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necessary. We will move them back to their homes. We may
be able to give them cotton seed for the crop which still can
be planted and harvested this year. But the longer work of
rehabilitation must be met by the states themselves."

The silt left by the flood will likely give a bumper crop.
But the seed must be "muddied in" at just the right time, for
if it is left until the land is dry the surface will bake in the
sun and the seed be stifled beneath it. The waters will be
watched closely and the farmers sent back home in time. Not
the least interesting thing about a flood moving thirty-five
miles a day over a course of six hundred miles is that before
it reaches the Gulf the first refugees upstream will be back
in their homes.

THERE remains the question raised by the name of the
good ship Control. As everyone knows, except for the
streams which rim the Gulf, the Mississippi drains all of the
country between the Appalachians and the Rockies up to where
the rivers turn north into the St. Lawrence and the Great
Lakes. This year there were long, heavy rains at the same
time in thirty-one states. There was unusually late snow, not
only on the eastern slope of the Rockies but far out into the
plains, and on this fell warm spring rains. There were the
frozen waters behind the levees in southern Illinois. And
there was the fact that more and more drainage canals have
been put into all these middle parts of the country so that

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Lvy rains run off into the rivers faster than before; every
[dclle-western farmer who tiles his marsh-lot is a factor.
ie result was that the spring high waters of the Mississippi
id of practically all of its great tributaries, the Missouri, the
hio, the Arkansas, the Red, the Yazoo and innumerable
Caller streams came down together instead of in the usual
parate outbursts.

INow the levees have been built the standard government
^ ees to a height three feet above the flood level of 1912.
his year's flood came through at four to four and one-half
et above 1912. The result was inevitable, particularly in a
ver which is not at all the gently winding stream it appears to
: from the deck of a boat or on an ordinary map. Seen on
e large-scale maps of the Army engineers, it makes innumer-
ile sharp twists, ox-bows, horseshoes, hairpin turns, looking
r all the world like the portrait of the large intestine in the
hool physiologies. Where a great volume of water is thrown
the bank at a sharp turn its impact is almost at right angles
id the levee is under terrific strain.

rHE first levees were built by planters, later ones by
towns and states. Eventually came federal aid, piece-
eal. In 1922 it assumed the leading part and appropriated
xty million dollars to be expended at the rate of ten millions
year. For each dollar appropriated by the local levee board
ic government agreed to spend two dollars in building gov-
-nment standard levees on a right of way furnished by the
sards. At completion, the plan contemplates a safe levee.
Tie boards are appointed by the governors with the state
igineers as technical advisers. It is claimed that a govern-
lent standard levee has never given way; that there would
ave been no crevasses even this year if all of this construe-
on had been completed, for, while the crest was about a
jot and a half over the top of the levee, the dashboards could
ave taken care of that; and constant patrolling can catch the
ind-boils while they are young and easily conquered.
All the way down the river people were talking and news-
apers were printing editorials on the subject. The Natchez
)emocrat voiced what seemed to be the general opinion of
le southern people for something more than the all-levee
Astern; it has been tried and it has not worked; there are
ther plans, and they must be 'considered. Down in the New
Means district there is an insistent demand for spillways
fhich will have to be reckoned with. The Safe River Com-
littee of One Hundred, for example, has put out a plan and
map by a civil engineer of New Orleans, J. P. Kemper,
yhich would increase the natural flow of the Tensas and
Itchafalaya Rivers as spillways, like those on a dam. That,
if course, would relieve New Orleans, which gets the full
-olume of the Mississippi and all its tributaries minus only
iuch water as has flooded off through some of the breaks to
ind another course to the Gulf.

New Orleans is said to be completely sold on spillways. It
s the only big city which is faced with such great and such
: requent hazards. It has had the courage of its convictions
:his year when it cut through the levee below the city at Poy-
Iras and at a cost of fifteen million dollars undertook to make
;ood property losses. This so reduced the volume of water that
vhen the crest reached the city it was expected there would
>e room for it to pass without overtopping the levees. There
ire, also, those who look upstream and advocate reforestation,
ind reserves as necessary to any comprehensive plan.

The Army engineers, as I have met them on this trip, are
ill-levee men. They see, as does everyone who has looked at
it, that the levees must be the backbone of any plan; without
levees the southern states would have to abandon all those rich
bottom lands of the Delta which lie below the level of even
ordinary water. When I asked General Jadwin, chief of the
Army Engineering Corps, what he thought of reforestation,
his answer was: "The greatest flood of which we have any
record was in 1844 when scarcely a foot of timber had been
cut." There are advocates also of reservoirs, which might help
in the control of floods while furnishing power and a higher
navigation level during the dry season. The argument mad<
against them is that to have an appreciable effect on floods the
reservoirs would have to be enormous lakes, perhaps as big as
the present flooded area say the size of Massachusetts.

