
Kilpatrick's Foundations of Method, Kropotkin's Mutual
Aid, Lippman's Public Opinion; Russell's Problem of
China; fiction like Barbusse's Under Fire, Forster's
Passage to India, Abdullah's Night Drums. Naturally, both
outline and bibliography will grow and change as the project

The girls are avid for reading matter and filled with
questions. Even the academically minded have become inter-
ested in the subject for its own sake. Now and then I am
startled by the maturity of thought and observation, not
only in relation to this project, but also in regard to the
educational problem in general.

For instance, one student has worked out a tentative
high school curriculum based entirely on project cores.
She says:

"Why not coordinate the units? In real life one doe* not
find a block of history, a block of science, a block of geometry,
each by its isolated self."

Another attacked the limited "sources" generally made
use of, and describing her own new experience, writes:



Dravnng by Sara Rice of the Clan of 1928



April 15. 1927

"A new and wider field of materials has been opened up
to us by which we not only profit, but from which we get
great joy."

Others have reported such personal reactions as these:

"I am experiencing a feeling of responsibility, self-confidence
and real enjoyment in being allowed to pursue a chosen subject
and to work out a course of study."

"I regret that at present the benefit of the course can be
shared by so few girls. We have a desire to turn over what
we are getting to other girls in the school."

"We have already advanced so that we can begin to evaluate
fair and biased authors, scholarly and popular accounts."

"I have been awakened to the realization that peace concerns
not only the leaders of the country, as I had always thought,
but every one in the country even me."

The reactions of parents and neighbors were illuminating.
Educated in pre-war Europe when the folk-schools, at least,
were the greatest factor in the spread of so-called patriotism,
many of them were enthusiastic and helpful.

"In where my grandfather received his education

such encouragement of individual thinking was unknown. . . .
This accounted for political narrow mindedness even among
thinking people."

The attitude of the girls toward marks is interesting:

"Much allurement has been added to the course by the fact
that the work is without credit. We are learning to work for
knowledge, not for grades."

Comments: The Teacher of Science

Our discussions were conducted informally, the group
sitting in a circle, free to question and to exchange opinions,
based on individual reading of books and magazine articles.
The militaristic argument that war is a necessary accompani-
ment of evolution and progress among living things, brought
these comments:

"Among lower animals there is no warfare in the human
sense. There is struggle, but it is the unconscious struggle of
an individual against a variety of circumstances threatening
his existence."

"In no sense does Darwin indicate warfare as it is known
to man. When we think of warfare we think of two groups
of men fighting against each other with weapons other than
those with which they were endowed by nature."

"The physically best men are first taken, leaving the weaker
to propagate."

"Physically man has not progressed since the days of the
Greeks, although there have been many wars."

Our discussion of mutual aid and cooperation among
animals and the part they play in advancing life interests
led to an appreciation of the fact that along with differentia-
tion of social life among animals has gone an evolution of
neural mechanisms and an accompanying differentiation of
instinct and intelligence. There followed an attempt to
distinguish between instinct and intelligence: to learn in
what ways human instinct links men with the rest of the
animal world, and in what ways human reason separates
him from the brutes. Quoting again from the girls:

"It is true that man is led by animal instincts, but he can
use his intelligence to control them."

"Men can control the food supply by scientific agriculture
and by extracting nourishment from otherwise inedible foods."

"It is possible for man to avoid the pressure of population
on food supply, for authentic statistics show that among highly
civilized nations even in times of peace the birth rate has a
tendency to decrease."

"The lower animals clash, they fight and devour each other
in jungle, wood and water. Still the animal is not so blood-
thirsty as some of the people we read about in history. Man
has misused his reason to intensify the horrors of warfare."

Comparison between animal and human evolution led

to the conclusion that their direction is not entirely similar.
Animals have developed individual strength, endurance, but
are on the whole weak in social development. The trend
of human progress, on the contrary, is social. Warfare is,
therefore, retrogressive rather than progressive. Quoting
again from the girls:

"Man still inherits the pugnacious instinct characteristic of
lower animals and that leads to conflict. But, since he has
developed much greater morality, a social virtue, it appears
possible that his keener sense of right and wrong should at
last overcome that which shows his relation to the beast."

"The low-browed, primitive, hairy man who survived through
brute force gave way to the man who appreciated and en-
couraged association rather than conflict."

"Modern men have outgrown many age-old practices involv-
ing conflict and injustice. Examples of this are piracy, slavery,
and duelling. War between nations may follow the same

"Man as a savage lived for himself. Later he formed tribes
living in little villages, then cities and states and last of all
nations. Why should not nations be able to form one huge
organization in which the nations' greedy desires would not
play an important role, but the good of all the people in the
world would be supreme?"

As a member of this group of eager learners, I have en-
joyed the earnestness and sometimes the naivete of their
search for truth. I believe they, as well as I, have appreciated

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