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City State


JUNE 15, 1927 MAY u B4I



Getting on with Social Work

The 54th Meeting of the National Conference

By Mary Ross

Mussolini Butts into "Opium"

By John Palmer Gavit

A Strike at Strikes

How Women Voters Do It

What are the Costs of Medical Care.

Manumit-Endorsed by Labor

Yeast to Yadkin County
a co Py Harmon Prize Winner

Analytic Index to This Number

June 15, 1927

Child Welfare:

Children discussed at National Conference of Social

Work, p. 311 ff

City children's contact with rural children, p. 339
Recreation centers, p. 330
Classifying school children physically, p. 333
Children of workers go to Manumit, p. 334
Parents and the school development of their children,

P- 335
Where shall the children go to camp and why, p. 336

Family Welfare :

The family as a set of emotional relationships, p. 312

Unemployment and the family budget, p. 315

How one family leavened a community, p. 328

Family recreation centers, p. 330

Cost of keeping families well, p. 331

Manumit and human relations in the home, p. 334

Tangled home relations and the child, p. 336

The Law and Law Breakers:

Social aspects of the immigration law, p. 313
League of Women Voters studies the law, p. 317
The illicit opium traffic, p. 318
Law-courts, picketing and trade unions, p. 324
Arizona's 8-hour law for women, p. 327
Minimum wage law in Massachusetts, p. 327

The Conquest ot Disease : '

The cost of medical care, p. 331

Limiting defective inheritance, p. 333

Health classes for convalescent children, p. 333

The Promotion of Health:

Re-energizing faith in one's job, p. 309
Italy wars upon opium, p. 319
A busy family plays, p. 328
Recreation centers, why and where, p. 330
Inadequacy of health service, p. 331
Protection of so-called unfit, p. 332
Health habits at Manumit, p. 334
Schools and camps for children, p. 336

Mental Hygiene:

The psychiatrist at Des Moines, p. 312
Grace Marcus on mental hygiene, p. 313

Commonwealth College offers adult education, p. 336
A school for workers, by workers, p. 336
Choosing your child's school, p. 336

Church and Community:

The church moves down to earth, p. 312

Education Outside the School :

Conference of Social Work at Des Moines, p. 309

Women participating in government, p. 317

Telling the facts about "dope," p. 318

Meeting of the Workers' Education Bureau, p. 326

First labor radio station, p. 327

Educating by County Fair, p. 329

Educational aspects of summer camps, p. 336

Industrial Relations:

Case-work studies of unemployment, p. 315
The right to strike, p. 324
The 8-hour law in Arizona, p. 327
America's prosperity explained, p. 327
Minimum wage effects, p. 327

Peace and International Relations:

A Department of International Relations to prevent war,

p. 317
Italy's stand on Opium traffic, p. 318

Motives and Ideals:

An interest in mankind ; hence the Conference at Des

Moines, p. 310
The ideal of race improvement, p. 333

Immigration and Race Relations:

A resolution on immigration policy, p.
Jane Addams on immigration, p. 313


School and Community:

Brookwood's $2,000,000 endowment, p. 327
Summer School for women workers, p. 327
Manumit's scheme of education, p. 334
Progressive Education Association meeting, p.
How Children choose their school, p. 336



112 East 19 Street, New York







THE SURVEY Twice-a-month $5.00 a year
SURVEY GRAPHIC Monthly $3.00 a year

ARTHUR KELLOGG, Managing Editor

Associate Editors





Contributing Editors



JOHN D. KENDERDINE, Business Manager

MARY R. ANDERSON, Advertising Manager

MOLLIE CONDON, Extension Manager

THE SURVEY, published semi-monthly and copyright 1927 by
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC., 112 East 19 Street, New York, N. Y.
Price: this issue (June 15, 1927, Vol. LVIII, No. 6) 25
cents a copy; $5 o year; Canadian postage, 60 cents} foreign
postage $1 extra. Change of address should be mailed us two
weeks in advance. When payment is by check a receipt will be
sent only upon request.

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post
office, Neiv York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Accept-
ance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided for in
Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorised on June 26, 1918.

Midmonthly Number

Vol. LVIII, No. 6

June 15, 1927


Getting on with Social Work - - - Mary Ross 309
What the Conference Did to Des Moines - - -

T. J. Edmonds 313

A Case-work Approach to Unemployment - - -

Julia Alsberg 315

Participating in Government - - Gladys Harrison 317
Mussolini Butts into "Opium" - - -

John Palmer Gavit 318



Strikes and the Rights of the Community,
George E. G. Callin A Cultured Conference,
Israel Mujson


A Busy Family Plays, Frances Sage Bradley,
M.D. Recreation Centers: Why and What?
George W . Braden


The Cost of Medical Care, Haven Emerson,
M.D. Against Bears, Beetles and Bacteria
School Clearing Houses, L. A. Craighan, R.N.


