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later, innovation the California program of adult educ
tion. The quotation is from stenographer's notes hither
unpublished :

Kate was, as she herself says, a natural born "parti
pator". . . . Nothing ever occurred in her immediate vicini
in which she did not long to take a hand and she usually i
take a hand. She not only carried her courses here and earn
$10 a month as director of music in the school, but she pa
ticipated in our simple social life and managed to build he
self into our little community. On Sunday nights she sat
the feet of her fairy godmother . . . who seemed very aged
me, although she was just 57 Mrs. Severance sitting und
her own shaded kerosene lamp, her hair demurely parted u
der a lace headdress, reading poems or extracts from the 1<
ters of her many distinguished correspondents; Kate at f
piano surrounded by the young people, and the quiet circle
friends. At 9:30 we disbanded; then, mated as we cho:*
we took the long, dusty road to our homes and I was so gl
that my home lay at the end of twenty blocks, for walking
air is divine. And speaking of love there was no end
falling in love with Kate: with her beauty, her music, and h
newness, she was more dangerous than a trained nurse ar
set up the temperature of the beaux of the village till nothi:
but matrimony would cure them. This stimulated marria
as it reacted exactly as sorrow does on widowers; other gii
caught them on the rebound and were happy ever after.

In those days when we furnished all our own entertai
ment, nothing better was ever produced than four nights
"Mrs. Jarley 's Wax Works," in Turnverein Hall, with Ka
as the Mrs. Jarley of Dickens and finally as an adorab
saucy Miss Jarley. This last so captivated Captain Ja.

iwford, who was in the audience, that he wrote her a
frteous letter inviting her to accept an engagement in his
lid West Show, if she would appear as an Indian princess.
ICate Smith, with her wit and her wisdom, her perpetual
kustry and activity, and her genius for cooperation, was able

so unfold her mind in this training course and child circle,

her intercourse with the Severance household and all that
commanded, that she was prepared for the career that lay

close to her; for shortly after the end of her year, when
L had opened her own kindergarten in Santa Barbara, Pro-
lisor Felix Adler chose her to open that celebrated school on
I.T Flat in San Francisco, the first free kindergarten west
I the Rockies because, as she writes, she was "the only
lidergarten teacher west of the Rockies." Here, by her teach-
\f and her writing, she touched the imagination of the public.

"I take some credit to myself," Mrs. Wiggin hersel'f

ote, "that when settlements and neighborhood guilds

:re as yet almost unknown, I had an instinct that they

rnished the right way to work. 'This school,' I thought,

ust not be an exotic, a parasite, an alien growth, a flower

beauty transplanted from a conservatory and shown un-

r glass ; it must have its roots deep in the neighborhood

e, and there my roots must be also. ... I must find, then,

e desired fifty children . . . and I must somehow keep in

)se relation with the homes from which they come." "

But her work was not confined to one kindergarten: In

80, Mrs. Wiggin opened the California Kindergarten

'raining School, writing and delivering lectures, writing

any educational articles, annual reports and appeals, a vol-

ne of children's songs and games. With translations into

lirteen languages, it is natural that her stories should be

lore widely known than the experience from which they


Those children of Tar Flat, she wrote, "set my life-
'ork to a tune which has never ceased ringing in my ears."
tnd it was only when her cherished cause was in need
lat she turned to the writing of stories. Both The Story
f Patsy and The Birds' Christmas Carol were pub-
shed for the benefit of the kindergarten. This was the
:ginning of the double thread that was woven strongly
irough her life to the end.

Miss Smith writes: "My sister was, it need hardly be
lid, one of those teachers 'by the grace of God' that
roebel describes. . . . Her students carried the torch she
ghted throughout California and its neighboring states."
In spite of delicate health and arduous work as a writer
id the dramatizer of several books, Mrs. Wiggin's in-
Test in children continued. She was vice-president of the
few York Kindergarten Association, was active in the
'hree Arts Club and in work among crippled children and
i babies' hospitals.