The War Department has appointed a commission to study

Summer Courses for Social Workers

The Training

for Jewish
Social Work


K n ,i,f

announces the following courses of 3, 4, 6 and 12
duration, open tu workers in the field, for the' summer of
la Social and Religious Institutions of the

?hZ?f s j ry , f Early J ewish Community Life" - "o'r

" Modern Jewish History Dr ' I

3 The Field of Jewish Social Service in the

United States Mr

4d History of Jewish Social Service in the

United States, 1900-1925 i; r Waldman

5 Aims and Methods of Contemporary

Jewish Social Service Mr. Goldsmith

Problems and Administration of Jewish

Family Case Work Agencies Mr. Karpf

> Problems and Administration of Jewish

Child Care Agencies 4 Symposium

8 Problems and Administration of Jewish

Centers - . . Mr _ Clucksman

9 Problems and Administration of Jewish

Federations Dr Hexter

10 Problems and Administration of Jewish

Health Centers and Dispensaries Lecturer to be announced

Hd Yiddish Language and Literature Dr. Soltes

13 Contemporary Jewish History and Problems - A Symposium
14d Theory of Social Investigation Dr. Karpf

15 Institute for Family Case Work Executives

Leader to be announced

16 Institute for Community Center Executives

Leader to be announced

Tlie New Term and the Summer Quarter Begin July 5, 1927
Write for Summer Announcement to M. J. Karpf, Director



(In answering advertisements please mention


Western Reserve University


A graduate professional school offering
preparation in social administration.

Family Case Work
Child Welfare
Group Service Work
Medical Social Work
Public Health Nursing

Supervised remunerative field work is avail-
able under certain conditions.

Application for admission must be made
in advance.


2117 Adelbert Road
Cleveland, Ohio

HE SURVEY. // helps us, it iJtntifits you.)

ntbers!ttp of Cfmago

de &rabuate &cf)ool of Social feerbice Stanim jftratton

First Term : June 2O July 27
Second Term: July 28 September 2


dutumn Quarter, October I December 23

Winter Quarter, January 2 March 23

Spring Quarter, April 2 June 13

Courses leading to the degree of A.M. and Ph.D.
A limited number of qualified undergraduate and
unclassified students admitted.

For announcements, apply to Box 55, Faculty Exchange


School of Social Work


In planning your summer, we call attention to the
following opportunities:

Medical Social Work
Psychiatric Social Work
Psychiatric Method to be used in (Children's Work

and Family Work

Special course for Teachers in Mental Hygiene as it
relates to Education

Dates: July 5 August 12
Individual attention given to each student


18 Somerset Street, Boston, Massachusetts


M. W. DOGAN, President

offers a standard collegiate education; conducts special
courses in race relations; international relations; main-
tains a


H. J. MASON, Director

Emphasizes importance of applied training and seeks to
enlarge its laboratory scope by extending its extra-
curricular activities.


In Co-operation With


Intensive courses in games, folk dancing, story telling, dramatics,
acting and coaching, theoretical and technical courses. June 27-
July 30.

For Catalog address: Miss Lois WILLIAMS, Executive Secretary,


941 Phelan Building, San Francisco, California

the subject and report in time for President Coolidge to make
recommendations in his December message to Congress. The
boutherners want a congressional committee, which would be
political as against the Army's technical committee and would
give the bouth a chance to have its say about floods some-
thing to which it may well be entitled, for after all, the south-
ern floods come from the North, Yankee water. Both com-
mittees would begin their studies with pretty fixed ideas of
what is needed. The Army men might be expected to meet
southern sentiment with at least a gesture toward spillways
in a report which would rightly stress the necessity of a com-
plete system of higher government standard levees for the
whole Mississippi and for long distances up the tributaries.
But the South will not be satisfied, nor will the contributors to
the Red Cross relief fund in every state, unless the lessons of
the flood be turned to preventive ends. Every factor must be
considered, every proposal studied, and the outcome must be
some action which promises that the people of the Delta shall
be able to keep more than their heads above water.

It may well be that success will hinge on the constructive
mind and the engineering training of Mr. Hoover. He has
seen the flood and its results day after day. He has taken his
relief job as seriously and with as blithe a disregard for steam-
ing heat and discomfort as a Red Cross nurse.


(Continued from page 284)

the prestige of the courts. He could say to the upholders of
the judicial system that here the best defense of that system
would be an impartial examination of it. He has evidence
before him justifying such a stand. He can also require
the die-hards to lay down something more substantial than
moonshine by including in the scope of inquiry the ques-
tion whether improper methods have been brought into play
to secure acquittal or pardon for the two men.