Labor's Laboratory School, Nellie M. Seeds
New Doors Open, Ruth Gillette Hardy



COMMUNICATIONS - - - - - - 347

The Gist of It

UNDER the presidency of SHERMAN C.
KINGSLEY of Philadelphia, the National
Conference of Social Work will hold its
fifty-fifth annual meeting next spring at
Memphis, Tenn. Memphis has been headquarters
for the enormous flood relief of the Red Cross and
discussion of its mass-relief work for a half million
people will likely have a place in the discussion. The
Des Moines meeting, in May, was the first session to
put to a practical test the plan by which the secre-
tary, Howard R. Knight, worked the National Con-
ference, and the more specialized groups of social
workers which meet with it, into a unified program.
The conference reported (page 39) by MARY Ross
of The Survey staff.

TJ. EDMONDS, the executive secretary of the
Iowa Tuberculosis Association, is one of the
most experienced publicity men in social work,
success in occupying newspaper space will be easily
understood by any reader of his article on page 313-

TULIA ALSBERG, whose article on page 315 won
first prize in the last Harmon-Survey quarterly
award, is a member of the staff of the St. Louis
Provident Association, which was responsible for t
successful employment work she describes.

ADYS HARRISON, executive secretary, tells
here the interesting story of how the good-will
and amateur interest of enfranchised women were

organized into a successful and powerful civic force
by the League of Women Voters. Page 317.

JOHN PALMER GAVIT was for many years
correspondent for the Associated Press at Albany
and Washington. Earlier a resident of Chicago
Commons, he had, like all Commons men, absorbed
a social point of view as fade-proof as the tattooing
on a sailor's arm. Recently he has been an un-
official observer and interpreter at Geneva of the
League of Nations, interested particularly in the
essentially international social problem how the
world is to proceed in a practical way to rid itself of
opium. Page 318.


1- of the Department of Government at Cornell
University, writes against the background of his
English birth and university education. Page 324.

ISRAEL MUFSON is director of Philadelphia's
I Labor College. Page 326.

T" 1 RANGES SAGE BRADLEY, M.D., has served
Jr far and wide in these United States as an emis-
sary of the federal Children's Bureau. After an
interlude of private life, she joined the Pennsylvania
State Department of Health on June I, in the
Division of the Pre-School Child. Page 328.

/^EORGE W. BRADEN is a member of the
\J staff of the Playground and Recreation Associa-
tion of America, working in the West. Page 330.

HAVEN EMERSON, M.D., is active in nearly
every branch of public health work in nearly
every part of the United States. His major connec-
tions are as professor of public health work at
Columbia University and as editor of The Survey's
Health Department. Page 331.

LA. CRAIGHAN, R.N., is supervising nurse of
Open Air Schools of San Francisco, Cal., under
the Department of Health of the City and County.
Page 333-

NELLIE M. SEEDS (Mrs. Scott Nearing) is
now acting as executive secretary of Manumit
School. Page 334-

RUTH GILLETTE HARDY is on the faculty
of the Girls' Commercial High School of
Brooklyn, N. Y. Page 335-

PLAN OR PERISH is the striking title of a dis-
cussion of flood control written for the July Graphic
bv T Russell Smith, professor of economic geography
at Columbia University. WILL IRWIN has written
a brief, trenchant article on the flood as he saw it
from the river-bank in Louisiana
ERNOR JOHN M. PARKER will tell of the
situation in his native state as he sees it A short
story by ANNE ROLLER, winner of the second
prize in the recent contest of the Committee on
Publicity Methods, deals engagingly with a family
on the flood relief fund. Arthur Kellogg w.ll dis
cuss the rehabilitation plans just going into operation
over hundreds of miles of the Delta.

: - :.-'." ' ' '


Cartoon from the Dallas News, by Knott



June 15

Volume LVIII
No. 6

Getting on with Social Work

The Fifty-fourth Meeting of the National Conference


HARD by the steps which led down to the great
basement of the Shrine Temple at Des Moines
which housed the exhibits of the fifty-fourth
National Conference of Social Work stood a
shiny oak desk behind which were to be seen
at most hours of the day, the equally shining face and the
indefatigable pipe of "Uncle Alec" Johnson. On about the
third day of the Conference, when the Babel of varied in-
terests and people was at its peak, a bewildered delegai
approached this friendly "consultation service,
no longer young, she explained to Uncle Alec, and she was
discouraged. Her own work and her own life seemed in-
significant in all this chatter of techniques; she envie.
specialized training of the competent young women
were giving papers and leading round tables-but perhaps,
after all, she was not too old to learn. Couldn t Mr
Johnson help her decide how she could play some sort of :
worth-while part in this social work? She had to earn her
living, but she wanted to do more than that.

