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of the symposium, has written the preface and the conclud-
ing chapter, this last containing a summary of the proceed-
ings and his reflections upon the discussion.

The contributors to the book are old friends to those who
are familiar with the literature of social work. They ap-
proach the subject from four directions, each speaker start-
ing from the background of his own experience:

The Goal of Social Work for Children: Edith M. H.
Baylor, Hans Weiss, Joseph Lee, George P. Campbell;

The Goal of Social Work for Adults: William Ernest
Hocking, Ethel Ward Dougherty, Elliott Dunlap Smith ;
The Goal of Social Work for the Aged : Annie Lockhart
Chesley, Christine McLeod, Francis Bardwell;

The Goal for Social Workers in Training : Lucy Wright,
Eva Whiting White, Katharine D. Hardwick.

However varied the approach, all the speakers arrived
at the same conclusion. The goal of social work is the
liberation of the human spirit so that it may have life and
have it more abundantly. To quote Dr. Cabot, it is "the
relief of misery and unhappiness so that people's enfranchised
and organized desires can find their expression in the social
relationships which are part of their natural outlet." It is,
however, not all suffering but
only that which enslaves against
which the social worker cam-
paigns. "The mile-runner at the
three-quarter point is suffering
acutely in body and often in
mind also. But he wants no aid
and would never think of himself
as entangled. He is freely carry-
ing out his own will and, if he
is in the lead, would not change
his lot for any other's."

The purpose of social work in
freeing people is to enable their
"fundamental desires to seek and
find their full satisfaction" in
cooperation with their fellows.

The new inmate is welcomed. From Poorhouse
Sweeney, Boni Sc Liveright

These fundamental desires Dr. Cabot speaks of a centn
Master Desire are variously defined. Mr. Campbell quoti
a boy who said, "I want to be of some account in til
world," "I want to be great." Dr. Cabot describes th
Master Desire as the desire to be "in it, to find one's plac
and to do one's part and thereby to be somebody." Mr. Lt
says that "the North toward which the human soul is si
is beauty." Mr. Bardwell finds that "our real quest is t
find the life of God in the souls of men, each of us helpin
in his own way to remove various obstacles, so that the dooi
of the kindred soul may be open to the outer vision."

Each of the contributors, indeed, has his own way c
describing the goal and the Master Desire so that it woul
be surprising if out of this variety of approach the reade
could not find that expression which would coincide wit
his own feelings. The Goal of Social Work is to be recom
mended as a source book of inspiration both to social workei
and to others interested in the religion of social work.


Family Society of Philadelphia

Poorhouse Sweeney

POORHOUSE SWEENEY, by Ed Sweeney. Boni Sr Liveright. 178 p4
Price $2.50 postpaid of The Survey.

HERE is a unique and interesting book, written ant
illustrated by an inmate for six years of an almshoust
in one of the central states. The writer, a cripple, unable t<
earn his own support and unwilling to be a burden upon rela
lives with small means, applied for admission to the count;
poorhouse, which he obtained after long and irritating delays
Many official reports have described the squalor, miserj
and unhappiness which afflict the more intelligent and
decent inmates of many almshouses. The Loyal Order oi
Moose has recently published a book on The American
Poor Farm and Its Inmates, by Harry C. Evans, which

describes wretched conditions ir
hundreds of poorhouses in all
parts of the country; but it fails
to give credit for the kindly
spirit and the ameliorative condi-
tions which prevail in a con-
siderable number.

But Poorhouse Sweeney is the
first autobiography ever written
by a poorhouse inmate, and he
has produced a gripping story in
which for the first time is re-
vealed the actual experience of a
human soul subjected year after
year to the conditions under
which Sweeney lived a story
equally interesting to the social


\iy 15, 1927


.dent and the reader who is looking for unique aspects
human life.

