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start of the convention. Then again on the last day the
report of each discussion group was duly accepted with a
hearty and hasty "Aye," leaving thereafter nothing but a
mild and decorous jubilation at election time and so conclud-
ing the sittings.

In the subdued atmosphere of the Boston Public Library
where the convention was held, no one had the heart to
start anything, especially as everyone was aware of the un-
written tradition of the place, though "No Smoking" signs
were absent from the walls.

However, other signs on the walls caused quite a flurry
among the delegates. These signs, charts prepared by E. C.
Lindeman in charge of the Bureau's research, discouragingly
showed that languages and expression are fast becoming the
popular subjects in workers' classes instead of economics and
other equally meaty studies. Many delegates arose to offer
reasons for such digressions from what practically every one
felt should constitute the curricula of trade union classes.
Scott Nearing's voice was heard for the first, and what
proved the only, time during the whole convention with the
remark that workers would naturally show a dislike for a
brand of economics taught by orthodox
professors as an apology for the capital-
istic system. But before the discussion
could get much further the hour struck
for the convention to divide itself into
groups and an interesting session re-
solved itself into a split infinitive.

But something remarkable did occur.
Unwary folk may have guessed a con-
spiracy but the writer knows this not
to be the case. Three times, in as
many sessions, the statement was volun-
teered by officers of the Bureau and by
one invited speaker to the convention,
that the primary purpose of workers'
education is to educate workers for a
better social order; that there would

Abraham Lincoln Studied by Firelight

Courtesy Workers Education Bureau Press

be no excuse for it lt w accept tne capltalistic y
or society. Beginning with the president of th R
James H. Maurer, in his opening address, taken upT
later session by the chairman of the committee on curricula
Janma Cohn, and emphasized by Raymond V. Holwell
bj-state director of workers' education for Colorado anc
Wyonnng, the strain was carried through the whole con
vention proceedings that workers' education stands for
lange in society whereby the workers would have
ities for material, intellectual and spiritual ex,
collectively, denied them under the present system

Why this question, presumably settled at the time the
Bureau was first organized, should be so definitely empha-
sized at this tune would make profitable contemplation for
a psychologist-a social psychologist. A layman can only
ask questions and let the readers furnish the answers. A e
he trends ,n the Workers' Education Movement such as
to fora he emphasis as a warning? Is workers' education

tn ThL US nglnal f UrPOSC t0 SUch a " alarmi "S

that a restatement of the purposes was necessary to

maintain the courage of those engaged in it? Or are the
new friends of workers' education in need of definite pointer,
about workers' education? Interesting questions to Vnsvve"

-THE outstanding debate centered around a resolution
1 and the report of the group on officers' reports The
resolution was introduced by one member of the Students'
Association of the Boston Trade Union College It held
that the Workers' Education Bureau should go on record
as opposing the acceptance by agencies for workers' educa-
:ion of money or other assistance from such institutions as
: Carnegie Corporation, the General Education Board
or other organizations fundamentally opposed to the inter-
ests of the working class." This same resolution was un-
animously adopted at the conference of teachers engaged in
workers education in 1926. But since then a feeling has
developed that money donated without strings attached to
it is not necessarily tainted. The general opinion, as brought
out in discussTon, was that since the labor movement is not
m a position to finance its own educational activities
is no wrong committed if assistance is obtained from
sources even bearing a legendary hos-
tility to the organized labor movement.
And since many of those present rep-
resented workers' education activities
financed in large measure by sources
from without the movement, the reso-
lution was voted down two to one.
Later the same question arose after the
reading of the officers' report, which
included the statement that no assis-
tance should be sought from any
source or foundation not in favor of
the aims and purposes of the labor
movement. An amendment changing
"not in favor" to "hostile" was accept-
ed and the report was adopted.
It would have been interesting to

June 15, 1927


know the exact status of the workers' education movement
in the United States. For the delegates' information, as a
basis upon which to build plans for the future, it would
have been better if there had been a clear statement, oral or
written, showing the number of colleges actually in existence,
the number and nature of the classes held, the number of
actual enrollments, etc. But no voluntary statement to this
effect was forthcoming from any of the officers of the
Bureau, and no one thought to ask about it from the floor.
On the whole the fifth convention was quite in tune with
the spirit pervading the workers' education movement. It
was cultured, dispassionate and though vague and uncertain
sometimes, really heading in the direction the labor move-
ment intends it to go. A drive for an endowment fund of
$3,000,000 was endorsed and Thomas E. Burke, treasurer
of the Bureau, started it on its way by announcing a personal
contribution of $i,OOO.

