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the value of the attempt to coordinate learning, thinking,
and expressing in different branches.

More Comments: The Teacher of English

The tentative course in English planned for the Peace
Project was briefly this:

Literature: Novels, plays and poetry, dealing directly or re-
motely with war themes.
Composition: Precis of readings and of lectures.

Practice in interpreting, organizing, and presenting material

in the form of oral and written reports.
Practice in discriminating between fact and opinion in

The precis work has probably been the most helpful in
that it has made it easier for the girls to organize rapidly
the mass of reading the course has entailed and to grasp
more quickly the lectures they have heard.

One interesting by-product of the work has been the new
realization the girls have had that English is truly a tool
subject. The cooperative assignment has made it possible
for their English work to function concretely and directly,
at least in history and science.

So far we have not turned to the literature planned for
the course. It has seemed better to let the multitudinous
facts the girls are meeting stimulate their imaginations, and
to concentrate on making their technique in speech and in
writing support the heavy demands being made upon it.
Later we shall try to see something of the part emotional
literature has played both as war propaganda, and as an
outlet for the stimulations of mind and spirit which wars
have exerted on the men behind the guns.

A Last Comment: in Unison

It is too early for results. But this we know: These
students are constantly stimulating and guiding us in the
fine art of providing them, continuously, and continually,
with richer and intrinsicially more valuable content, with
greater responsibility, and with wider freedom. Our present
state of mind is humiliation for the past and hope for the
future, hope for our schools, and, more ambitiously even
than that, hope for the world.

An Experimental Summer School

ODERN experimental schools have long felt the lines of intellectual interest will be emphasized : the creative

pinch of rinding satisfactory teachers. The great
:rs' colleges turn out thousands of trained teachers
tach year, but that very training tends to unfit them for

arts, which are fundamental in creative education; close-
ness to nature, through the many and direct approaches of
the Manumit farm and the open country; the psychology

:xperimental schools. On the other hand, many free-lance of the experimental mood and processes, with continual

illustration from the school for children ; and the philosophy
of the whole experimental movement in education. There
will be constant interplay between the two schools; the
students in the senior school will be confronted by the real-
ities of children's experiences, and they
^^1 will be compelled to examine every
theoretical principle in the light of these

Henry R. Linville, director of Man-
umit School and president of the Teach-
ers' Union, will be general director of the
summer school, and will give the work in
the approach to nature. Elizabeth Gold-
smith, psychologist of the Walden School,
New York City, will have charge of
the psychological work in the whole pro-
gram. The writer will deal with the
philosophical implications of the move-
ment. Teachers for the junior school
have been selected from experimental
schools in and about New York City.

Recreational and social phases of the
program will not be neglected. The work of the farm
will deepen the sense of natural processes. The country-
side is filled with social and historical interests. The old

:eachers who have satisfactory emotional bases for work in
such schools have little if any capacity to translate those
smotions into the substance of a school's program for the
day or the year. Hence, the supply of satisfactory experi-
mental teachers is quite limited. This
>ummer, for the first time, the experi-

mental schools have been enlisted in the
task of providing for themselves the
teachers they need through an experi-
mental summer school to be held at
Manumit School, near Pawling, New
York, under the auspices of the Teachers'
Union of New York City.

There are always some teachers who
want escape from the academic when,
by chance, they have a free summer, or
when they want intellectual stimulus
without the need of accumulating credits.
This summer school is planned for them,
a place and a time of intellectual release
and refreshment in the spirit of modern
experimental practice.

There will be two schools at Manumit, a junior school
for children, and a senior school for teachers, organized
within a single program but each hiving its own tasks and
objectives. The children, limited to sixty in number, with
eight teachers, will have for two months all the advantages
of the best modern educational facilities with the free life
of the out-of-doors to boot.

The school for teachers, limited to twenty-five students,
will be specifically organized to help these students get the
experience and to do the thinking (as much as may be in
eight weeks) that will make it possible for them to become
experimental teachers in the best sense of the word. Four

Woodcut by Margery Wilson

farmhouse will be a center of the day's run of activities.
There will be occasional lectures along special lines, demon-
strations of special methods of work and instruction and
materials, conferences over week-ends, and a rich program
which will leave room for concentration of intellectual in-
terest on the part of the children, the senior students and
the teachers, too.

There will be no credits for this work virtue must be
its own reward. Fees for tuition and living will be moderate.

Vocational Guidance in 1927


IN connection with the meeting of the Department of
Superintendence of the National Education Association
in Dallas, Texas, the National Vocational Guidance Associa-
tion took stock of the advances made since 1908 when Pro-
fessor Frank Parsons opened the first vocational guidance
bureau in Boston. Emerging from the discussions were
several conclusions which may guide the further progress
of this movement. One was that in public education the
junior high school is the place where systematic guidance can
operate with greatest effect the place where all the youth
of the population can be reached. The age at which a pupil
enters junior high school is the time when he begins to
look upon life as it is lived by his elders. A great part of

this life is occupational activity; accordingly the child should
be given a view of the occupational world. One of the best
methods for giving this view is through a course in occupa-
tions. Reports showed that such courses are being given in
several hundred cities; in others, information about vocations
is given in connection with school subjects, particularly Eng-
lish and civics.