So Mr. Johnson set out to discover what she had done
and what she liked to do, and finally an illuminating idea
occurred to him. "I should think," he suggested _that with
all your experience and background, you could be invaluable
in dealing with young people, say as a hostess in a *ternity
house or a club. That is the sort of thing you could do
I much better than a lot of these other people, who haven t
had the time to learn all the things you have learned.

The visitor looked at him in amazement, and then a
smile broke over her face. "Why,;; she exclaimed ,n delight,
"that's exactly what I am doing."

A day or two later a board member came up to another
of the leaders of the Conference. "It's just nderfcd/
she exclaimed, "what all this has done or our Mrs. Blank
She's been going from meeting to meeting harder than any

of the rest of us, but she looks all the time as though she
were walking on air!"

Such I take it, is one of the functions of a pei
professional conference of any variety a rediscovery of th<
faith that the routine things which one person i:
perhaps alone, are worth the doing, and are considere
worth the doing by other people who have a view over th
whole range of work and of opportunity. It was a salient
feature of the fifty-fourth National Conference of Social
Work Old-timers, who could compare remmiscently t
differing flavors of Philadelphia in 1906, of Cleveland
,912 and 1926, of Providence, Washington Denver ,
the rest, agreed that this was an unusually "friendly

en" The physical set-up at Des Moines ; the area which
nded the great Shrine Temple, a clustered group o
churches the Y.W.C.A. and the Y.M.C.A, where meetings
treteld, and the hotels, was small enough , , t at a ood
of .000 conferees fairly engulfed .t and held it

wn,Cd feeling at home, passed remarks and comment
^casual meetings as well as the stated round tables T

r ha the exhibits could be held in the same
wl the general meetings and many of the section meeungs


other profession in this country

of its membership at one time and
* - *- , . . National Conferences of

,W-nT S,m< t 'o?U - "



June 15, 192'.

was limited somewhat by the pressing demands of the
Mississippi Valley ; it has been surpassed at gatherings nearer
the large centers of the East, but even so it probably in-
cluded one in ten of the practicing social workers of the
United States. It represented, as all national conferences
have represented, a cross section of both time and place
from the banner of the first booth in the exhibit hall which
proclaimed that "The W.C.T.U. is Organized Mother
Love," past the booths where research stations broadcasted
their precise findings on some limited fragment of the
problems of humanity ; the exhibits which tried to picture
one field, such as the health or recreation of children, or
the gifts and troubles of Americans from other lands. It
was an heroic attempt to mean all things to all manner of
people whose only common denominator was an interest
in mankind.

OBVIOUSLY the strands which combined in so many
varied patterns could be gathered only at points which
expressed that widest interest. Such a point was the opening
meeting, addressed by the president of the Conference,
John A. Lapp, director of the Department of Social Action
of the National Catholic Welfare Conference, and by
Chester H. Rowell of California. Dr. Lapp spoke on
Justice First; Mr. Rowell on The Challenge to Democracy.
Coming on the one hand from the historic viewpoint of
social morality, on the other from the angle of contemporary
politics, both speakers essayed an answer to the question,
Why social work?

"Man is a spiritual being," Dr. Lapp declared as the
essential tenet of his social faith. "He is not mere muscle
or man-power; he is not a machine to be run and scrapped.

Man is morally endowed with essential rights, not merely
of life, liberty, and the pursuits of happiness, but of protection
of his integrity, physical, economic, civic and spiritual, against
adverse forces which surround him. The central purpose of
all efforts to control economic life by social action is the pro-
tection and promotion of the rights of human beings the
attainment of justice for mankind. The ministrations of charity
are reserved for those whom temporarily justice has not pro-
tected or those who have wilfully failed.

Charity discovers needs. It rouses men to moral duties. It
points the way to justice. Justice is the goal and as it is
at'tained the obligations of charity are taken over by the in-
stitutions of justice. Charity, intelligently given, looks to the
elimination of the need for its ministrations."

In a crystallized society, Dr. Lapp pointed out, there
would be little need of charity. The rules would be fixed,
such as they might be. In a world which is expanding
economically, which is growing in scientific knowledge and
in understanding of men and of the forces which surround
their lives, a recognition of need outstrips the social ma-
chinery to satisfy that need. Until an orderly and organized
provision for ft can be evolved, charity must step in to fill
the gap. "We pour out money to succor the victims of the
flood now raging in the lower Mississippi Valley. Justice
demands that we spend billions, if necessary, so that such a
calamity cannot occur again." We must care for the
fatherless, yet work for widows' pensions ; feed the jobless,
and supply work for them ; work unremittingly for in-
dividual rights bulwarked by social protection.