'he publishers have printed the book in its original
lied and ungrammatical form and have illustrated it
a series of cartoons, without artistic merit but both funny
d illustrative, drawn by the author. The crudities of the
intensify its human interest and its verisimilitude. It
rtrays the every-day life of the mongrel group which
pulates the place: the victims of misfortune, the cripples,
e imbeciles, the senile, the worn-out drunks, the retired
iminals, the vicious women, the victims of loathsome
herded together without classification. The author
:tures the superintendent and his staff: incompetent, un-
,ined, ill-paid, overworked ; made responsible for the most
ult and hopeless people in the community, whose proper
re and discipline would tax the wisdom of the most
mpetent administrator.

The story is sordid, often vulgar, yet Sweeney as racon-
ur is interesting, at times fascinating. There is much that
likeable about the little man, for, although he is full of
;otism and always portrays himself as hero in the incidents
describes, he shows a human quality and a chivalrous
>irit in the care he gives to some of his fellows who are
orse off than himself ; and he shows a manly disposition
do his part in the work of the institution notwithstand-
g his handicap.

Open the book where you will and you will find something
nmediately arresting and often exceedingly amusing. Hu-
lor and pathos are close together. The tales here unfolded
ix the credulity of the reader, but the writer of this review
as witnessed similar conditions in many almshouses, and
H.t. Evans' recent book reveals corresponding evils even at
lis date. Theodore Dreiser read the proofs of Poorhouse
weeney and was moved to write a foreword in which he
haracterizes it as "a human document . . . not only inter-
sting but refreshing. A great book? No. Yet a very
xceptional one. And but for the lack of poetry, a great




Russell Sage Foundation

On Probation

544 pp.

Charities of New York, 477 Madison Avenue, New York.
Price $3.00 postpaid of The Survey.

THAT the probation service offers, or should offer, a
profession of great dignity, one calling for special knowl-
:dge and for the exercise of high abilities, has long been
recognized by all who have studied its problems. And yet
the writings having to do with this work have been only
fragmentary, dealing generally with its principles or with
certain of its more specific details. No other department of
social endeavor has so lacked expression. The publications
of the National Probation Association have been practically
the only source of authoritative knowledge, either of prac-
tice or theory there has been no one book to which one
might turn for a complete exposition of the probation ideal.
But this book has now arrived. Moreover, the presentation
of Probation and Delinquency is that of a realized ideal ; it
is the description of a practice that has transcended the usual
stultifying influences and is now in actual operation.

Through the generosity of the Catholic Charities of New
York, advised by the wisdom of His Eminence, Cardinal
Hayes, and assisted by the latter's able secretary, the Rev.

Robert F. Keegan, there was developed in the Court of Gen-
eral Sessions of New York a department of probation with
one end only in view, namely, that of testing fairly the pro-
bation theory. This work was given entirely into the hands
of Edwin F. Cooley, Professor of Criminology at Fordham
University and Chief Probation Officer of the Magistrates'
Courts of Greater New York, a former President of the
National Probation Association, a man with some twenty
years of experience in the organization and direction of
probation work. The choice was a happy one. Indeed, the
two year experiment of the Catholic Charities proved so suc-
cessful that now, with the endorsement of all concerned,
judges and observers, its accomplishments are being con-
tinued, under the same chief, as an integrated and permanent
part of the city's administration of the criminal law.

Mr. Cooley is to be congratulated. His task has been no
easy one. Here was a court, the oldest criminal court in
North America, dealing only with the most difficult of crim-
inals, with adults under indictment for felony, and yet he
has succeeded. And his book tells how. In its over five
hundred pages, all aspects of adult probation practice are
covered, along with much of delinquency in general, its
causes and prevention. There are analyses of environments
and studies of personalities and of methods of adjustment,
all illustrated by carefully presented case studies from the
department's records, and there are descriptions of organ-
ization and administration, given in detail. Nor does it
matter that such a highly elaborated and perfected system
is possible only to a few of our larger communities even
the solitary probation worker in a rural district will gather
from this book both inspiration and suggestion. And it is
all encouraging. Here is proof that excellence may emerge
even in a land so politics-ridden as is ours. If a court in
New York can actually accomplish so great a social advance,
there should be a general revival of hope and endeavor.

