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to a field already over-churched. Just how often this right
has been exercised we do not know. However it will be
remembered to the lasting credit of this society that it was
one of its representatives, Lemuel Call Barnes, who was
the moving spirit in creating and establishing the Montana
plan already referred to.

So much for the major denominations operating in rural
America where most of our Protestant churches are located.
An even more encouraging sign of the times is the number
of young seminary students who have declared that they
will refuse to accept appointments to competitive or over-
churched communities.

The problem of competition is by no means solved. It
may account for two million dollars a year of home-mission
money. But it is apparent that the largest and most in-
fluential of the denominations are now headed away from
it, in field work as well as in official speeches, and the
others will eventually follow. The conscience of the churches
is aroused. Some courage is being shown. The technique
and the educational process to make the thing effective will
surely come in time.

Sectarianism in Social Work


PART of the present difficulty confronting Protes-
tantism is the fact that various denominations
formerly (they have largely abandoned the theory
now) felt it necessary to have a church in every
village. Much reproach has been heaped upon the
church because of this competitive sectarianism. The villages
of America are just now trying to seek a way out of this
historic difficulty, and the church at large is struggling to
adjust itself to this widespread change.

So much the more unfortunate is it that social work
should to some extent make the same mistake. Many na-
tional social agencies apparently wish to establish their
work in as many counties as possible without due considera-

tion of the agencies already at work, and of the comparative
needs of counties less well organized. County A, which has
a county Y.M.C.A., seems to be generous and public-
spirited; therefore, we will try to establish a Red Cross
chapter with a paid secretary. County B, which has a Red
Cross chapter, seems to be generous and public-spirited;
therefore, we will try to organize work among the girls.
County C, which has an unusual record in the Boy Scout
field, seems to be generous and public-spirited; therefore,
we will try to organize family relief on a modern case-
working basis. The second enterprise, whatever it is, how-
ever worthy, may be the straw which breaks the camel's
back. A third may mean the collapse of all county work.



April 15, 192',

Of course the argument has been over-simplified above,
but not to the point of caricature. Is there any reason why
every one of a half dozen or a score of national organiza-
tions should have organized work in every county? Mani-
festly that is economically impossible even if there were the
interest to sustain the work otherwise.

The moral is plain. The solution begins to loom on the
horizon of social work. One would not expect a Red Cross
nurse to be a good Scout executive or a Y.M.C.A. secretary
to be a good school nurse. There are varieties of articles
which cannot be tied up conveniently in the same package,
and there are limits to human versatility and adaptability.
Yet there is a plain field in the rural sections for the less
specialized social worker. In fact, whatever the nature of
his work, the social worker who goes into a rural county,
finds himself first of all a sort of social engineer. His
technical task takes less and less of his time as he begins
to understand the community and the social problem of the
county as a whole. In the performance of his own specialized
task he pulls up the whole life of the county by the roots;
he must begin to understand the rootage.

In Sedgwick county, Kansas, for example, we have a
county Y.M.C.A. secretary, a farm agent, a home demon-
strator, and a Red Cross secretary. These are informally
associated in friendly fashion. There is also an indigenous
development of the Y.W.C.A. among highschool girls.
Doubtless there are other incipient developments of social
work. Many types of social need are not adequately met,
for its human needs and capabilities are as complex and
varied as those of Chicago and New York. Yet it cannot
be hoped that rural Sedgwick county should duplicate in
its organization and personnel the complexity of a metro-
politan area.

Social progress in rural Sedgwick county must be treated
as a unit. Those already at work in the field do wisely to
capitalize all the available resources, to analyze all the
unmet needs, and to plan patiently for symmetrical develop-
ment as funds and personnel permit. Best of all, they can
serve effectively by interpreting to the rural sections of the
county the agencies to which they can turn for assistance,
and to the city of Wichita the opportunity for education
and service which the county affords the city-dweller.
Doubtless the time will come when the ties which bind
city and county will be stouter.