Second only to the junior high school as a strategic place
in which to give vocational guidance is the senior high school,
where pupils begin to specialize in the trades, commercial
work, or preparation for college. It was pointed out that
about 70 per cent of American high school pupils expect to
enter the professions, although barely 5 per cent of the gain-




April 15, 192\

fully employed population is engaged in professional work.
Obviously, there is dire need for giving high school pupils
information about other vocational fields. Since not all high
schools are now fulfilling this duty it was generally agreed
that the various functions of vocational guidance should be
carried on into college.

But the assembling and imparting of information about
occupations does not constitute the sole function of voca-
tional guidance. Other functions discussed were counseling,
granting of scholarships, placement in jobs and follow-up

In spite of the youthfulness of vocational guidance, it has
already reached the mature status of a distinct profession.
As one speaker expressed it:

Vocational guidance is not a job for amateurs, to be assigned
to a person just because he or she has a warm heart. It should
not be regarded as an adjunct to the teaching of English or
mathematics. It is not a side issue of the work of dean of
men or women. It is not a pastime to be indulged in during
odd moments by a school principal, vice-principal, placement
officer, registrar or attendance officer. Vocational guidance
is a distinct profession, just as independent as the work of the
physician, the lawyer, the nurse or any other highly specialized

One of the signs pointing to its maturity is the fact,
reported by George E. Myers, professor of education at the
University of Michigan, that 28 of 113 cities with a popula-
tion of more than 50,000 have officers in charge of vocational


guidance in their public schools. In many of the other 8
cities several functions of guidance are carried on but with
out central direction. Dr. Myers warned against placinl
responsibility for guidance in one of the already organize
divisions of a public school system.

Considerable attention was paid to courses for traini
experts in guidance. George E. Hutcherson of the
York State Department of Education described the stai
ards of professional preparation set up for vocational guid
ance counselors by his state. The speakers generally agreei
that training should be on a graduate basis; the curriculun
should not be a hodge-podge of courses in academic psychol
ogy, sociology, economics and the like, but consist of studie
based on a functional analysis of the work done by vocationa
guidance workers, including training in research and fiel(
work. Some kind of course in vocational guidance is giver
in approximately forty colleges and universities.

Throughout the discussion no one offered a cut and drie<
recipe for guidance. Tests for the determination of voca
tional aptitudes which, ten years ago were looked upon a
the most potent tool of vocational guidance, were not men
tioned on the program. The impression was given by all thi
speakers that vocational guidance can not work like a nickel
in-the-slot machine but requires a long period of scientific
study and the coordination of many agencies in society, al
directed toward the development of every individual to hi:
highest possible point.

TO promote "international friendships" between individuals
"as leaven in the heavy loaf of international prejudice," the
International Student Hospitality Association, represented in
this country by the Open Road, Inc., announces a series of
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ European tours for American

students during the coming
summer. The plan is an elab-
oration of the beginning made
last year when 200 American
undergraduates were, thanks to
this effort, able to travel abroad
not as tourists but "as one
might spend a vacation in an
American city visiting friends
and incidentally seeing the
town." Through the coopera-
tion of the Confederation In-
ternationale des Etudiants, the International Student Service
and the Deutsche Studentenschaft, these student travelers were
"invited guests at private homes, palaces and exclusive clubs,"
and enjoyed "dinners, formal balls, country dances, hikes,
theater parties, conferences and kneipes." Fourteen tentative
itineraries are announced, from the Grand Tour of our grand-
fathers to a hiking trip through Germany. All sailings are
student third-class. Details may be obtained from the Open
Road, Inc., 2 West 46 Street, New York City.

REMINDING us that mental tests cannot be taken as "magic
or infallible indicators of the thing called general intelligence,"
Virginia Taylor Graham, psychologist, of the U. S. Public
Health Service, who made extensive intelligence studies of
Negro children in Atlanta during the 1925-6 school year, sum-
marizes her findings as follows: (Public Health Reports, Vol.

41, No. 49) : "On various mental tests the Negro children, ex-
cept at early ages, made averages that are lower than the aver-
ages of white children. The discrepancy in test scores between
the races increases with age after the sixth year and become!
quite marked by the eleventh year. Variability of performano
within each of the races was found ... to be greater than th(
difference between the two. ... In most instances greater vari-
ability of performance is shown among the whites than amonj
the colored. This increases the probability of extreme cases ir
the former race; and since their means are generally higher, il
increases the probability of superior scores. The Negro group
on the other hand, tends to hang a little closer around theii
lower average. On tests of special performance ... the
Negro children seem to do better at rote and practical tasks
than at those that involve behavior which may roughly tx
described as discriminating, analytical and critical."