AT last! The economics of medical practice will have their
day in court. What we pay? What it costs us not to
pay? What we go without in spite of paying? Who pays?
What those who pay nothing get from the medical sciences?
What the doctor gets? What it costs to train and equip the
doctor? How to get more at less cost? These and more are
the questions clamoring for answer. As result of a conference
of some sixty physicians, economists and sanitarians in Wash-
ington, a committee has been organized to study them.

Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur, president of Stanfsrd University
and a recent president of the American Medical Association,
presided at the first session of the conference where the extent,
adequacy and cost of medical services in the United States
were broadly presented by Louis I. Dublin, Leo Wolman,
C. C. Pierce (U. S. P. H. Service), Haven Emerson, M.D.,
and John A. Kingsbury. The second session, at which plans
for the systematic and continuing study of the economic factors
were developed, met with Dr. Lewellys Barker of Baltimore
in the chair.

The outcome is a committee of men and womeji widely rep-
resentative of medicine, economics, public health, business and
labor, which intends with adequate finances to carry through a
five-year study of the facts. The temporary address of the
committee is 1724 Eye Street, Washington, D. C.

Shall we really learn what the three to five per cent of our
national income of seventy billion dollars goes for, which we
spend for medical care, and why? Do the doctors who give
most care and best for the family receive interest on the
endowment of their education? Can those who have most
sickness ever bear alone their financial, in addition to their
physical handicaps? Here's a welcome to those who honestly
attack these questions!

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Secretary -Treasurer


To provide the Twelve Million Colored
People of the United States with College-
trained and Professional leaders through its
courses in the Arts, the Sciences, in Educa-
tion, Public Health and Hygiene.

Engineering, Medicine, Dentistry, Phar-
macy and Law.

Students may enter for Collegiate Work at the
beginning of any quarter.

For Catalogue and Information Write




The Pennsylvania School
of Social and Health Work

Twentieth Year: 1927-1928

Social Work Department. (Case Work, Community

Work, Research)

Graduate Course open to college graduates only,
leading to General Certificate at end of one year.
Supplemental Course open to exceptionally qualified
persons not college graduates, leading to General
Certificate at end of two years.

Vocational Certificate awarded after further specialized

training and experience.

Public Health Nursing Department

Full Course Nine Months open to registered grad-
uate nurses.

Special field Work Unit Four Months offering
introduction to public health nursing, with vane,
practical experience.
Summer Institute July 5 August 13, 1927.

Fellowships, Scholarships, Student Aid Funds available

Address inquiries to The Registrar

Social Service Building, 311 S. Juniper Street,

Philadelphia, Pa.

/N retrospect, your first two years out
of college will seem relatively short.
Yet no similar future period will likely
have greater influence on the quality of
your future service and success. "8? *i? 1?
This graduate school prepares students
for service in the fields of social case
work, community organization,
criminology, industry, and social
research. Its Fall Quarter
begins October third.

The Neu/ York School 0} Social Work

107 East Twenty-Second Street
New Yorlt



Fellowships paying all expenses, internships
providing maintenance, and numerous
scholarships are available to properly
qualified students who desire to enter
the field of social work, child guid-
ance, juvenile courts, visiting
teaching, and psychiatric so-
cial work. Graduates of
accredited colleges eligi-
ble for the degree


Summer session for experienced social

For information address


College Hall 8, Northampton, Massachusetts

(In answering advertisements please me

ntion THE SURVEY. It

>. "

Progressive Schools Experimental


An Out Door Summer at


for younger boys and girls
June first to October first

Clarinda C. Richards, Poughquag, N. Y. (Dutches. Co.)


on Siesta Key


Day School and Boarding Department

Decroly Method in Lower School

Tutoring for Tourist Pupils

Sunshine and Swimming all the Year

Phoenix Country Day and Boarding School

Phoenix, Arizona

A modern school for boys and girls from 4 to 16
years of age.

Catalog on request
D. H. Markham, M.A., Director


Children 4 to 14. Experienced, sympathetic care in the home
of the directors. Ideal health conditions. Small classes.
High academic standards. Summer camp in Maine. Address
Mr. and Mr. Stanwood Cobb, Chevy Chase, Md.

Seymour School of Musical Re-Education


For particulars norite Secretary
57 West 48th Street, New York, N. Y.


Stelton, New Jersey

Here boys and girls 6 to 14 get the tools of learning and
are guided in developing their powers unhampered by
tradition or formalism. Board and tuition, $10 weekly.

For specific information address
The Modern School, Stelton, N. J.


for Boys and Girls

Nursery Age to College

34 West 68 Street, New York

Write for Literature


165 Wet 12th Street
New York City

An experimental school endeavoring to develop natural
methods in the education of children from three years of
age to high school age. Caroline Pratt, Principal.