LIT the county Y.M.C.A. secretary, Guy T. Gebhardt,
set forth his notions on this subject in his own words:

"In order that the agencies already on the rural field
should be able to do the service tasks not directly in their
line but much needed and thus avoid duplication and
overcrowding, two or three things seem to be established
as fundamental.

"The local community should be regarded as the unit
and should in a large measure determine the type of work
to be done. This would call for a community council of
some kind for study and conference. This council should
represent all of the elements interested in community build-
ing. They should not be "over sold" on a certain limited
program but should have a broad understanding of the
whole of community needs. This would call for some simple
but thorough survey which the existing agency, whatever
it was, could well direct.

"If certain clearly defined needs became apparent that
could not be met by the local leadership in cooperation

with the directing agency, it might be possible to secur
temporarily some technical supervision until local leader
ship had been developed to meet the situation. Just how
much such technical supervision would be needed would b
determined by this community council. In other words
the agency now in the field would carry the work of com
munity organization and conference and develop loca
initiative and leadership training, calling in technicians a
needed to supplement the county executive.

"If two or more agencies should seek to enter the county
those should be chosen which could best complement eac
other in the approach to the whole need of the county. On
agency for economic development, such as the Farm Bureau;
one for health and social service, like the Red Cross; an
one for religious education like the Sunday School Counci
the Y.M.C.A. or the Y.W.C.A. would make a splendi
team for the more progressive rural counties. They wouU
all work, of course, in close cooperation with the pubh
schools and the local churches."

A House For Mrs. Horse

DIFFICULT as it may be to get and keep a roof over
one's head in this civilized land, American tenan
may still be thankful that their lot is not cast in China
From F. S. Wickes, a Survey reader in Lintsing, Shantung
comes this account of a housing problem and its solution:

"Mrs. Horse is a widow with two young children. They
were living in one small room in a very dirty yard with
a public toilet draining down against their wall. The place
had been rented two or three years before, during the hus-
band's lifetime, and the lease had disappeared. Just before
Chinese New Year the landlord came to her and said she
must pay again for the place; he said he had had an offer
of eight dollars for it and she must give that or get out.
Her friends and neighbors were sure, as was she, that the
lease was not up for three or four months to come, but
with the document lost she had no defense there. They
also agreed that the price was absurd for such a poor place.
But the landlord was a Mahommedan, and well known as
a mean old fellow.

"So Mrs. Horse came to her employer (she is sewing
for a missionary family) and asked if she might borrow the
money, as her wages would not cover extras like this. Her
employer asked what length of time a new renting at $8
would cover. Well she did not know; he had not said.
Her employer would loan the money, but only after all
such points were made clear. A couple of days later she
came with the smiling information that others had talked
with him and he had reduced the price to $4. For how
long a time? one year? two years? Well, he had not said,
and he refused to draw up a lease. Very well, no lease,
no loan. She again approached him and returned tearfully
to say that he told her that she shouldn't dictate to him
and she could get out, the sooner the better.

"Where could another place be found within reasonable
distance of her place of work? There was nothing, noth-
ing. Red eyes and melancholy looks. Somebody had a
bright thought: Ask Mr. Fish! He can find a way if
anybody can.

"In a few days Mr. Fish had found a way, and a place.
This time it was two rooms, in reasonably good condition,
and in a clean yard with some good old ladies and a
widowed daughter or two, and not too far away. Smiles
now. Mr. Black himself called on the employer (gray-

Ipril 15, 1927


carded and smiling and full of tales of his past magna-
imities) and brought the lease for inspection. There it was
11 in black and white on a paper two feet wide and three
eet long. The lady-employer was not sorry that her hus-
and was in bed with a slight indisposition so she had good
xcuse to retire with the lease and not be obliged to show-
er ignorance of such characters in public.

"Between them they puzzled it out. For the sum of 48
iao (about $8 Mexican) Mrs. Horse is to have the use
: the place for three years; she to maintain any inside
epairs, and the landlord any needed outside repairs, and

the roof-tree falls the two parties to repair together; at
ic expiration of the lease she is to receive back what she
aid for it.