SIMULTANEOUSLY with New York, Arizona has put
into effect an eight-hour law for women workers. The
western law is much more comprehensive than the New York
measure (see The Survey, April 15, page 81). Arizona's old
law permitted the seven-day, 56-hour week. The new law
limits the daily hours to eight and the work-week to six days.
Women in manufacturing establishments, places of ami
ment, railroad restaurants or eating houses on railroad property
not covered by the old law are included in the new one.

STATION WCFL, CHICAGO, the first labor radio broad-
cast station in this country, is located on the Municipal Pier.
From ten to twelve daily the City of Chicago will have the
use of the station without charge for public announcements
and addresses by public officials. A microphone has been
permanently installed in the mayor's office. WCFL s program
as it is now planned, will include an hour a day of speci
interest to labor, frequent educational talks, and a great
of good music. At the dedicatory exercises, John Fitzpatr
president of the Chicago Federation of Labor, said, Without
offering any objections to the method of financing a station
by programs paid for by advertisers, it is submitted that
soundest method is by contributions from interested 1
This method may not be practical for other stations, b
for WCFL by reason of its principles and the trem
clientele it is founded to serve."

THE CHIEF factors on which American industrial prosperity
and success rest, according to the report of .the British Govern-
ment's recent Industrial Commission to America are mass
production, intelligent standardization and simplification
design, friendly relations between capital and labor, prohibition,
concentration of manufacture, trusts, cheap electric power,
natural resources, machinery, adaptability, huge domestic mar-
ket, installment buying and the protective tariff. Few com
parisons are made between British and American conditions,
but the Commission states that it found the standard of Imng
of the workers higher in America than in Britain. 1
found that the risks of industry are greater for American than
for British workers. In a letter to the Minister of Labor
accompanying the report, the Commission observes:
workers accept experiments toward reducing the cost of prod,
tion as they have always found that the result of lower cos
has been increased consumption and consequently more em-
ployment. ... The adaptability shown by all engaged in t,
industry to promote efficiency and Productivity and ehmn
waste in order to secure the greatest benefits the indus-
try can afford is particularly noticeable.

A CAMPAIGN to raise an endowment of $2,000,000 for
Brookwood Labor College, Katonah, New York, has been
undertaken with the aim of putting the school on a permanent
basis and enlarging its capacity to
100 students instead of the present 42.
One million dollars is to be invested
to provide an income which will
cover half the annual budget of the
enlarged school, the balance of which
will be taken care of from trade
union scholarships and contributions.

It is planned to use $350,000 for new

Drawn by A. V. Cook buildings and improvements, and the
BROOKWOOD remaining $650,000, invested, would

provide a sufficient annual sum for summer institutes, research
and extension work. One of the first buildings needed is a
men's dormitory, which is to be built through small contribu-
tions from labor unions and individuals, and dedicated to the
"Rank-and-File of American Labor."

THE DIRE results predicted for the minimum wage have
not followed the enactment of such a law in Massachusetts,
according to a study by Arthur F. Lucas, assistant professor
of economics at Clark University, and published in a recent
supplement to the Annals of the American Academy. In gen-
eral, Mr. Lucas finds that the minimum wage rates have been
accepted by employers. Publicity as a penalty for non-com-
pliance is much more effective in such establishments as retail
stores, which sell direct to the consumer, than in factories.
While Mr. Lucas is convinced that the law "has undoubtedly
helped to improve the condition of working women and girls
in Massachusetts" it has not done all that was hoped for it.
Such obstacles to the success of the measure as the opposition
of employers and the question of constitutionality are not, Mr.
Lucas believes, inherent in minimum wage legislation. Dis-
charges because of the law have been infrequent. The minimum
wage has not become the maximum. No industry has been
seriously injured by the establishment of a minimum wage.
Mr. Lucas finds that the law is not being vigorously enforced
at present, partly because of a reorganization of the various
labor and industrial bureaus and a resulting diffusion of respon-
sibility. He concludes: "It may very well be that the most
fruitful action which the government can take in the regulation
of wages is not the fixing of definite minimum rates but is the
encouragement of what amounts to collective bargaining,
state can provide the machinery for those industries which have
shown themselves incapable of settling their difficult,.
In the last analysis this is what is being done in Massa(