The great causes of poverty and of individual disaster,
Dr. Lapp affirmed, those over which men singly have little
control war, floods, and tornadoes, sickness, unemploy-
ment, under-employment, mental deficiency, death or de-

sertion, inadequate wages, business failures and dependent
old age. We live no longer in the days of "unbuttoned
comfort." We are part of a great implacable machine whose
victims have slight personal relationship to the course oi
events which crushes them. These we must conquer, on
by one, by social action, as we have conquered the great
plagues, as we are conquering the poverty resulting from
accident and the destitution which follows alcoholism, as
we could conquer the terrors of sickness, unemployment
and dependent old age by social insurance. "Faltering
though it may be at times, human progress leads ultimately
in the direction of equity, and the equity of one generation
becomes the law of the next."

The place of democracy in social control formed the basis
of Chester Rowell's scintillating challenge. Fascism and
Bolshevism, Mr. Rowell envisaged as identical political
methods with opposite aims, substituting for the eighteenth-
century liberalisms of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, the
new slogan of Discipline, Responsibility, Order. For
America, the greater danger is not Bolshevism, despite the
"panic of ghost-seeing two-hundred-per-centers," but a dis-
guised Fascism parading as Americanism, and a national
failing to judge other things than business by business
standards. "The American business man who sees Bolshevism
falser even than it is, is purblind to the fallacies of Fascism.
Because it is good business, he jumps to the conclusion that
it is good everything."

While in political theory, Mr. Rowell sees Americans
as the most conservative people in the world, in substance
our attempt at democracy is encumbered by a vast in-
difference :

There are more people in this district who know Andy Gump
than know their own congressmen, more in Australia, propor-
tionately, who know Charlie Chaplin than in America who
know who was the last Democratic candidate for president;
more people in Iowa who care when Skeezicks will be found
than whether the McNary-Haugen bill will pass. Unless
democracy can be made to interest the whole people, we must
devise some form of government which can be run by the
interested fraction.

What has all this politics to do with social workers? Your
task is to make the world safe for democracy by making
democracy fit for the world. You mitigate the ruthlessness of
free competition at the bottom, and force responsibility on it
at the top. In its middle range it remains a constructive force.
The Chamber of Commerce may call you radicals, and some
of you may think so yourselves. Actually, you share with the
American Federation of Labor the distinction of beinp thr
most effective conservative force in America. It is yours, also,
to make government interesting by making it worth while.
People will care as much who wins the election as who wins
the baseball series, when the election makes a difference in
their personal lives.

SET thus against the picture of the glacier course of so-
cial progress, the Conference proceeded to divide itself
into its countless groups and kindred groups on ways
and means. Here the winter work of the executives of the
committees and the kindred groups became apparent. It
was possible to follow one line of interest through one day
or through the whole week, to trace one discussion through
a morning section meeting, a round table, a luncheon
meeting, and an afternoon session of one of the kindred
groups, and in some cases on to the more general evening
addresses. There was a notable success in avoiding dupli-
cation of subjects, and in arranging for papers to meet the
interests of the "lay" membership. To a hopeful extent

15, 1927


lie conferees showed an appreciation of this effort to make
kntinuity possible, though on occasion the crowd followed
lie names rather than the subjects and a few of the im-
lortant discussions on specialized topics were left with
Inly a handful of the already convinced. In general, how-
Iver, the meetings of the Conference itself, and those of the
lindred groups, notably of the National Conference of
jocial Service of the Protestant Episcopal Church, were
lovetailed into each other in a constructive fashion which
Iromises even better things for a continuance of the plans
Iried by this year's program committee and the new executive
|:cretary, Howard R. Knight.

N the thicket of these specialized discussion meetings, it
[ is possible for one person to have only a very general
icture of the whole outline of the forest, traced in
rge part by the scraps of report which echoed afterward
hrough hotel lobbies and on street corners. No one topic
if outstanding force or novelty seemed to have emerged,
hough there was a common feeling that the general course
lad run at a high level and that there had been a more
eral give and take of opinion and experience than at
revious conferences.

The problem of social measurement raised its young head
n each of the sections and showed a gratifying growth in
he weight of solid, if prosaic, fact through the diverse
tudies which had been ripening during the year. The
:ommon problem of getting on with the neighbors appeared
n such time-honored guises as "cooperation," "correlation,"
he relation of social work to church, to industry, to law,
o commercialized recreation such as the movies and the
lance-halls. The common interest in broadcasting aims,

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