"How does that strike America? But in China money

so tight and interest rates so exorbitant 15 per cent a
onth maybe, or more that a man is glad to borrow
ithout interest and loan the use of his property in return."

HE OWNERS of a 230 acre farm in Allegany County, in
e southwestern part of New York State, offer it as a gift
a properly accredited philanthropic organization which will
e it for altruistic purposes. The farm has been in the same
mily for more than a hundred years; it has its own gas
ells, electric lighting plant, running water, two houses, barns,
rm machinery and electrically operated machinery for a fully
uipped dairy. It is 1,500 feet above sea level, on a main
st and west highway, and the main line of the Erie railroad,
le only restriction on the gift would be a control of the
oceeds of the sale of the property if the project should fail
after honest trial. Any interested organization is invited to
correspond with the Reverend Robert Grenville Armstrong, 103
Madison St., Wellsville, N. Y., giving the plans proposed for
the use of the farm and evidences of the purpose and backing
of the organization.

1927 is Tree Year in Camp Fire. With the aid of the United
states Forest Service a Tree Year Committee has worked out
a program of suggestions ranging all the way down from a

Camp Fire Forest
to setting a per-
manent Christmas
tree in one's own
backyard or mak-
ing a tree census
or a tree map.
The January is-
sue of The Guar-
dian, published by
Camp Fire Girls,
Inc., at 31 East 17
Street, New
York, carries a

:ull account of the program, including lists of trees suitable for
Wanting in each state and the names of persons interested and
ible to give advice and help to Camp Fire girls or others.

\S THE number of people increases, the tree population is
Ivvindling. To mark the semi-centennial of the first step in
orestry by the United States government and "to help the
:oming generations of Americans profit by the lessons of the
iast," the American Tree Association has issued an illustrated
'orestry Primer, telling the story which lies behind the alarm-
ng fact that the forests of the United States are being de-
troyed by catting, fires, and pests, four and a half times faster


forest areas are being regrown. Total printings of the
have already climbed past the dizzy heights of best
Hers to 700,000 copies, distributed by state forestry and

educational associations as well as from the offices of the
American Tree Association at 1214 Sixteenth Street, N. W.,
Washington, D. C.

GROWING communities of 2,500 population or over are
ranted to present their claims to a $2,000 award by the
irmon Foundation of New York City for the purchase of a
permanent playground, announces the Playground and Recrea-
tion Association of America, which will administer the awards.
Iwenty-three playgrounds at a maximum cost of $2,000 each
will be given by the Foundation in 1927, bringing to a total of
loo the recreation fields which this organization has helped to
secure since 1922. To be considered for an award, the com-
munity must show a growth of 30% or more since 1900.
Application blanks and complete information concerning the
terms of the offer may be obtained from the Playground and
Recreation Association of America, 315 Fourth Avenue, New
rork City.

FROM June 16 to June 22 the grounds of the Department of
Agriculture at Washington will be turned into a big camp for
some 200 young representatives of the boys' and girls' farm
clubs maintained by the Department throughout the country
in co-operation with the State agricultural colleges. Each state
may send two boys and two girls, and each delegation will be
accompanied by the member of the state agricultural extension
service who is in charge of club work. The aim of this Wash-
ington camp-meeting is to provide country-wide discussion of
the problems met in carrying out extension work in agriculture
and home economics with boys and girls on the farm, through
such projects as the corn, canning, poultry, cotton and similar
clubs, and of ways in which this work might be extended to
include more of the 11,000,000 young people in rural districts.
The seven-day program includes an allotment of time for fun
and sight-seeing as well as conferring.