THE first summer school for southern in-
dustrial women workers is to be held on the
campus of Sweet Briar College, in Vir-
ginia, from July 22 to September 2.
The undertaking is being carried on by
a committee of Southerners, and a
scholarship of $125 for each student's
tuition and expenses is being raised
by the community from which she
comes. There will be twenty-four
students for this first experiment, and
courses will be given in English, eco-
. nomics and physical education.
' one applicants have already been accepted,
from the textile, garment and tobacco indus-
' Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and
- Georgia. "The purpose of this school,' 1 accord-
/to the announcement, "is to give women in mdustrj

ueh study and discussion to develop a deeper
region t/ Hfe ; and I clearer understanding of their part
and responsibility as industrial workers.

tries in
as far as


A Busy Family Plays


PAUL and Betty were a busy young couple carry-
ing the honestly earned leadership of a thriving
town in Appalachia. Paul had always said that
his wife ought to have been a business man. She
was a fine mixer and ferreted out the good in every-
body. She was quick, resourceful, persistent, and had a
level head on her straight young shoulders. Like a duck
to water she took to the organ-
izing of a Junior League and a
League of Women Voters ; and
accepted with complacency the
deference and cooperation of
local political aspirants. Then
followed clean streets and alleys,
better schools, decent movies and
milk, and much vaunted enforce-
ment of hitherto inert ordinances.
She belonged of course to a wo-
man's club, a bridge club and to
some sort of a cultural group.
These quite filled her odd mo-
ments, though Betty declared
that when it came to honest-to-
goodness work, her husband was
the pace maker, and she had to do
these things to keep up with him.
Though barely launched in his
thirties, Paul was a member of
the school board and was largely
responsible for the consolidation
of several small one- and two-
roomed county schools. He had
labored with the quorum court,
finally wresting from that body a sufficient appropriation
to build a creditable county court house. He had sat up
with Commissioner Jenkins until that balker moderated his
threat that only over his dead body should a mile of good
roads be built until the county had the money in hand ; and
as president of the country club he had obtained an option
on the old Wheatley plantation whose winding streams and
rolling slopes fairly entreated to become greens and fair-
ways. Besides these side lines Paul's real job was the man-
agement of the Willingham Lumber Company to which ap-
pointment he had succeeded his recently deceased father.
Now neither Paul nor Betty had been to Vassar College.
Euthenics and eugenics were as a closed book. Beyond a
smattering of biology and zoology, beyond the conviction
acquired from their home and county demonstration agents
that clean, vigorous seed, good soil and intelligent care are
necessary for the upgrading of any growing thing, whether
vegetable or human, they knew nothing. But they learned.

Silhouette bv Anna Schlrmer

Nor had the gospel of birth control penetrated to the
recesses of Yadkin County. There was genuine disappoint-
ment therefore when after four and even five years no small
Betties and Pauls had come to take the place of young nieces
and nephews who after all were only borrowed. So what
did this young couple do but adopt a tiny red-headed brother
and sister, and then, as any old granny might have told

them, proceed to have two babies
of their own ?

It was all over before they
knew it, and the neat, orderly
little home, ample for the needs
of a couple and an occasional
guest, found itself fairly bulging
with the belongings and person-
alities of four vigorous, husky,
demanding youngsters and a pair
of dazed but jubilant parents.