(Continued from page 270)

so far as those common and fundamental elements are dis-
covered, recognized, and given a dominating place in the mind
of each individual. If that be done, then the field of liberal
learning is defined and accepted as having an area and a nature
of its own, common to all the separate fields, but limited to
no one of them. And in that situation, liberal teaching de-
mands that in dealing with the common and fundamental inter-
ests we shall make the same desperate attempt at clarity and
thoroughness which characterizes all our special pursuits. It
is the teaching vice of the specialist that he demands precision
and coherence in his own little field, but is quite content to
leave the greater matters to vagueness and inattention.

If then the student says Give us freedom and we will study,
my answer would be, You do not seem to know in what free-
dom consists. Freedom is not merely the absence of external
restraint. Freedom is rather the life of mutual agreement
and understanding. There is no human freedom except in
the life of a community. And a community is a group of
people who know each other well enough to accept common
obligations, common responsibilities, common regard in rela-
tion to one another. In order that each of them may be safe
in going his own way they must make sure that their ways
are not in conflict. And that assurance cannot be gained by
simply ignoring each other. *It can be won only by such deep
and patient and generous concern over men and their relations
to each other that the collection of individuals is by mutual
understanding transformed into a community. And the prin-
ciple thus stated applies with equal force in the life of a
college. One of the radical defects of our present teaching
situation is that we have lost the sense of the community of
learning and with it has gone all the dominating power of a
social ideal from which personal initiative might derive its

force. It is idle to attempt to replace this by the attraction
of individual zeals and cravings. Unless there is something
of common interest to us all, something which we should all
study, then the college as a single thing, as a community, dis-
appears. To that sad state we have, I think, fallen in these
latter days. We have "requirements" it is true but there
seems to be no social compulsion in them. Can we find other
requirements which will serve the purpose? We must have
a required curriculum. But what shall it be?

A second suggestion as against the required course of study
is that each person should take his professional interest, his
job, as the centre and starting point of his liberalizing study.
I will not attempt to state this point of view with any ade-
quacy. As I write, I understand that in the number of the
Survey in which this paper is to appear, the suggestion will
be discussed from both the high school and the college point
of view. May I say simply that the program does not seem
to me to meet the demands of our social situation nor, there-
fore, of our liberal teaching? In the school our students
should learn to know the things essential to all professions
and to approach them in the same way whatever their differ-
ent occupations may be. For example, I can find no adequate
reason for defining in different terms the liberal education of
women and of men. As persons attempting to understand the
modern world there is no significant difference between the
sexes. It seems to me that for the same reasons they sheuld
study the same things and in the same ways. And this principle
is true of bricklayers and of preachers, of baseball players
and of fishermen. The suggestion that each of these should
try to understand the world by following out the implications
of his trade has in it something of truth. But a deeper truth
is that we need to understand the work and the play of other
men. In an abjective view of the world each one of us sees
himself as a relatively insignificant factor in a wider scheme
of men and things. And no teaching can be liberal which
does not take that objective view. Taking human nature

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id human occupations in the large we can say that the free-
im of the spirit depends upon escape from our work. Our
cupations are not for the most part voluntary choices; they
e necessary limitations. And while it is valuable to trace
ose necessities and to understand the limitations, we can
so, I think, only as each man's thought beginning in wider
aches of interest and insight discovers himself as one among
s fellows, all of whom are alike intelligible in terms which,
ith the same meanings apply to them all. To put the state-
ent in a single phrase let me say that the professionalizing
liberal education seems to me in effect a virtual abandon-
g of it. To adopt that program would be to destroy the
liege community as such. And in the social group which
e college serves, the same idea would in my opinion inevitably
eak down the common meanings, the liberal understanding
fiich, more than anything else, our civilization needs,
can have liberal education only on the supposition that
very man has, that all men have in common, certain interests
fhich are far more important to each of us than is his job
r anything connected with it. The required curriculum is,
r should be, an attempt to focus study upon those interests,
is such it seems to me to be at the very focus and centre of
11 discussions of liberal teaching.

; In conclusion may I say that the Experimental College is
n the material side, a very modest undertaking. We shall
ave no separate provision for laboratories, class-rooms, or
ven libraries, except as there will be small collections of
ooks in the dormitory common-rooms. There will be little,
E any, administration or administrative paraphernalia. The
:achers will be members of the University departments to
rhich they belong. We shall have no separate funds except a
mall account to cover clerical expenses, faculty offices, exami-
ations, and administration. All that is being done in the mak-
ig of the college is to set aside a number of students and a
umber of teachers in about the numerical ratio which holds
i general in the College of Letters and Science. Those stu-
ents and teachers will be the College. In every respect
lie arrangements are as simple and unpretentious as they can
e made.

And the purpose of the College is, I think, equally simple
nd direct in spite of its great difficulty. We are to try to
:e if methods can be found by which young Americans can
e started and kept going in the ways of liberal understanding,

Online LibrarySurvey AssociatesThe Survey (Volume 58) → online text (page 65 of 130)