But this book should be read by all who are socially curi-
ous not only by the social workers of the court. As it
seems to the reviewer, probation has been rather sadly
neglected by the general social-work world. Here is a de-
partment of welfare having to do with the failures of the
other departments. When children's aid has failed, and
parental guidance, and "better homes," and "better hous-
ing," and "better schools," and "better health" then pro-
bation steps in. Surely, the study of one's failures should be
valuable, and surely, too, one should be interested in knowing
this final effort of society, this which aims to prevent these
failures from needlessly passing through the hope-abandoning
portals of our prisons. Surely, without such knowledge
one can legitimately claim only a partial education.


The Immigrant and Business

The Survey.

THE first of a series of investigations relating to the
economic phases of immigration and emigration, this
study by Dr. Jerome deals with but one phase of the subject
that is, the relation of immigration and labor supply to
the varying needs of industry. In hearings before the House
Committee on Immigration and Naturalization held in 19:
when the question of restrictive immigration legislation was
being discussed, it was testified that there was a labor short-
age in practically every industrial activity amounting t



May 15, 192

less than 5,000,000 men. On the other hand, in 1921, with
the enforcement of the first Quota Law and the advent of a
period of industrial depression, it was necessary to call a con-
ference on unemployment to consider measures for the relief
of from "four to five million unemployed." Such paradoxi-
cal incidents demonstrate the need for the series of studies
contemplated by the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Dr. Jerome has set out to ascertain a solution to two
very important issues, namely; to what extent fluctuations
in migration are attributable to fluctuations in unemploy-
ment, and to what extent fluctuations in immigration are
ameliorating or aggravating influences in employment and
unemployment situations.

It may seem a bit obvious to comment upon the amount
of careful statistical analysis which an intensive study of
this nature requires and which Dr. Jerome has so adequately
contributed in an effort to arrive at safe and scientific con-
clusions. Students of immigration who feel as if they have,
during this post-war period, been living in a cyclonic whirl-
wind of emotional and racial prejudice will welcome with
relief the moderate, coolly analytical statements which sum-
marize Dr. Jerome's findings.

That there are both strong cyclical and seasonal move-
ments in immigration and emigration, and abundant evi-
dence that when immigration is not restricted, the char-
acter of the cyclical variations is closely similar to the cycli-
al variations in employment opportunity in the United States,
is one conclusion which is clearly demonstrated according
to Dr. Jerome. Similarly, a period of depression in the
United States is automatically accompanied or closely fol-
lowed by a decline in immigration and an increase in emigra-
tion; and a period of prosperity by an increase in immigra-
tion and a decline in emigration. However, there are vari-
ous exceptions and qualifications found which must to some
degree modify these conclusions. . . . On the whole, the
changes in migration are more erratic and more violent than
those in industry.

To the reviewer, it would seem that even in a study which
is restricted to migration and labor supply, other social
factors must be taken into consideration, namely; to what
extent the domestic factor that is, family relations affects
migration; political and cultural upheavals, too, necessarily
play an important role. This is evidenced by Dr. Jerome's
finding that even in periods of depression, when employment
is slack and immigration falls off materially, it never ceases

Lastly, Dr. Jerome concludes that migration is a con-
tributory factor to the evils of unemployment and that in
those portions of depression periods in which there is a net
immigration, even though there is a decline in immigration,
migration is putting into industry more men than it is taking
out. He therefore concludes that the very fact of a known
source of additional labor available through increased im-
migration in boom periods has probably lessened the pressure
for regularization of industry. If the United States con-
tinues its present policy of restrictive immigration for an-
other decade or two, only then will it be possible to ascer-
tain whether industry can be regularized with a static labor
group, for as long as there is emigration and immigration,
the labor supply is constantly changing to the detriment of
industrial conditions.