They rubbed their eyes and
set about a reorganization of the
pre-family routine. Mornings
were full of milk formulae, baths
and things ; afternoons, sacred to
naps; early-to-beds meant giving
up former foursomes at bridge or
dinner and the weekly dance at
the club. Paul's golf sticks hung
dejected in the back hall ; Betty
visited and marketed over the
phone, short cuts scorned in
previous days.

About this time Paul was
called away to superintend the
cutting of a mountain tract of timber which his company
had acquired. Freight rates were high and it proved wise
to utilize a local saw mill and native labor. Paul decided
to stick around and see the thing well started. He built
a chute down the mountain side, knocked up shacks and a
chow tent, and secured the services of an ex-chef of a din-
ing car, eager to retire for a time from an encounter with
a razor in the hands of a subject waiter. He slanted a roof
between trees overhanging a clear, bold stream and spread
his blanket over a bed of fragrant balsam boughs. Soothed
at night by the rippling waters, roused at break of day by
the gay singing of birds, released from the tension of the
demands of town life, Paul was reminded of a certain little
crowded, wriggling home reverberating with the uncon-
scious, unquenchable chorus of young voices, and of a hurry-
ing, scurrying, big-eyed mother. Before night Betty received
a wire to fill up the old Dodge with babies, bottles,
oranges and cod liver oil, come up to camp and play.


June 15, 1927



Did they come? Did they play? And what happened?

Betty was steady at the wheel and before she and the
Dabies reached the gorge, Paul had pried great boulders
from the trail and tumbled them down the rugged side of
old Nantahala; had uprooted the snarliest snags and filled
up enough ruts so the car could chug up on low. He had
closed in three sides of one shack for Betty and the babiest
one of all. The rest sprawled over the blankets with daddy,
squealed and waded in the cold, dancing water, and dammed
up a miniature pond for their collection of turtles, craw
fish and spring lizards. They made friends with the birds
and chipmunks, hunted for late berries, early grapes and
grotesque ginseng, and built monumental houses, bridges,
towers, of blocks from the mill.

Betty and the babies visited nearby cabins and those far
away, Paul tucking "a little un between two big uns" in
the rear to keep them from rattling out of the sedan. On
the front porch the mothers exchanged experience, patch
work, a bottle of elderberry wine for the pattern of a but-
tonless romper, handy potato parer or new fangled scraper
for ro'sin' ye'rs; while the children alternated the time
honored tag, base, school, of rural children with the more
modern, diversified kindergarten representation of birds,
people, incidents which the riotous Pauls and Betties per-
sonified. On Saturdays the older children, home from
school, climbed the trail and, silent, appraising, slipped from
behind stumps, trees, boulders, watching the untoward antics
of the city children.

They visited the school and found a group of un-
classified youngsters, some bright, alert, capable mentally
and physically, and others pale, hollow chested, depressed or
queer and difficult "always," according to the teacher,
"having sore throat, tooth ache or tantrums." Betty made
friends with them all and secured their zealous support in
learning new songs, plays, pageants and the like. She also
interested the mothers in the experiment of adding a bottle
of milk to a more carefully prepared lunch. Paul found the
nearest doctor and dentist willing to clean up and true up
every child found below par. In one corner of the school
room his men built a work bench and installed a lathe for
the boys; while for another, Betty and the girls begged an
oil stove and simple cooking equipment. Paul followed the
organization of a base ball nine and basket ball team with
showers from barrels which the boys hoisted over one corner
of the building, and piped water from a lofty spring. The
consternation aroused in the hearts of skeptical, solicitous
parents by this innovation, was held in abeyance by the en-
thusiasm of the combatants and the persuasion of the sponsors
to lisk the hazard until the first suggestion of ill effects.

THEN came time for the County Fair. News items in the
Southern Agriculturist and Progressive Farmer, posters,
letters sent broadcast, urged all men, women and children
to enter the lists and by their exhibits make this the banner
fair to date. The publicity fell on deaf ears. "Hit war
already cut and dried," they declared, "who'd get this prize,
that an' t'other. If the town folks wanted to hog all the
prizes, let 'em do all the work," they reasoned. "As for
them, they were through with sech."