In these days of inward peering it is refreshing to find
ich an outward-looking person though the result is a
icord of the events of a lifetime rather than an intimate
impse of the writer's personality. (What sort of auto-
ographies, one wonders, will a generation of amateur
ychoanalysts produce?) Kate Douglas Wiggin was too
terested in life's happenings to draw a picture of herself.
Dr this reason, her autobiography and Miss Smith's Kate
touglas Wiggin As Her Sister Knew Her should be read
tgether. They are a charming chronicle of a life "over-
isy and over-full" of work and friendship and association
ith unusual people here and abroad of crowding inter-
ts and too little strength, and through it all, of joyous-
ss in the mere living of it; with its underlying purpose

M. P. S. K.

Viking in Three Worlds

PARL CHRISTIAN-JENSEN writes . ne w ep ic.

Piston forTf"" Norse man is his heritage; the same

It led him from the harbor oi\h\ [ t h\^ond\nob^ C
Danish port, set between bog and dunes, to follow the call
of the sea. It lures him still; it st i rs his blood; it salts
his book. So he becomes a Viking, to seek adventure in
three worlds: "the world of things, of feeling, of thought."
An American Saga tells the tale of a modern Leif Ericson
who traded old worlds for new.

His first childhood was lived in Denmark; his second
growth began in America. From the start life meant strug-
gle against circumstance. Poverty sharpened his senses and
need taught him values. Hunger stripped the world to
the bone. He spent his boyhood in all sorts of child-labor,
at spinning rope, stripping tobacco, stuffing seaweed into
mattress covers, and at other jobs. There were those rare
nights at sea when he helped with the catch and the nets.
He tells of the strange sailor folk who drifted in to the
Inn, where he worked as handy-boy. Raw scenes these,
brutal and instinct with power. But his thoughts were on
the sea, the tides drew him like the deep race current in
his nature. At twelve the Ugly Duckling took flight, as a
stowaway and again at sixteen he shipped as stevedore.
Two years after that a lad left the old country, for the
last time, outward bound . . . Carl Jensen discovers Amer-
ica and himself.

Here begins the second part of this drama. It is the
record of the "full, fast and friendless life" of a strong
young immigrant who slaved for food, shelter and an educa-
tion. Courage, energy and faith served as stimulus while
he worked as laborer, longshoreman and mechanic. He
shows us the slow and intimate process of his social growth,
the 'fusion between self and society. Night school and
Cooper Union became mediums to make thought articulate.

There follows that story within a story, of love in an
attic Attic indeed in simple beauty that gives us the
essence in words, of their quest into the future. "The
Passion Play of the Spirit" leads them on Carl and Marg-
aret Jensen through tracts of intellectual and religious ex-
ploring. Mates, they test each new phase, secure on a
basis of mutual impulses.

The university degree and a fellowship won, he plunges
into social work, studies the concepts of analysis and be-
haviorism, delves into clinics, goes South to write of con-
vict camps. He has done these things; he has brought
words to life. He has colored them with the variety of his
experience and "debunked" them by the add test of his
honesty. Beneath his effort to understand human values
we get the elements of the man who lays bare the viscera
of his abstract moods and concrete thought. As he peels
off the layers without, we sense the secret core within, of
Carl Jensen, humanist. He seeks the answer to the old
riddle of that larger life and its deeper significance. He
finds it in himself, through service. ... A quiet garden
overlooks our harbour. Carl Jensen looks out to sea and
sees his inner vision. HALLE SCHAFFNER



"Creating the Nev> World Outlook"

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Prof. Herbert Adams Gibbons, of Princeton, August 1-6

Six Lectures on "Nationalism and Internationalism."
Prof. John Herman Randall, Jr., of Columbia, August 8-13

Six Lectures on "The Making of the Modern Mind."
Prof. Samuel Lucas Joshi, of Dartmouth, August 15-20

Six Lectures on "Comparative Religion."
Prof. Kirtley F. Mather, of Harvard, August 22-27

Six Lectures on "Science and Religion."
Prof. William R. Shepherd, of Columbia, Aug. 29- Sept. 3

Six Lectures on "The Relations of the East and the

TERMS: 5 Courses, $25. 1 Course, $6. Single lecture, $1.50

GREEN ACRE INSTITUTE is designed to "make available
to the general public, through the medium of a summer school,
those findings of modern science and philosophy which tend to
supply a new basis for faith in the possibility of human brotherhood
and world co-operation."