National Council of Jewish Women

Breaking Ground

THE second anniversary of New York's Welfai
Council emphasized the fact that its first task has bee
to bring the social service agencies into its membership I
enlisting them in appropriate functional sections. It is i
these functional groups that discussion of common problen
takes place. There are twenty-seven sections grouped i
four divisions. When the council's membership is complet
it will include a total of approximately twelve hundre
agencies. To date it reports 332 organizations in 10 sei
tions. Announcement was made by Robert W. de Fores
president of the council, of the chairmen for these sectior
so far as they have been selected: Frances Taussig, famil
service; John T. Little, care of seamen; William I:
Matthews, care of aged; Dr. Haven Emerson, health ed\
cation and administration; Elizabeth Stringer, public healt
nursing ; and Mrs. John S. Sheppard, medical social servio

The council has established for the social agencies a n
search and fact-finding bureau under generous grants froi
the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial and the Con
monwealth Fund. The major project of the Health D
vision is an inventory and stock-taking of the public healt
work being done under private auspices. A joint con
mittee of the United Neighborhood Houses and of tl
Welfare Council is setting up a plan for a study of tb
work of the settlement houses in the city.

One of the by-products of the council's study on hoi
persons in need of help reach the sources of assistance hi
been the conviction on the part of the agencies issuin
specialized social agency directories, some ten in numbe:
that a consolidation of directories would be desirabli
Through the cooperation of the Charity Organizatio
Society this consolidation is now going forward. As a resu
there will be published one directory of all the social r<
sources of the city, amplified in such a way as to be usefi
to the citizen and the social worker alike.

The Family Service Section has a number of significar
achievements to its credit. The initiation of the study c
the homeless, the consideration of the desirability of amalgi
mating the two Social Service Exchanges, and a plan fc
better cooperation between public and private agencies ai
among the most conspicuous. For some time a distinct nee
has been felt in the city for a central information burea
which could direct people to the resources of the city fc
the care of the aged. At the request of the council's Sectio
on the Care of the Aged, such a bureau is being establishec
A joint committee representative of six sections of th
council is considering the problem of the care of the chroni
sick. Another committee representative of three sections i
dealing with the question of how clinics and family servic
agencies can improve their joint services to their client!
The section of the Health Division on Administration an
Education is cooperating in city-wide plans for a toxin anti
toxin campaign. The section on Public Health Nursin
is developing a plan of study of maternal care.

William Hodson, executive director of the council
pointed out at the anniversary meeting that "if it wei
possible to assemble in one spot the entire problem of th
1,200 social agencies of New York City it would be see
that we are confronted here throughout the year with
disaster as great as that extending up and down th
Mississippi Valley today."



What Is a Social Work Executive?

III. Efficiency


FFICIENCY involves activity: but that is not its"
sole ingredient. Everyone has seen the ubiquitous
little executive who is always sputtering about with
a show of activity like a pup with more fleas!
The average workman is a slave to his job. He
ites it: lives for the hours he has away from it. Yet it is
thing he must do to live. It is hard, fcherefore, to keep
narging along with powerful, continuous stroke: and it is
ut human that the boss in a factory should pass along the
isle as a keel goes through water, creating in front and
bout him a great show of froth and activity which closes
i behind him, however, and lapses quickly into a state of
jspended animation.

To this observation of man in general, the social worker
no exception. If he differs at all it is perhaps in the pos-
ion of a little less sullenness, a greater desire to please
whom he serves ; a greater unwillingness to be thought
tile or lazy; and, to that extent, a little livelier conscience,
o he too belongs to the ranks of the fearful and will go down
ke a great northern diver if the boss but turns his head.
But bosses differ. In the world of industry the boss is
limself a servant to a corporation which in turn serves
nvestors. That boss must turn human skill and energy into
lividends. He is a driver. When he speaks, the gang must
ump. The corporation holds his job in the balance. If
ic makes dividends he may stay; if not, he is fired.