COMPLETE reorganization of American secondary schools
colleges and graduate schools, in teaching method even more
than in curriculum, is urged as necessary by President A. Law-
rence Lowell of Harvard in his annual report. He points oul
that "in America we have been teaching in college what oughl
to be taught and by methods that ought to be finished in the
secondary school ; and we have been using in the gradual!
school methods that should not be carried beyond the college.
It is partly for this reason that the American college youth, as
a class, has customs, immature modes of thought, an attitude
towards its diversions, and lack of a sense of responsibility foi
its own education that belong to school boys." President Lowell
adds: "The problem is one on which all colleges are working
and our contribution thereto and one in which we have reason
to feel encouraged is the general examination and tutorial


New Guises for Old Truths


*V""^HK church I know best is a small yellow brick
I building in a middle-western town. It is a bare
I little place, with light tan walls, "golden" oak
1 benches and sallow yellowish-green light through
the lozenge-shaped panes of its colored windows,
't is of a Protestant denomination so liberal that it makes
10 concessions to "popery" in the way of beauty or dignity,
never saw this church filled but twice, once for the funeral
)f a much-loved teacher at the little denominational college
icarby, again for the graduation exercises the year the high
chool burned. At the regular church services, to which I
vent weekly and sometimes twice weekly during the grop-
ng, restless years of early adolescence, I was always de-
ressed by the handful of people, by their middle-agedness
tnd tiredness, their dreary voices when they sang and their
numbling responses when they read. During the sermon,
kept finding myself far away, in some warmly colored
ittle New Orleans street when the bells rang for vespers,
n the rocks of La Jolla at high tide, walking up Fifth
\venue under snapping flags and an October sky. The
hing I came to church to find I could find only by a
reaming escape to some place of color and reality. That,
f course, is why so many of us who drifted to-
vard religion at twelve or thirteen gave up
be church experiment after a year or two
f baffled effort to make some sort of
ital contact with what it stands for
i human life.

The Harmon Foundation, viewing
lis situation in its community rather
than its personal aspects, points out
that "No matter what may be said to
the contrary, the Protestant church is
facing an increasingly difficult problem
in keeping up church attendance and
ictive interest in religious matters." It
adds : "This is not because people are ir-
religious or irreverent or dead to spiritual im-
pulses; it comes largely from the fact that old
eternal truths occasionally require new habiliments a re-
furbishing and sometimes entirely new clothing."

As an experiment in giving this needed "refurbishing"
to Protestant church services, an affiliated organization, the
Religious Motion Picture Foundation was incorporated a
pear and a half ago. The board of directors, which in-
:ludes several leading pastors and educators, felt that "beau-
:iful and reverential motion pictures, built on spiritual and
eligious subject matter, would add vital interest to church
;ervice if properly conceived and executed according to the
n'ghest literary, dramatic and photographic standards."

These pictures were to be used as part of the church service,
to illustrate and amplify the sermon idea.

At first it was hoped that religious pictures already made
by commercial producers might be distributed by the Foun-
dation. After careful study, however, it was felt that these
films, made for entertainment rather than "as a reverential
part of a church service," were not what either the Founda-
tion or the churches desired. Therefore, with an appropria-
tion of $50,000 from the Harmon Foundation, the new
organization began to experiment in producing films for
church use.

Because of the limited funds at its disposal, the Founda-
tion employed professional actors only for the leading parts.
In a little studio loft at Chatham, New Jersey, volunteers,
enthusiastic about the undertaking, made sets and costumes
under the leadership of an experienced director and then
took the parts of minor characters and "mobs" in the

The four pictures so far undertaken all illustrate New
Testament texts. In all four of them there is a representa-
tion of Jesus, possibly the first time that he has been por-
trayed on the stage except by some such conventional
symbol as a light or a voice. Two of the films
are one reel long to run about fifteen min-
utes, and two are of two reels. A pro-
gram of distribution has been worked
out with the Neighborhood Motion
Picture Service, Inc., 131 West 42
Street, New York, through which
the films are made generally avail-
able. A fee of $7.50 a showing for
the short films and $15 for the long
is charged, and in many communities
the distributors are able to furnish a
machine and operator to churches not
so equipped, for a small additional sum.
It is the belief of the directors of the
Foundation that churches should be


willing to pay for religious motion pictures as
for good music or stained glass windows. The films are
not produced for profit, but neither is the Religious Motion
Picture Foundation a charitable organization.