The site is noted for its remarkable natural beauty and health-
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library, arts and crafts studio, theatre, dormitories and camps.
Bathing, boating, tennis, golf, etc.

Accommodations at reasonable rates.
Send for Illustrated Booklet today.

The Secretary,


48 West 10th Street New York City

(Continued from page 253)



Camp Tamiment, near Stroudsburg, Pa.

JUNE 23-26, 1927
Subject: "Prosperity"

Is it real? Certain sore spots. How do present living stand-
ards affect progressive trade union, political and educational
programs ?

Tentative list of participants includes Jacob Billikopf, Paul
Brissenden, H. H. Broach, Robert W. Dunn, Abraham Epstein,
Morris Hillquit, Jessie W. Hughan, Harry W. Laidler, W. Jett
Lauck, Algernon Lee, E. C. Lindeman, Robert Morss Lovett,
Isador Lubin, Benjamin C. Marsh, Israel Mufson, Scott Nearing,
Joseph Schlossberg, George Soule, Carl Taylor, Norman Thomas,
Willard Thorp, Bertram Wolff, J. S. Woodsworth, M.P.

For further information write to

70 Fifth Ave.. N. Y. City

The National School oj

The Young Women's Christian Associations f or
Professional Study

Graduate courses of interest to those wishing to pre-
pare for work with women and girls in social or religious
organizations, or for those desiring to enter Association
work as a profession. Single courses may be taken in
connection with graduate work at Columbia.

New York, N. Y.July 11- August 19
Berkeley, California June 21-August 6


For information address
East 52nd Street New York, N. Y.

quest for understanding of the part the rising generatii
must play in this new world. This central strain whi
runs through all the class discussions does not mean
dilettante dabbling in subjects which neither pupils n
teachers are equipped to discuss profitably; on the CO
trary, it is more thorough than most public discussions
that it takes nothing for granted but continually digs undt
neath immediate phases of the problem for yet deeper pro
lems that require further study. The aim is not to cor
to conclusions but to discover worth-while avenues of i

It is important at this point to remark upon a differen
between this development in Germany and most simil
movements in our own country. There is less conccr
seemingly, with the practical affairs of life the job, t
career in these educational ideas of the Hamburg groi
than would at once be evident in a similar group in ;
American seaport city. The notion that the desire of t
individual student to be personally successful must be inte
rated in a sense of social satisfaction seems to be abse
from their minds. Here, for example, I have before r
a volume written by them for a German Teachers' As*
ciation conference, in 1925; and among the topics d:
cussed not one deals with vocational preparation. No'
the answer is not that these people are visionaries but th
the educational concern has in the past been too much (
it still is here) with narrow specialization. The effecti
preparation for a vocation is taken for granted in the Ge
man educational system ; apprenticeship schools, technic
colleges and universities take care of it. It is taken f
granted, likewise, that the highest social good demands th
each individual make the most of his natural gifts. Co
trary to Germany's reputation, the perverted social philc
ophy of the "superman" often attributed to its industrial^
and business magnates, is not to be found anywhere amor
them today. Her educators can count on universal sympatl
in endeavoring to give every pupil a responsible, intellige-
attitude toward life and to the part, more particular!
which he will be called upon to play in state and societ'
Where American educators have to fight all along the lit
for a democratic participation of all groups and all indivi
uals in the creative functions of social life, the Germ;
educator is concerned more with the "how" with the mea
of bringing work and dream, job and recreation, week-d:
and holiday, intake and output into some sort of balance

Thus, history is pursued backward, so to speak ; tl
questions raised determine what periods, what lives, whi
movements are to the point; and with that start the i
terest usually carries the inquiry further into the past for
more comprehensive knowledge of the facts. This is som
thing different from, but by no means less thorough tha^
the usual method of beginning with the legendary hero
of antiquity and working through, century by century,
the day before yesterday. The decisive question which dete-
mines the choice of any material is, how relevant is i '