Betty and Paul listened to their arguments. Then Paul
made a special trip to town and conferred with the Chamber
of Commerce and the Fair management. Betty meantime
had found the women more responsive and, with their con-
nivance, began her campaign. She bragged on young colts

and fillies, on calves and yearlings grazing in the cove, and
found stolid ewes and rooting sows with families blaating
and squealing for recognition. She plunged through forests
of towering corn in fields blazing with pumpkin and bronze
with chard and rhubarb shoulder high ; discovered mammoth
beets, turnips, potatoes, cabbage ignored by men used to the
luxuriant growth of this fertile soil. To the silent but eager
amusement of the women she prodded, cajoled, brow beat
the men into filling up the old Ford with their best and
showing the town men for once just what men back on
the mountain were doing.

THEIR poultry, cattle and stock proved second only to
those from the Biltmore estate; their alfalfa, grain,
vegetables, fruit and delicious sour wood honey were a credit
to any section. But the most popular booth of all was a log
cabin built by mountain men and furnished with treasures
from their attics, hand made tables, chairs, spool beds and
trundles for the children made by grand and great "grand-
sirs." There were home woven coverlets, spreads, rugs,
clothing made by their wives "from back to back" they
declared. From the smoke house they rescued sugar cured
ham, bacon, and products canned, preserved, dried. Festoons
of onions, peppers, leather breeches (snap beans dried in the
pod), tobacco, bunches of roots, seed, herbs for medicinal
purposes hung from the rafters and decorated the walls,
eloquent reminders to the modern housewife of the ingenuity
and resourcefulness of her pioneer housewife.

Granny Bryson sat at her loom weaving a run of blankets
while Mis' Sukey Tatham, serene, undisturbed, spun wool
or heckled flax. From the crane over the big open fire hung
pots and kettles, and in the three legged spider on the hearth
toothsome possum and taters roasted to a turn while corn
dodgers browned and sweetened in the long handled bake
oven, hot coals above and below. A generous coffee pot
bubbled gently on a hot smooth stone, its pungent fragrance
beguiling the passer-by.

Nothing created such lavish and genuine response or con-
tributed so much to the success of the Yadkin County Fair
as the exhibits of the rural population, and when the early
objectors found themselves strutting round the grounds
boasting blue ribbons received, their women folks smiled
but kept their own counsel.

Betty lured a few of them to a meeting of her Wednes-
day Club in town, and members of this group in turn drove
out to the mountain where they found inspiration and un-
dreamed latent ability. The organization of a strong Town
and Country Club followed. Stimulated by their recent
successful diplomacy with their men, certain brave souls
ventured to a session of the League of Women Voters, with
the avowed intention of "gettin* shet of that ornery Lum
Coggins. He fights roosters in his back lot of a Sunday, and
takes his stand that soon as a child 1'arns one book from
kiver to kiver, hits time to talk about gittin' another. A fine
school trustee," they sniffed. Generous and spirited discus-
sion followed, and it led to a realization that the aims and
needs of country people are comparable to those of city
people, and that we work them out better together.

Cold weather and the beginning of the fall term drove
the Pauls and Betties home, but in place of the ignorance,
indifference, distrust found on old Nantahala there exists
today a feeling of friendliness, helpfulness and achievement.
Yadkin County is becoming a better place for peop\t to
live and all because A Busy Family Plays.

Recreation Centers: Why and what?


Special Representative, Western Division, Playground and Recreation Association of America

The following outline of the purposes, aims and organization of various kinds of recreation
centers was prepared at the request of the Joint Committee on Neighborhood Centers of
the San Francisco Council of Social and Health Agencies. It proved so helpful as an aid
in diagnosing problems and promoting plans that it is reproduced for others who are
facing the opportunities of the vacation season or of a comprehensive program of recrea-
tion which loyally accompanies the calendar through the twelve months of the year.

i. Why any Recreation Centert
Urban growth

The monotony of most industrial occupations
The break-up of the family
More leisure with no schooling for its use
The lighting of our cities

The passing of the saloon as the social center
Labor becomes conscious of the need to play

2. Some National Attempts at Establishing Recreation Centers

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