THE ECONOMIC slump which lies behind some of the
problems which these farm clubs are trying to meet appears
in a study of farm real estate values recently issued by the
Department of Agriculture. At the crest of the boom of
1919-20, farm values averaged $107.89 an acre for the whole
country. In six years that average fell to $76.47. The decline
was particularly severe in the grain and livestock states of the
Middle West, in several of the Mountain states and certain
cotton states. Sharp increases in farm values were found in
the Texas Panhandle where cattle ranches were converted into
cotton farms, and in western Kansas where there was a shift
from grazing to wheat-raising, aided by the development of im-
proved power machinery. The Department estimated for the
various states the number of farms which changed hands dur-
ing the year ending March i, 1926, because of mortgage fore-
closures, bankruptcies, defaults of contracts, or sales to avoid
foreclosures but not including forced sales for taxes. These
averaged 17.26 per looo for the whole country, ranging from
4.94 in Massachusetts, where farm values have been rising, to
about 26 per 1 ,000 each in Minnesota and Iowa, 39.56 in
Idaho, 46.25 in North Dakota and 52.49 in South Dakota.

Cover design showing an old style case of type, by Piero Bernadini
for II Risorgimento Grafico, the leading Italian typographic magazine

Books in Our Alcove

Watch -Tower Views of Cooperation


William J. Norton.
The Survey.

Macmillon. 373 pp. Price $3.00 postpaid of

THIS question of Federation in Social Work, which
was sometime an issue in the United States, still
troubles those who do not see far. These perish-
ing souls need not so much a magnifying glass
with which to see the minutiae of the great phe-
nomenon, but rather a watch-tower from which they may
look north, east, south and west. For the first time in the
history of social work they have it. For though Mr.
Norton in his exhaustive treatment has not neglected the
detailed mechanism of cooperative organization, his most
telling stroke is the assembly of all aspects and angles of
the subject into a single perspective. In his hands cooper-
ation stands out clear against a background of nondescript
charitable effort and undeveloped public consciousness.

With painstaking care and eminent fairness he sets out the
historical development of the modern federation through the
associated charities and the charity endorsement movements
to the beginnings of joint financing. The profound influence
of the war he explains with rare insight into those values
which the nation in general and the social worker in par-
ticular have found it so hard to appraise.

Mr. Norton's book rises distinctly above the level of a
mere argumentative discourse in favor of federation. Though
he is admittedly a federation man, and foremost, perhaps,
among them, he goes to great length in setting forth the
riddles and obstacles which have beset financial federation and
which still face it in the process of evolution to complete

The chapters on Enlarging and Improving the Standards
of Social Work set out evidential facts fully establishing the
conclusion that not merely in finding more money for its
constituents has the federation served, but also largely in
the expansion of sound case-work and the setting up of stand-
ards of efficiency. He says :

An agency entering a federation is like a boy graduating from
college. Hitherto he has been dependent upon father and
mother and the great love they bear him for his progress. Now
he is thrown into the hurly-burly of life, to win or lose accord-
ing to his capacity to change an indifferent public into an ad-
miring and helpful support. He passes from the protective
circle of a family into the maelstrom of life where merit is
the great test. Federation turns organized social work over
from the safe keeping of a few fostering relatives to the mercies
of the great public. It is a mighty test that any agency worthy
of the great calling of social work should be glad to welcome.

The profound influence of the cooperative movement upon
the individual charitable or social work effort is becoming in-
creasingly apparent. Heretofore we have quarreled over the
superficial results. Would it dim the eyesight of our fond-
est patrons? Would it make us so dependent that if it
ever failed we must die with it? Would it take away our
chief activity, the anxious scramble for contributions? We
have not looked up and away to discern the public well-
being as a great objective; and so we have missed the far-
reaching influence of the federation movement. Of its future
the author says, "We are only in the beginning of an in-
fluence upon social work that will be as profound in the

1 10


i-eation of a scientific background as the influence of the
st generation was profound in the creation of a popular
ill to establish the system and the mechanism for the allevia-

on of human misery, and an approach to social justice."
The author explains in detail the theory of the central

udget, the campaign method of raising funds, and the finan-

!al results of federation to date, but "after all," as he ex-
ains it,

is not a method that we seek first, but a purpose. The pur-
o*e is a union of the scientific approach to humanism, and the
nritual urge giving humanism vitality, into an understandable,
sponsible system sufficiently dominant to permit the scientific
(proach to work itself into an economic and wasteless method,
id sufficiently pliable to permit the simple spiritual element
; sympathetic love to knit the rank and file of men and women
tto loyal devotion to the system.