Out of this preoccupation with realities and relationship
there has developed another innovation which, considerir
the tradition of German public schools, is perhaps the mo

(In answering advertisements please mention THE SURVEY. // helps us, it identifies you.)


artling of all. From the fifth grade on, travel forms a
cognized mode of teaching. In the lower grades, an occa-
jnal day's outing is spent in those places in the immediate
ighborhood where the children can find examples of the
ecific things in which they are interested; and in a sur-
ising number of cases these are not merely natural phe-
imena, such as the heather in bloom, but cultural ones: a
lage that contains many thatched farmsteads of old, a
:tle town where the remnants of a medieval fortress may
seen, a fishing port where something may be learned of
e seaman's life. How people live and work is apt to be
e main interest of these younger pupils. They themselves
e busy at so many crafts that they have a journeyman's
nse of fellowship for those who work with their hands.
Gradually, the radius of interest widens, both in subjects
id geographically. Now the week-end trip expands to a
eek's leisurely walk along the Rhine or in the Bavarian
[ps. The scenes of decisive events or lives are visited:
e Wartburg, Weimar. The history of the race is recon-
ructed as differences in dialect and manners, in costumes
id architecture are noted together with the more funda-
icntal differences in the topographically determined occu-
iations and, back of them, the checkered history of the
arious regions as illustrated in their cities and museums.

And for the highest grades the week expands into a
ourney of two or three weeks, comparable with the famous
ourneys of literature, Goethe's and Heine's. The cultural
nquiry extends to Vienna, the old imperial capital and cap-
tal also of modern arts and sciences. Italy has been visited
:wice and England three times. This year, a class will
>robably visit France. One class has visited Holland for
:he express purpose of studying its new architecture direct
lescendant of the old German gabled city house and its
nodel colonies for wage-earners. With the city's cosmopol-
tan connections and with Spartan simplicity, expenses are
rept down to an unbelievable minimum (a trip to Eng-
and, lasting three or four weeks, for less than $40, a sim-
lar trip to Italy for $50). A few parents, by additional
:ontributions, help to make up a pool so that none need stay
it home for lack of funds. In England, the Board of Edu-
:ation has given official recognition to these visits; but there
s little formality, and the hospitality of private homes and
)f a camp near London explains the low costs. These trips
ire not made in vacation time ; they are undertaken during
:he school year, prepared for months in advance and edu-
:ationally exploited for months after, usually the center of
he year's work.

In its own city, the Lichtwarkschule has at times had to
mbat not only ordinary indifference but also an acute
intagonism on the part of a few but influential schoolmen
vhose academic viewpoint has remained unaffected by the
umultuous events of recent times. The rank and file of
)ublic-school teachers follow the development of the school
vith enthusiastic sympathy.

There is much more to be said about this school for which
here is not space here its educational use of the romantic
entiment of youth ; its combination of physical training
vith other cultural interests ; its effective, utilization of the
nanual arts in the total scheme; its modern way of teach-
ng musical appreciation in short, the completeness of an
ntegration which manages to do justice also to religious
caching (to the satisfaction of many Jewish and Catholic
is well as the Protestant parents) in a living unity of
:ducational adrance.

The Community Chest-
A Field for Trained Workers

A six weeks course in Community Chest Admin-
istration (policies and technique) will be given by
Ohio State University, Columbus, O., from June
2lst to July 30, 1927.

The class is limited to twenty, and preference
given to persons with social work experience. Ex-
pense is low.

Instructors: Allen T. Burns, Am. Ass'n for
Comm. Org'n, New York; C. C. Stillman, Grand
Rapids Welfare Union; Wilbur F. Maxwell, Hr-
risburg Welfare Fed'n; Sherman C. Kingsley,
Philadelphia Welfare Federation.