In the social work field the picture is different. The
arporation becomes only that indefinite organization which
ve call Society; which, though it sometimes exacts a terri-
ile reckoning, is for the most part indifferent and forget-
ul of the boss's very existence. The
Iriving spur is removed. The social cor-
ioration director is himself a volunteer,
naking no pelf or profit out of his ser-
vice, doing a turn for Society in his spare
hours, giving a divided attention and only
remnant of time. Very few directors
ever even call upon their executive. Few
read his reports, and often enough he
must follow his notices of meetings with
a round of urging over the telephone in
order to muster a quorum. It is a peren-
nial jest of non-profit-making organiza-
tions that quorums are always so small.
It must be apparent, therefore, that the
urge to sustained activity in the social
executive must come largely from himself.
And there is a still greater difficulty.

This is the third in a series
of three articles on the
Social Work Executive by
the executive secretary of
the Boston Council of
Social Agencies. The first,
Vision, was published in
the Midmonthly of March
15; the second, Leader-
ship, April 15. In later
issues there will be dis-
cussion in this Depart-
ment of Group Insurance
for Social Workers, and
Sick Leaves and Vacations.

The business director knows what his workmen should be
turning out. Likely enough he has himself been a work-
man and knows the whole gamut of his industry. The social
work director does not often visualize the job which his
executive is performing. "It is a sort of benevolent under-
taking, and blest if I know how the secretary finds enough
to do!" The trouble is a failure to see a picture of that
undertaking in terms of the public welfare. Hence it is that
almost every social work executive is teacher of an ungraded
class his directorate. This is his first task, to be kept at
relentlessly from day to day and from year to year. If he
is so minded he can make a sufficient showing of his hus-
bandry, with a little camouflage. If he is conscientious he
must teach his board how to appreciate his worth. He initi-
ates method to be translated by his directors into corporate
decree, for him in turn to execute through himself and staff.
Efficiency in the social work executive, then, demands
more than mere technical skill. He must have loyalty to a
high degree, and it is not enough that it be merely loyalty
to a cause in which he has faith. No executive has ever been
worth his salt who had no faith in his job and did it only
for the compensation. One can make widgets that way
not so well of course, but it can be done. The public wel-
fare cannot be so served. The artisan there must possess
a keen appreciation of the trust imposed in him by Society.
Though persons in authority may never come near him, he
must serve at the utmost of his skill, his loyalty, his con-
science. If he lets down, his work shows quickly the deaden-
ing effect. Given a man of vision, with the ability to lead,
it is reasonably certain that efficiency in management will
prove also to be one of his qualities: yet
the technical side of his qualifications
needs careful analysis.

The social work executive, like the doc-
tor, must keep himself posted to the min-
ute on new thinking and new development
in his field. An able executive reads con-
stantly, grounding himself in the philoso-
phy of his operation. What is the nature
of the problems with which he deals?
What is the basic reasoning of the social
order which he is working to defend and
improve? It is a sad comment upon the
intelligence of a self-governing people
that the most perfect zone of silence in
America today is the non-fiction library!
The habitue of a special collection of seri-
ous books is sure to have the habit of



A study of one hundred women who are wives, mothen,
home-makers and professional workers


Published by

Sold by


279 Park Avenue Price $1.00

Pamphlets on


Published by the Committee
on Dispensary Development

The Cornell Pay Clinic

Group Clinics

Medical Care for a Million People (Report of Six Years'

Work of the Committee)

Health Centers and Clinics Unattached to Hospitals
Health Services in Clinics

What Constitutes Adequate Medical Service?
Human Factors in Clinic Management
Relations of Medical and Social Agencies
Medical Social Terminology

These pamphlets will be sent to any address for 4 cents
postage each. Also list of other publications on out-patient
work. Address Michael M. Davis, Associated Out-Patient
Clinics, 244 Madison Avenue, New York.


You remember those Graphic articles about the
Peoples' High-schools in Denmark: The Plastic
Years, The Open Mind, etc.! Many readers asked
for reprints of these articles. Well, here they are!
Dr. Joseph K. Hart, the author, wrote a fourth
one in the series, and an extensive personal intro-
duction, and the whole story has now been made

Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 58) → online text (page 52 of 130)