For those who linger on in older philosophies and doubt
w soundness of federation, this story of the inception, growth
nd present condition of the movement will 'be a revelation,
those who, fully convinced of the logic of federation
nd alert to its values, see that it has now passed its cotyledon
tage and is about to put forth real leaves, but what leaves
ey cannot foresee with clearness for these, too, this is a
reat book, since it assembles the products of the movement
There they may be seen together. If a glimpse into the fu-
ure is to be vouchsafed to any of us, it should be offered
y this work. ROBERT W. KELSO

Boston Council of Social Agencies

Our Interwoven Progress

SOCIAL PROGRESS, by Ulysses G. Weatherly. Lippmcott. 388 fp.
Price 13.00 postpaid of The Survey.

DNE mode in sociology is the philosophical, formulating
presuppositions, synthesizing the results of separate
iquiry and projecting into the unknown. A second is the
cientific, painstakingly and objectively analyzing more or less
istinct factors and processes, testing hypotheses rigorously in
e attempt to learn what "society" is and "how it got that
ray." A third is the technological, the development of tech-
iques for control and programs for social action. Professor
Veatherly's new book must clearly be judged as of the
hilosophical type. He says in the preface:

I have no single philosophy of progress; in fact, I shall have
written in vain if I have failed to make clear that I believe
there is no single principle of progress. Hence, this is no guide-
took for promoters of pinchbeck reforms, any more than it
is a "glad" book for the use of booster organizations and other
professional optimists. If there be an undertone of pessimism
In it and I doubt if any thoughtful student of social evolution
ever quite escapes the pessimistic note perhaps this may help,
however slightly, to counterbalance the flamboyant worship of
hnere bigness to which we are all addicted nowadays. . . . What-
kver modest lesson I have here attempted to inculcate is summed
up in this: that social movement is an endlessly changing fact,
|and that adaptation is a process that is never finished.

Professor Weatherly gives a rather well-balanced state-
ment of outstanding factors in social change and existing
attitudes toward change. Yet his acceptance of the term
"progress" is itself a handicap in his effort to be "objective"
and "pragmatic." While he raises the question: Who or
what is to decide whether a given movement is progressive?
and while he insists that "what we are concerned with is not
progress but progresses;" he also talks about "the highest
type of personality," "the true value of a society" and "some
far-distant future end." His frequent use of the word
'should" indicates that he is after all presenting his own


personal philosophy of life not that there is anything ob-
jectionable about this. On the contrary, most readers will
agree that his is generally a wholesome point of view. There
is hardly anything in this volume which has not been effect-
ively presented elsewhere, though the ensemble is unique.
University of Kansas STUART A. QUBEN

Light for Laymen

SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, by Robert Ctoutman DtrHr. fmff.
424 pp. Prtce $5.00 postpaid of The Survey.

THIS volume is not presented as a treatise for profes-
sionals but for the college students who will one day
be the men of affairs, or for laymen who want a practical
descriptive work on social pathology. The layman the author
has in mind is the man who is generally asked to dig down
to put over programs of social adjustment. When Mr.
Dexter was a social worker he seems to have learned that
if there is anything the layman needs more than all else it
is light that he may know when to dig deep and when to
pass up. While most of these men and women of affairs
are the products of the university they do not seem to have
received much of a comprehension of social problems from
the social science to which they were exposed.

The book is simple, direct and entertaining without stoop-
ing to jazz or sloppy sentiment. It is generous and sym-
pathetic, yet free from ranting about evils and reform. The
chapter on "The Century of the Child" another on "Thwart-
ed Childhood," and a later one on "Sex and the Family"
have taken frank hold of the problem of the child, the

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