I recently watched a run of two of the films. They are
intelligently planned and directed, and they give a sense of
reality to the scenes they represent and to the ideas they

Whatever the church has of wisdom and helpful guidance
for the young people of American communities should be
made more directly available through this touch of vitality
and beauty in the conventional church exercises.


Less Competition in Missions


THE leading home mission agencies are making
progress in dealing with financial aid to compet-
ing churches in rural America. Three years ago,
when The Survey [June I, 1924] presented the
situation, Dr. Edmund deS. Brunner of the In-
stitute of Social and Religious Research estimated that of
$4,240,000 which Protestant churches were giving yearly
in home mission aid to some 20,000 rural churches a little
over $3,000,000, or 7 1 per cent, went to competing points.
While no similar estimate is now available, reports of the
home mission boards of the major denominations indicate
a change in the right direction.

The Methodists, largest of the denominations, withdre
aid from at least two hundred such centers during 192
The annual report of the Rev. Mark A. Dawber, super-]
intendent of their rural work, frankly faces the problem
and seeks to quicken the conscience of his church regard-
ing it. He calls for further withdrawal of aid to com-
peting churches and urges the use of such funds for de-
veloping non-competitive enterprises. "To continue the
present method," he says, "without any attempt at redress
is to invite a criticism that will culminate in the further
breakdown in missionary morale and the ultimate refusal
to support our missionary causes." Further, the rural de-

Not even the vernal seed catalogues give a sharper push to the imagination than the
enticing map which the Siwanoy Council of Boy Scouts has had drawn of its projected
camp in Dutchess County, New York. Purgatory appears in the lower right hand corner
but apparently it is unnecessary to indicate Heaven, for that is all over the place. The
Siwanoy Council includes 34 troops with 1,050 boys in the Pelhams, New Rochelle, Larch-
mont, Mamaroneck, Port Chester, Harrison and Rye. A gift of $14,000 has secured the
purchase of the 400-acre farm for the new camp, and the $75,000 fund needed to develop
it is being raised. Its brook is "alive with trout." When the camp is not in session in
spring and fall, it is to be made available to fathers and sons for week-end parties.

1 06

Ipril 15, 1927



artment's objectives, according to its latest report, specifi-
ally mention as one of its goals the "centralization of
hurches of our own denomination and the allocating of
erritory where other denominations are involved."

The Methodist Board a short time ago adopted the re-
tort of a special commission recommending the enlargement
if parish boundaries, interdenominational adjustments, and
>ther policies looking toward the development of self-sup-
[x)rt. It states that the scandalous evils of denominational
rxMnpetition in thousands of places must be eliminated and
he Methodist Church must accept the responsibility for its
lihare in the elimination. The Christian Advocate in en-
jiorsing this report, says that the motto of Methodism
In local communities must not be, "Don't give up the ap-
pointment," but rather, "Don't give up the Kingdom of

The Congregationalists, who have never been great sin-
Uers in this matter of competition, candidly list the very
[few competitive churches of their communion which are
Jstill receiving aid and state in no uncertain terms their
[attitude of opposition. In Montana, they have concluded
(arrangements with the Presbyterians for the exchange of
[twelve churches to avoid duplication and increase effective-
'ness. It is in Montana, by the way, that the greatest prog-
iress has been made by Protestant churches in eliminating
I waste of money and spiritual effort in over-lapping. This
| has been accomplished through the Home Missions Coun-
cil, of which the Rev. Elmer H. Johnson, a Congregation-
alist, is secretary. He says, "Where a village is found to
I have too many churches it is not because the local people
have said, Go to, now, let us have another church, but it
is because some traveling ecclesiastic has come in from the
outside to bag another organization. And he has come
with subsidies."

The Presbyterian Board of National Missions has gone
on record as being "unequivocally opposed to the use of
home-mission aid for the furtherance of competition." The
budget estimate blanks of the board now require that com-
petitive fields be especially listed and that an explanatory
statement be appended giving the reasons why aid should
be given. Although this board gives no figures as to the

number of rural churches from which the denomination
has withdrawn home mission aid because of their competitive
character, it says that it has made adjustments in a con-
siderable number. In response to our inquiry, the clerk of
the board, the Rev. H. N. Morse, writes:

There is not as much competition in our work as one would
be allowed to believe from statements appearing in various
periodicals from uninformed sources. . . . Our first problem
has been one of classification which is fairly well completed.
The second problem has been to get a report on general
procedure. This we hope is on its way to accomplishment
through the Home Missions Council. The third step would
be to secure adequate machinery for adjustment on the field,
and a good start has been made. . . . The fourth step would
be a far reaching educational program and the beginnings have
already been made for that.

The Baptists are less specific in regard to their recent
efforts in this direction. Their policy, so far as national
headquarters goes, is against it, but the initiative is left
to state conventions, the national home mission society
reserving the right to refuse an application for a missionary

Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 58) → online text (page 24 of 130)