For application blanks and further information,
write to


215 Fourth Avenue, New York


Two-year course leading to M.A. Degree

Preparation for Social Case Work
and Social Research

For Social Economics circulars apply to Registrar


Bryn Mawr College


Fellowships and Scholarships
Open to Graduate Students Only

Preparation for all types of work in Social Case
Work, Community Organization, Industrial Rela-
tions and Social and Industrial Research.

Write immediately for fuller information, and
application blank.


(In answering advertisements please mentian THE


SURVEY. It helps us, it iJentifes ft*.)

Carnegie Institute of Technology

Margaret Morrison Carnegie College For Women


A four-year course leading to the degree of B. S. in social
work includes academic studies, practical courses, and field
work experience. Students twenty-three years of age and
over are admitted for a two-year program of practical
training. Dormitory accommodations available. Graduates
are prepared for positions in family case work, settlements,
playground and recreation centers. For further informa-
tion, apply

Head of Social Work Department


Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

American University




Students enrolled this year from 77 Colleges and Universities. Able
faculty; strong courses;, original research.

fessional) 1907 F Street
Diplomacy, Government, Foreign Trade, Economics.

THE COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS on it* ninety-acre

campus at Massachusetts and Nebraska Avenues
Students now registered from 22 states, 2 foreign countries.

For Catalogues A ddress

Chancellor Lucius Charles Clark, D.D.
1901 F Street, N. W., Washington, D. C.

School of Nursing .-/Yale University

A Protection for (He College Woman

interested in the modern, scientific agencies of

social service.

The twenty-eight months course, providing an inten-
sive and varied experience through the case study
method, leads to the degree of


Present study body includes graduates of leading col-
leges. Two or more years of approved college work
required for admission. A few scholarships available
for students with advanced qualifications.

The educational facilities of Yale University are open
to qualified students.

For catalog and information address;




(Continued frem pege 282)



Summer quarter begins June 1 3th
Fall quarter begins October 3rd

Courses in theory and practice.
Credit toward Bachelor of Science Degree

For Information write to


Nashville, Tenn.

one of mass rather than family relief. It may never become
a family problem in a country of scattered farmers who may
go back to their homes, which are usually standing, and begin
life again on the credit system which has buoyed them up,
or dragged them down, as you prefer to view it. A few cook-
ing utensils, perhaps a bit of furniture (they saved much of
their bedding), a patch in the roof, some chloride of lime in
the well or the cistern, cotton seed on credit, food until the
crop is in and there you are in this simple, warm country,
so far as the tenant farmers are concerned.

The small farmers who own their places are not to be dis-
posed of so easily, but it is expected that the credits arranged I
by the State Reconstruction Commissions will be particularly
sensitive to the needs of this group. Ex-governor John M.
Parker, chairman of the Louisiana Commission, believes that
the day of the big farm is rapidly passing in the South and
points to the record in parish after parish where the number
of Negro farm-owners equals and sometimes exceeds the num-
ber of whites. It is bound up in an economic renaissance in
Louisiana the substitution of pecans, winter vegetables and
fruits for King Cotton. They have a town nicknamed Tomato-
ville. They are very proud of their strawberries which reach
the New York market just after the Florida berries.

The Cabinet Committee, as it is commonly called, has made
two interesting additions to its structure. It has called into
conference and a conference fruitful of results, for the first
time in these United States, representatives of the Army and
Public Health Service surgeons, the Red Cross, the American
Medical Association and the state medical societies. That,
when Mr. Hoover's biography is written, may well be put
down in capital letters. Further, in each of the hard-hit states,
Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana, Mr. Hoover stimulated
the appointment of rehabilitation commissions, which will
gather together all the helpful strands in the state, beginning
in each case with a meeting of bankers to arrange for credit
on easy terms for both farmers and business men. This prompt
action prevented a second disaster in the form of a threatened
financial panic. Banks in the flooded district were in bad
shape. Some had their vaults under water, all had frozen
credits in loans to planters and business men in their neighbor-
hoods. The cemmissions are to carry on when the Red Cross

"I believe in state rights," Mr. Hoover said to me. "But
state rights carry with them state responsibilities. We will
rescue and feed and give medical care and clothes to every
person in need for four or six weeks or whatever time is

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